10,013 results match your criteria neutrophil extracellular


Basement membrane degradation and inflammation play a role in the pulmonary hemorrhage induced by a P-III snake venom metalloproteinase.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501, Costa Rica. Electronic address:

Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease affecting millions of people every year, especially in vulnerable rural populations in the developing world. Viperid snakes cause envenomings characterized by a complex pathophysiology which includes local and systemic hemorrhage due to the action of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The pathogenesis of SVMP-induced systemic hemorrhage has not been investigated in detail. Read More

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Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitor is a novel therapeutic candidate in LPS-induced neutrophil extracellular traps.

Microbiol Immunol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neonatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are beneficial antibacterial defense structures. However, excessive NETs have also been linked to tissue damage and organ dysfunction. LPS and Gram-Negative bacteria induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) -dependent NETs formation via JNK pathway. Read More

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Immune Cell Paracrine Signaling Drives the Neutrophil Response to in an Infection-on-a-Chip Model.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2021 Apr 13;14(2):133-145. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI USA.

Introduction: Neutrophils act as first responders during an infection, following signals from the pathogen as well as other host cells to migrate from blood vessels to the site of infection. This tightly regulated process is critical for pathogen clearance and, in many cases, eliminates the pathogen without the need for an additional immune response. It is, therefore, critical to understand what signals drive neutrophil migration to infection in a physiologically relevant environment. Read More

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Antibodies Against Alkaline Protease Directly Enhance Disruption of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Mediated by This Enzyme.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:654649. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, China.

Extracellular traps released by neutrophils (NETs) are essential for the clearance of . Alkaline protease (AprA) secreted by negatively correlates with clinical improvement. Moreover, anti-AprA in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) can help identify patients with aggressive forms of chronic infection. Read More

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Circulating Histones in Sepsis: Potential Outcome Predictors and Therapeutic Targets.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:650184. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Nephrology of West China Hospital, Institute for Disaster Management and Reconstruction, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Circulating histones (CHs), a group of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules mainly derived from neutrophil extracellular traps, play a crucial role in sepsis by mediating inflammation response, organ injury and death through Toll-like receptors or inflammasome pathways. Herein, we first elucidate the molecular mechanisms of histone-induced inflammation amplification, endothelium injury and cascade coagulation activation, and discuss the close correlation between elevated level of CHs and disease severity as well as mortality in patients with sepsis. Read More

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MicroRNA-223 restricts liver fibrosis by inhibiting the TAZ-IHH-GLI2 and PDGF signaling pathways via the crosstalk of multiple liver cell types.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 11;17(4):1153-1167. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Laboratory of Liver Diseases, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Liver fibrosis is a common consequence of chronic liver injury and is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix mainly generated from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). At present, the mechanisms underlying liver fibrogenesis remain obscure and effective pharmacological therapies are lacking. Neutrophil-specific microRNA-223 (miR-223) plays an important role in controlling the development of various liver diseases; however, its role in HSC activation and liver fibrosis remains unclear. Read More

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Innate immune response in bovine neutrophils stimulated with Mycoplasma bovis.

Vet Res 2021 Apr 16;52(1):58. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Animal Health Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, 069-8501, Japan.

Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is a significant worldwide pathogen of cattle. Neutrophils have an important role in the innate immune response during infection with M. Read More

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JAK3 and PI3K mediates the suppressive effects of interferon tau on neutrophil extracellular traps formation during peri-implantation period.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Apr 9;145:103321. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Lactation and Immuno-Physiology Laboratory, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, 132 001, India. Electronic address:

Interferon tau (IFNτ) is the main maternal signal for pregnancy in ruminants and modulates the functions of various immune cells, including neutrophils. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are one of the main defence mechanisms of neutrophils. In this study, we observed higher (p < 0. Read More

