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Exploring the Mystery of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme II (ACE2) in the Battle against SARS-CoV-2.

J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2021 4;2021:9939929. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

CCRF, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India.

COVID-19 is the newly born pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is the recently emerged betacoronavirus that crosses the species barrier. It predominantly infects pneumocytes of the respiratory tract, but due to the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) on other cells like surface enterocytes of the upper esophagus and colon, these are also considered as the primary sites of infection. ACE2 receptor served as a cellular entry point for SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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The Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Reverse Agonist AM251 Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Cognitive Decrements.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 28;15:668286. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Despite advancements in the radiotherapeutic management of brain malignancies, resultant sequelae include persistent cognitive dysfunction in the majority of survivors. Defining the precise causes of normal tissue toxicity has proven challenging, but the use of preclinical rodent models has suggested that reductions in neurogenesis and microvascular integrity, impaired synaptic plasticity, increased inflammation, and alterations in neuronal structure are contributory if not causal. As such, strategies to reverse these persistent radiotherapy-induced neurological disorders represent an unmet medical need. Read More

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Parents experience a sense of guilt when their newborn is diagnosed small for gestational age, SGA. A grounded theory study in Sweden.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Malmö University Faculty of Health and society, Department of Care Science, Jan Waldenströms gata 25, SE-20506 Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: To become a parent of a child who is born small for gestational age can lead to challenges in addition to the newly acquired parenting role. There is currently a lack of knowledge regarding parents' experiences of having a child born small for gestational age.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of becoming a parent of a child small for gestational age DESIGN AND METHOD: A qualitative inductive approach was chosen with grounded theory as a method, a strategic selection was used and individual interviews with open questions were performed. Read More

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Evolution of the interactions between GII.4 noroviruses and histo-blood group antigens: Insights from experimental and computational studies.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 12;17(7):e1009745. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

The Sixth Laboratory, National Vaccine and Serum Institute, Beijing, China.

Norovirus (NoV) is the major pathogen causing the outbreaks of the viral gastroenteritis across the world. Among the various genotypes of NoV, GII.4 is the most predominant over the past decades. Read More

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Psychological distress, resettlement stress, and lower school engagement among Arabic-speaking refugee parents in Sydney, Australia: A cross-sectional cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 Jul 12;18(7):e1003512. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Schools play a key role in supporting the well-being and resettlement of refugee children, and parental engagement with the school may be a critical factor in the process. Many resettlement countries have policies in place to support refugee parents' engagement with their children's school. However, the impact of these programs lacks systematic evaluation. Read More

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The role of P2Y12 in the kinetics of microglial self-renewal and maturation in the adult visual cortex .

Elife 2021 Jul 12;10. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, United States.

Microglia are the brain's resident immune cells with a tremendous capacity to autonomously self-renew. Because microglial self-renewal has largely been studied using static tools, its mechanisms and kinetics are not well understood. Using chronic two-photon imaging in awake mice, we confirm that cortical microglia show limited turnover and migration under basal conditions. Read More

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Trends in cervical cancer mortality in China from 1989 to 2018: an age-period-cohort study and Joinpoint analysis.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jul 6;21(1):1329. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Medicine and Health Management, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei Province, China.

Background: Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second-most-common malignancy of the female reproductive system. Due to its large population, China accounted for 11.9% of cervical cancer deaths, and 12. Read More

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Laying the Foundation for Pregnancy Physical Activity Profiling: A Framework for Providing Tailored Physical Activity Advice and Guidance to Pregnant Women.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 3;18(11). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Psychology and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Social Sciences, Canterbury Christ Church University, Kent CT1 1QU, UK.

The aim of this study was to examine the predictive utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining pregnant women's physical activity (PA) intentions and behaviour and to scrutinise the role of past behaviour within this context. Pregnant women ( = 89) completed the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) and newly developed TPB questionnaire on two separate occasions during their pregnancy. Analyses were carried out in relation to three scenarios. Read More

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Validation of the Infant and Young Child Development (IYCD) Indicators in Three Countries: Brazil, Malawi and Pakistan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 6;18(11). Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Center for Effective Global Action (CEGA), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA.

Background: The early childhood years provide an important window of opportunity to build strong foundations for future development. One impediment to global progress is a lack of population-based measurement tools to provide reliable estimates of developmental status. We aimed to field test and validate a newly created tool for this purpose. Read More

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Restriction of Manganese Intake Prevents the Onset of Brain Manganese Overload in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 24;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

As a newly identified manganese transport protein, ZIP14 is highly expressed in the small intestine and liver, which are the two principal organs involved in regulating systemic manganese homeostasis. Loss of ZIP14 function leads to manganese overload in both humans and mice. Excess manganese in the body primarily affects the central nervous system, resulting in irreversible neurological disorders. Read More

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Placental Complement Activation in Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia: An Observational Study.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 23;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Center of Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin Research, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a disease that causes thrombocytopenia and a risk of bleeding in the (unborn) child that result from maternal alloantibodies directed against fetal, paternally inherited, human platelet antigens (HPA). It is hypothesized that these alloantibodies can also bind to the placenta, causing placental damage. This study aims to explore signs of antibody-mediated placental damage in FNAIT. Read More

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Maximally selective single-cell target for circuit control in epilepsy models.

