49,023 results match your criteria neutralizing antibody

Level of Maternal Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) F Antibodies in Hospitalized Children and Correlates of Protection.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Qatar; College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, Qatar. Electronic address:

Background: RSV is a major cause of lower respiratory infections among children, where no vaccine is available. The stabilized form of the fusion (F) protein, pre-F, is a leading vaccine candidate targeting different populations, including pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and nature of RSV-directed maternal antibodies (matAbs) in hospitalized children with RSV infection. Read More

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COVID-19 mRNA vaccination generates greater IgG levels in women compared to men.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center for Genetic Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Question: Is antibody response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination similar in women and men?

Findings: In a community cohort without prior COVID-19 infection, the first vaccine dose produced higher IgG levels and percent inhibition of spike-ACE2 receptor binding, a surrogate measure of virus neutralization, in women compared to men (7.0µg/ml; 51.6% vs 3. Read More

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Antibody-dependent enhancement representing in vitro infective progeny virus titer correlates with the viremia level in dengue patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12354. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Mahidol-Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Ratchawithi Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Dengue virus (DENV) causes dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever in humans. Some DF patients suddenly develop severe symptoms around the defervescent period. Although the pathogenic mechanism of the severe symptoms has not been fully elucidated, the viremia level in the early phase has been shown to correlate with the disease severity. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 RBD trimer protein adjuvanted with Alum-3M-052 protects from SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune pathology in the lung.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3587. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Emory Vaccine Center, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

There is a great need for the development of vaccines that induce potent and long-lasting protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Multimeric display of the antigen combined with potent adjuvant can enhance the potency and longevity of the antibody response. The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is a primary target of neutralizing antibodies. Read More

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Exploiting a chink in the armor: engineering broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for SARS-like viruses.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Jun 11;6(1):232. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

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Chimeric enterovirus 71 virus-like particle displaying conserved coxsackievirus A16 epitopes elicits potent immune responses and protects mice against lethal EV71 and CA16 infection.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease of infants and young children frequently caused by the enterovirus A species, mainly enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). In this study, we prepared the EV71 virus-like particle (EV71-VLP) and its chimeras using recombinant baculovirus (Bac-P1-3CD) co-expressing EV71 P1 (under polyhedrin promoter) and 3CD (under CMV-IE promoter) proteins in Sf9 cells. EV71-VLP chimera ChiEV71(1E)-VLP or ChiEV71(4E)-VLP displayed single CA16 PEP71 epitope in VP1 or four conserved CA16 neutralizing epitopes (PEP71 in VP1, aa136-150 in VP2, aa176-190 in VP3 and aa48-62 in VP4) by substitution of the corresponding regions of EV71 structure proteins, respectively. Read More

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Analysis of the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 5;566:45-52. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory for Modern Drug Delivery & High-Efficiency, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China. Electronic address:

A newly-emergent beta-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, rapidly has become a pandemic since 2020. It is a serious respiratory disease and caused more than 100 million of deaths in the world. WHO named it COVIA-19 and there is no effective targeted drug for it. Read More

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Coordinated Fc-effector and neutralization functions in HIV-infected children define a window of opportunity for HIV vaccination.

AIDS 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg South Africa Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa HIV Pathogenesis Programme, The Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, UK Antibody Immunity Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objectives: Antibody function has been extensively studied in HIV infected adults but is relatively understudied in children. Emerging data suggests enhanced development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in children, but Fc effector functions in this group are less well-defined. Here, we profiled overall antibody function in HIV infected children. Read More

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Validation of high-throughput, semiquantitative solid phase SARS coronavirus-2 serology assays in serum and dried blood spot matrices.

Bioanalysis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Synexa Life Sciences, 4 Kunene Circle, Montague Gardens, Cape Town, 7441, South Africa.

Serological assays for the detection of anti-SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies are essential to the response to the global pandemic. A ligand binding-based serological assay was validated for the semiquantitative detection of IgG, IgM, IgA and neutralizing antibodies (nAb) against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. The assay demonstrated high levels of diagnostic specificity and sensitivity (85-99% for all analytes). Read More

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Formulation Approach that Enables the Coating of a Stable Influenza Vaccine on a Transdermal Microneedle Patch.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2021 Jun 10;22(5):175. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Zosano Pharma, Inc., 34790 Ardentech Court, Fremont, CA, 94555, USA.

A trivalent influenza split vaccine was formulated at high concentration for coating on the transdermal microneedle system. Monovalent vaccine bulks of three influenza strains, two influenza A strains, and one B strain were diafiltrated, concentrated, and lyophilized. The lyophilized powder of each vaccine strain was separately reconstituted and subsequently combined into a coating formulation of high concentration trivalent vaccine. Read More

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Mechanisms of typhoid toxin neutralization by antibodies targeting glycan receptor binding and nuclease subunits.

iScience 2021 May 20;24(5):102454. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Nearly all clinical isolates of Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever, are antibiotic resistant. All Typhi isolates secrete an AB exotoxin called typhoid toxin to benefit the pathogen during infection. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic-resistant Typhi secretes typhoid toxin continuously during infection regardless of antibiotic treatment. Read More

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Structural basis for accommodation of emerging B.1.351 and B.1.1.7 variants by two potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies.