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β2 Integrin Regulation of Neutrophil Functional Plasticity and Fate in the Resolution of Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2021 30;12:660760. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Neutrophils act as the first line of cellular defense against invading pathogens or tissue injury. Their rapid recruitment into inflamed tissues is critical for the elimination of invading microorganisms and tissue repair, but is also capable of inflicting damage to neighboring tissues. The β integrins and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αβ or complement receptor 3) in particular, are best known for mediating neutrophil adhesion and transmigration across the endothelium and phagocytosis of microbes. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles from dHL-60 cells as delivery vehicles for diverse therapeutics.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8289. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Daegu, 41944, Republic of Korea.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-derived heterogeneous vesicles that mediate intercellular communications. They have recently been considered as ideal vehicles for drug-delivery systems, and immune cells are suggested as a potential source for drug-loaded EVs. In this study, we investigated the possibility of neutrophils as a source for drug-loaded EVs. Read More

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More than neutrophils: Lin(+)Ly6G(+)IL-5Rα(+) multipotent myeloid cells (MMCs) are dominant in normal murine bone marrow and retain capacity to differentiate into eosinophils and monocytes.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Bone marrow is a hematopoietic site harboring multiple populations of myeloid cells in different stages of differentiation. Murine bone marrow eosinophils are traditionally identified by Siglec-F(+) staining using flow cytometry, whereas neutrophils are characterized by Ly6G(+) expression. However, using flow cytometry to characterize bone marrow hematopoietic cells in wild-type mice, we found substantial gray areas in identification of these cells. Read More

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Mining TCGA database for prognostic genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma microenvironment.

J Dent Sci 2021 Mar 16;16(2):661-667. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Dentistry, Hainan Medical University, Hainan, China.

Background/purpose: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of tumor microenvironment-related genes on the prognosis of HNSCC and to obtain tumor microenvironment-related genes that can predict poor prognosis in HNSCC patients.

Materials And Methods: The ESTIMATE algorithm was applied to the HNSCC transcriptomic data downloaded from the TCGA (The cancer genome atlas), and then the samples were divided into two groups: high and low immune scoring groups, and high and low basal scoring groups to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with poor patient outcomes. Read More

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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps may be a Potential Target for Treating Early Brain Injury in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jiefang Road 88th, Hangzhou, 310000, China.

Neuroinflammation is closely associated with poor prognosis in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are important regulators of sterile inflammation, in SAH. In this study, markers of NET formation, quantified by the level of citrullinated histone H3 (CitH3), were significantly increased after SAH and correlated with SAH severity. Read More

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Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT): targeting pathomechanisms with Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Institute for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Munich, Germany.

A series of cases with rare thromboembolic incidents including cerebral sinus vein thrombosis (some of them fatal) and concomitant thrombocytopenia occurring shortly after vaccination with the COVID-19 vaccine AZD1222 (Vaxzevria) has caused significant concern and led to its temporary suspension in many countries. Immediate laboratory efforts in four of these patients have identified a tentative pathomechanism underlying this syndrome termed vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia (VIPIT) or vaccine-induced thrombosis with thrombocytopenia (VITT), which encompasses the presence of platelet-activating antibodies to platelet-factor 4/heparin complexes, possibly emulated by polyanionic constituents of AZD1222, and thus resembles heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Because these immune complexes bind and activate platelets via Fcγ-receptor IIA (FcγRIIA), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin G has been suggested for treatment of VIPIT in addition to non-heparin anticoagulants. Read More

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Autoantibodies stabilize neutrophil extracellular traps in COVID-19.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

The release of neutrophil extracellular traps ( ) by hyperactive neutrophils is recognized to play an important role in the thromboinflammatory milieu inherent to severe presentations of COVID-19. At the same time, a variety of functional autoantibodies have been observed in individuals with severe COVID-19 where they likely contribute to immunopathology. Here, we aimed to determine the extent to which autoantibodies might target NETs in COVID-19 and, if detected, to elucidate their potential functions and clinical associations. Read More

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Neutrophil extracellular traps induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance procoagulant activity in NASH patients.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 10:101697. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin Heilongjiang, China; Department of Research, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, Boston, MA 02132, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients are at a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism, with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in procoagulant activity (PCA) in patients with NASH remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the formation of NETs in NASH patients stimulated by specific pro-inflammatory factors. Read More

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High Ambient Temperature Aggravates Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis Symptoms.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:629306. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Lab of Ophthalmology, Chongqing Eye Institute, Chongqing Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Diseases, Chongqing, China.