Neuron 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Neurological and psychiatric disorders are associated with pathological neural dynamics. The fundamental connectivity patterns of cell-cell communication networks that enable pathological dynamics to emerge remain unknown. Here, we studied epileptic circuits using a newly developed computational pipeline that leveraged single-cell calcium imaging of larval zebrafish and chronically epileptic mice, biologically constrained effective connectivity modeling, and higher-order motif-focused network analysis. Read More

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Dramatic decline in new HIV diagnoses in persons born in France in a large nationwide HIV cohort.

Public Health 2021 Jun 27;196:129-134. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, Clinical Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Reims Teaching Hospitals, Reims, France; University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, EA-4684 / SFR CAP-SANTE, Reims, F-51095, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: As trends in new HIV diagnoses represent a measure of the HIV epidemic, we conducted a 6-year longitudinal study to evaluate the change in rates of new HIV diagnosis, stratified by birthplace, HIV risk groups and CD4 cell count at diagnosis in a large French multicentre cohort.

Study Design: We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the mainland French Dat'AIDS cohort.

Methods: Data were obtained for subjects with a new HIV diagnosis date between 2013 and 2018. Read More

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Which are the limiting factors in lung tissue sampling and diagnostic accuracy for a new Interventional Pulmonology Unit? From expert consensus-based evidence to results of a new-born Unit.

J Thorac Dis 2021 May;13(5):2942-2951

Pathology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza", San Giovanni Rotondo, (FG), Italy.

Background: There is a gap of knowledge about the factors that may determine the quality and the accuracy of diagnostic bronchoscopic procedures when setting up a new Interventional Pulmonology Unit. As little evidence-based medicine is available on this matter, an online consensus opinion of experts was gathered and compared with real-life data coming from a new Interventional Pulmonology (IP) Unit.

Methods: A survey was emailed to the heads of all Italian IP Units to investigate the factors influencing the success of the diagnostic yield of a new IP Unit. Read More

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News media representations of women who kill their newly born children.

Arch Womens Ment Health 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Unit Suicide Research and Mental Health Promotion, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

This paper presents a first quantitative analysis of language in media reports of neonaticide and a comparative examination of language use within the reports. One thousand twenty-seven Austrian print media reports from 2004 to 2014 were retrieved; after exclusion, 331 were analysed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software. After a preliminary analysis, a comparative analysis was carried out between reports on the Graz case and all other cases. Read More

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Characterization of substantia nigra neurogenesis in homeostasis and dopaminergic degeneration: beneficial effects of the microneurotrophin BNN-20.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 06 10;12(1):335. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Lab of Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, 26500, Patras, Greece.

Background: Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) underlines much of the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the existence of an endogenous neurogenic system that could be targeted as a therapeutic strategy has been controversial. BNN-20 is a synthetic, BDNF-mimicking, microneurotrophin that we previously showed to exhibit a pleiotropic neuroprotective effect on the dopaminergic neurons of the SNpc in the "weaver" mouse model of PD. Here, we assessed its potential effects on neurogenesis. Read More

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Long-term follow up of carbohydrate metabolism and adverse events after termination of Omnitrope® treatment in children born small for gestational age.

Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 2021 5;12:20420188211013121. Epub 2021 May 5.

Sandoz Biopharmaceuticals, Hexal AG, Industriestr. 18/5, Holzkirchen D-83607, Germany.

Background: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy can affect carbohydrate metabolism and lead to impaired glucose tolerance during treatment. In addition, short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are predisposed to metabolic abnormalities. This study assessed the long-term safety of rhGH (Omnitrope®) use in short children born SGA. Read More

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Capicua regulates the development of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11725. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6J 2H7, Canada.

New neurons continuously arise from neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus to support ongoing learning and memory formation. To generate functional adult-born neurons, neural progenitor cells proliferate to expand the precursor cell pool and differentiate into neurons. Newly generated cells then undergo postmitotic maturation to migrate to their final destination and develop elaborate dendritic branching, which allows them to receive input signals. Read More

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HIV testing in patients who are HCV positive: Compliance with CDC guidelines in a large healthcare system.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(6):e0252412. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

MedStar Health Research Institute, MedStar Health, Hyattsville, MD, United States of America.

Background: There are approximately 300,000 people in the United States who are co-infected with HIV and HCV. Several organizations recommend that individuals who are HCV infected, as well as persons over the age of 13, should be HIV tested. Comorbidities associated with HCV can be reduced with early identification of HIV. Read More

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A Qualitative Study to Explore the Barriers for Nonadherence to Referral to Hospital Births by Women with High-Risk Pregnancies in Nepal.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 28;18(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Women's Health Development Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality tend to decrease if referral advice during pregnancy is utilized appropriately. This study explores the reasons for nonadherence to referral advice among high-risk pregnant women. A qualitative study was conducted in Morang District, Nepal. Read More

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Resilience of temporal processing to early and extended visual deprivation.