Whether ambient temperature influences immune responses leading to uveitis is unknown. We thus tested whether ambient temperature affects the symptoms of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in mice and investigated possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were kept at a normal (22°C) or high temperature (30°C) housing conditions for 2 weeks and were then immunized with human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP651-670) peptide to induce EAU. Read More

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From Flies to Men: ROS and the NADPH Oxidase in Phagocytes.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:628991. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute for Immunodeficiency, Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

The cellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents an evolutionary ancient antimicrobial defense system against microorganisms. The NADPH oxidases (NOX), which are predominantly localized to endosomes, and the electron transport chain in mitochondria are the major sources of ROS. Like any powerful immunological process, ROS formation has costs, in particular collateral tissue damage of the host. Read More

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A mechanism for matrikine regulation in acute inflammatory lung injury.

JCI Insight 2021 04 8;6(7). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonology, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, and.

Proline-glycine-proline (PGP) and its acetylated form (Ac-PGP) are neutrophil chemoattractants generated by collagen degradation, and they have been shown to play a role in chronic inflammatory disease. However, the mechanism for matrikine regulation in acute inflammation has not been well established. Here, we show that these peptides are actively transported from the lung by the oligopeptide transporter, PEPT2. Read More

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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in the Autoimmunity Context.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 22;8:614829. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Laboratory of Molecular Nephrology, Scientific Institute for Research and Health Care, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a strategy utilized by neutrophils for capturing infective agents. Extracellular traps consist in a physical net made of DNA and intracellular proteins externalized from neutrophils, where bacteria and viruses are entrapped and killed by proteolysis. A complex series of events contributes to achieving NET formation: signaling from infectious triggers comes first, followed by decondensation of chromatin and extrusion of the nucleosome components (DNA, histones) from the nucleus and, after cell membrane breakdown, outside the cell. Read More

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Adenosine Diphosphate Improves Wound Healing in Diabetic Mice Through P2Y Receptor Activation.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:651740. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Chronic wounds are a public health problem worldwide, especially those related to diabetes. Besides being an enormous burden to patients, it challenges wound care professionals and causes a great financial cost to health system. Considering the absence of effective treatments for chronic wounds, our aim was to better understand the pathophysiology of tissue repair in diabetes in order to find alternative strategies to accelerate wound healing. Read More

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Coenzyme Q protected against arsenite and enhanced the capacity of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid to ameliorate arsenite-induced toxicity in mice.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2021 Apr 7;22(1):19. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, P. O. Box 52428, Nairobi, 00200, Kenya.

Background: Arsenic poisoning affects millions of people. The inorganic forms of arsenic are more toxic. Treatment for arsenic poisoning relies on chelation of extracellularly circulating arsenic molecules by 2,3-dimecaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Read More

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Fetal Programming by Methyl Donor Deficiency Produces Pathological Remodeling of the Ascending Aorta.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 Apr 8:ATVBAHA120315587. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

UMR Inserm 1256 N-GERE (Nutrition, Génetique et Exposition aux Risques Environmentaux) (B.B., S.H., R.-M.G.-R., J.-L.G.).