Vision Res 2021 Sep 29;186:80-86. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Early visual deprivation is known to have profound consequences on the subsequent development of spatial visual processing. However, its impact on temporal processing is not well characterized. We have examined spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity functions following treatment for early and extended bilateral visual deprivation in fifteen children born with congenital cataracts in rural India. Read More

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September 2021

Delivery Room Management of Asphyxiated Term and Near-Term Infants.

Neonatology 2021 May 21:1-13. Epub 2021 May 21.

Centre for the Studies of Asphyxia and Resuscitation, Neonatal Research Unit, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Approximately 800,000 newborns die annually due to birth asphyxia. The resuscitation of asphyxiated term newly born infants often occurs unexpected and is challenging for healthcare providers as it demands experience and knowledge in neonatal resuscitation. Current neonatal resuscitation guidelines often focus on resuscitation of extremely and/or very preterm infants; however, the recommendations for asphyxiated term newborn infants differ in some aspects to those for preterm infants (i. Read More

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Maternal Interleukin-6 Hampers Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Rat Offspring in a Sex-Dependent Manner.

Dev Neurosci 2021 21;43(2):106-115. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait.

Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy leads to long-lasting effects on brain development and function. Several lines of evidence suggest that the maternal inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 plays a crucial role in the long-lasting effects of MIA on adult offspring. IL-6 is naturally produced during pregnancy in the absence of any underlying immune activation. Read More

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Clinical profile, aetiology, short-term outcome and predictors of poor outcome of neonatal seizures among out-born neonates admitted to a neonatal unit in Paediatric emergency of a tertiary care hospital in North India: A prospective observational study.

Trop Doct 2021 May 21:494755211016226. Epub 2021 May 21.

Assistant Professor, Division of Paediatric Critical Care, Department of Paediatrics, Advanced Paediatric Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (29751PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Neonatal seizures are common manifestations of several neurological or systemic disorders and associated with high morbidity, mortality and poor short- and long-term developmental outcomes. It is important to determine the aetiology and factors that determine the poor outcome, more so in a newly developed setting. The early detection of predictors of poor outcome will help in planning acute management, counselling, follow-up and rehabilitation services. Read More

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Celecoxib reduces inflammation and angiogenesis in mice with adenomyosis.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(4):2858-2866. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Gynecology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University China.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the effect of COX-2 selective inhibitor (celecoxib) on adenomyosis and its mechanism.

Methods: By establishing a mouse model of adenomyosis and using celecoxib to treat adenomyosis, newly born female mice were randomly divided into a control group, adenomyosis model group, and celecoxib group. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining was used to observe the depth of endometrial infiltration of mouse adenomyosis. Read More

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The effect of umbilical cord blood spexin, free 25(OH) vitamin D3 and adipocytokine levels on intrauterine growth and anthropometric measurements in newborns.

Cytokine 2021 Aug 16;144:155578. Epub 2021 May 16.

University of Health Science, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Spexin is a newly described peptide and is known to reduce the uptake of long-chain fatty acids into adipocytes. The serum spexin levels of obese children between the ages of 12-18 are lower. The effect of serum spexin and free 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels on intrauterine development in newborns is unknown. Read More

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Computational basis of SARS-CoV 2 main protease inhibition: an insight from molecular dynamics simulation based findings.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 13:1-11. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). One of the striking targets amongst all the proteins in coronavirus is the main protease (M), as it plays vital biological roles in replication and maturation of the virus, and hence the potential target. The aim of this study is to repurpose the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved molecules via computer-aided drug designing against M (PDB ID: 6Y2F) of SARS CoV-2 due to its high x-ray resolution of 1. Read More

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Widespread Doublecortin Expression in the Cerebral Cortex of the .

Front Neuroanat 2021 29;15:656882. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

It has been demonstrated that in adulthood rodents show newly born neurons in the subgranular layer (SGL) of the dentate gyrus (DG), and in the subventricular zone (SVZ). The neurons generated in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb. One of the markers of newly generated neurons is doublecortin (DCX). Read More

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Altered responsiveness to pups in virgin female mice of the BTBR strain: Insights from pattern of c-Fos expression in brain regions involved in maternal behavior.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 13;410:113365. Epub 2021 May 13.

Centre for Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, National Institute of Health (ISS), Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

BTBR is an inbred mouse strain that displays several behavioral alterations resembling the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder, including deficit in sociability. In the present study, we investigated whether the pup-induced maternal behavior in virgin female mice, a naturally rewarding behavior, is impaired in this strain similarly to social interaction with adult conspecifics. We firstly assessed the maternal responsiveness towards newly born pups expressed by either virgin female mice of the BTBR strain or of the normo-social B6 strain. Read More

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Adult neurogenic process in the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb system is regulated by Tau protein under prolonged stress.

Cell Prolif 2021 Jul 14;54(7):e13027. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Medicine, Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Objectives: The area of the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the adult brain exhibits the highest number of proliferative cells, which, together with the olfactory bulb (OB), maintains constant brain plasticity through the generation, migration and integration of newly born neurons. Despite Tau and its malfunction is increasingly related to deficits of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and brain plasticity under pathological conditions [e.g. Read More

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