Objective: Deficiency in vitamin B12/folate (methyl donor deficiency [MDD]) produces cardiovascular outcomes during aging and fetal programming effects in newborns of MDD mothers. Whether fetal programming provokes long-term effects on aorta remains largely unknown. Approach and Results: We investigated the impact of fetal programming on ascending aorta of aged rats born from mothers subjected to MDD during gestation/lactation. Read More

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Thrombohaemorhhagic balance in coronavirus disease 2019 and its management: a perspective.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2021 Apr;32(3):167-171

Formerly Head of the Department of Haematology, Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College, Kolkata 7000'2, India.

Coronavirus disease 2019 infection produce a prothrombotic state. This is initiated through multiple pathways and is finally aggravated by cross talks with cytokine storm and neutrophil, platelet, complement activation. All these combine towards the second week of illness to produce thrombosis in the lung capillaries surrounding the alveolus producing characteristic pulmonary dysfunction (PaO2/FiO2 > 300, normal or minimally increased lung compliance and very high d-dimer levels) and a high rate of peripheral venous thrombosis. Read More

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Microbial-derived indoles inhibit neutrophil myeloperoxidase to diminish bystander tissue damage.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21552

Mucosal Inflammation Program, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

During episodes of acute inflammation, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are actively recruited to sites of inflammation or injury where they provide anti-microbial and wound-healing functions. One enzyme crucial for fulfilling these functions is myeloperoxidase (MPO), which generates hypochlorous acid from Cl and hydrogen peroxide. The potential exists, however, that uncontrolled the extracellular generation of hypochlorous acid by MPO can cause bystander tissue damage and inhibit the healing response. Read More

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Thrombospondin-1 Restricts Interleukin-36γ-Mediated Neutrophilic Inflammation during Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pulmonary Infection.

mBio 2021 04 6;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Acute Lung Injury Center of Excellence, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

Interleukin-36γ (IL-36γ), a member of the IL-1 cytokine superfamily, amplifies lung inflammation and impairs host defense during acute pulmonary infection. To be fully active, IL-36γ is cleaved at its N-terminal region by proteases such as neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin S (CatS). However, it remains unclear whether limiting extracellular proteolysis restrains the inflammatory cascade triggered by IL-36γ during infection. Read More

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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) enhances hypochlorous acid production in phagocytic neutrophils.

Redox Biol 2021 Mar 30;41:101946. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Pathology and Biomedical Science, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important immuno-regulatory cytokine and is elevated in inflammatory conditions. Neutrophils are the first immune cells to migrate to sites of infection and inflammation, where they generate, among other mediators, the potent oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Here, we investigated the impact of MIF on HOCl production in neutrophils in response to phagocytic stimuli. Read More

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Hypoxia drives murine neutrophil protein scavenging to maintain central carbon metabolism.

J Clin Invest 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Limiting dysfunctional neutrophilic inflammation whilst preserving effective immunity requires a better understanding of the processes that dictate neutrophil function in the tissues. Quantitative mass-spectrometry identified how inflammatory murine neutrophils regulated expression of cell surface receptors, signal transduction networks and metabolic machinery to shape neutrophil phenotypes in response to hypoxia. Through the tracing of labelled amino acids into metabolic enzymes, pro-inflammatory mediators and granule proteins we demonstrated that ongoing protein synthesis shapes the neutrophil proteome. Read More

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Investigation and assessment of neutrophil dysfunction early after severe burn injury.

Burns 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou 215002, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Extensive burn injury results in a complex immune response that is associated with mortality and prognosis. Studies on acquired immune and the development of sepsis in burn patients have been reported. However, one of the main cells in innate immune, neutrophil dysfunction in the burn shock stage has not been thoroughly characterized. Read More

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February 2021

Prothrombotic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

Thromb Res 2021 Mar 21;202:108-118. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) and its precursor condition, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) have an increased risk of thrombotic events, especially during anti-myeloma treatment. Many different underlying causes for this hypercoagulability have been suggested, but current techniques to identify abnormalities in these patients are sparse and inefficient. The aim of this study was to assess the hypercoagulability in MGUS and MM patients through various coagulation analyses and identify changes in the MM patients throughout their treatment regimen. Read More

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