Structure 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10029, USA; Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains, B.1.1. Read More

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Corona Virus Disease-19 serology, inflammatory markers, hospitalizations, case finding, and aging.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252818. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Research Division, Diazyme Laboratories, Inc., Poway, California, United States of America.

Most deaths from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occur in older subjects. We assessed the utility of serum inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), C reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin (Roche, Indianapolis, IN), and SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and neutralizing antibodies (Diazyme, Poway, CA). In controls, non-hospitalized subjects, and hospitalized subjects assessed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (n = 278), median IgG levels in arbitrary units (AU)/mL were 0. Read More

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Development of Lentiviral Vectors Pseudotyped With Influenza B Hemagglutinins: Application in Vaccine Immunogenicity, mAb Potency, and Sero-Surveillance Studies.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:661379. Epub 2021 May 24.

Viral Pseudotype Unit, Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent & University of Greenwich, Chatham, United Kingdom.

Influenza B viruses (IBV) cause respiratory disease epidemics in humans and are therefore components of seasonal influenza vaccines. Serological methods are employed to evaluate vaccine immunogenicity prior to licensure. However, classical methods to assess influenza vaccine immunogenicity such as the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) and the serial radial hemolysis assay (SRH), have been proven to have many limitations. Read More

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Comparative Immunomodulatory Evaluation of the Receptor Binding Domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein; a Potential Vaccine Candidate Which Imparts Potent Humoral and Th1 Type Immune Response in a Mouse Model.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:641447. Epub 2021 May 24.

Infection and Immunology, Translational Health Science & Technology Institute, National Capital Region (NCR) Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India.

The newly emerged novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 has proven to be a threat to the human race globally, thus, vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2 is an unmet need driving mass vaccination efforts. The receptor binding domain of the spike protein of this coronavirus has multiple neutralizing epitopes and is associated with viral entry. Here we have designed and characterized the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein fragment 330-526 as receptor binding domain 330-526 (RBD) with two native glycosylation sites (N331 and N343); as a potential subunit vaccine candidate. Read More

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Novel neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against tetanus neurotoxin.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12134. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki City, Osaka, 567-0085, Japan.

Tetanus is a fatal disease caused by tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT). TeNT is composed of a light chain (Lc) and a heavy chain, the latter of which is classified into two domains, N-terminus Hn and C-terminus Hc. Several TeNT-neutralizing antibodies have been reported, but it remains unclear which TeNT domains are involved in neutralization. Read More

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Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses and Seroconversion in COVID-19 Patients Using Twelve Commercial Immunoassays.

Ann Lab Med 2021 Nov;41(6):577-587

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody assays have high clinical utility in managing the pandemic. We compared antibody responses and seroconversion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using different immunoassays.

Methods: We evaluated 12 commercial immunoassays, including three automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (Abbott, Roche, and Siemens), three enzyme immunoassays (Bio-Rad, Euroimmun, and Vircell), five lateral flow immunoassays (Boditech Med, SD biosensor, PCL, Sugentech, and Rapigen), and one surrogate neutralizing antibody assay (GenScript) in sequential samples from 49 COVID-19 patients and 10 seroconversion panels. Read More

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November 2021

Redefining IL11 as a regeneration-limiting hepatotoxin and therapeutic target in acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jun;13(597)

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore.

Acetaminophen (-acetyl--aminophenol; APAP) toxicity is a common cause of liver damage. In the mouse model of APAP-induced liver injury (AILI), interleukin 11 (IL11) is highly up-regulated and administration of recombinant human IL11 (rhIL11) has been shown to be protective. Here, we demonstrate that the beneficial effect of rhIL11 in the mouse model of AILI is due to its inhibition of endogenous mouse IL11 activity. Read More

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Differential recognition of oligomannose isomers by glycan-binding proteins involved in innate and adaptive immunity.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 9;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The recognition of oligomannose-type glycans in innate and adaptive immunity is elusive due to multiple closely related isomeric glycan structures. To explore the functions of oligomannoses, we developed a multifaceted approach combining mass spectrometry assignments of oligomannose substructures and the development of a comprehensive oligomannose microarray. This defined microarray encompasses both linear and branched glycans, varying in linkages, branching patterns, and phosphorylation status. Read More

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A clinical study of lyophilized intravenous human immunoglobulin containing high-titer cytomegalovirus-neutralizing antibody for the treatment of cytomegalovirus viremia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5533-5540

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection increases the risk of death after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, some patients do not respond to ganciclovir (GCV) or foscarnet sodium. Lyophilized intravenous human immunoglobulin containing high-titer CMV-neutralizing antibody (CMV-IVIG) is another option to further improve treatment safety and efficacy. Read More

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Epigenetic Plasticity Enables CNS-Trafficking of EBV-infected B Lymphocytes.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jun 9;17(6):e1009618. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Subpopulations of B-lymphocytes traffic to different sites and organs to provide diverse and tissue-specific functions. Here, we provide evidence that epigenetic differences confer a neuroinvasive phenotype. An EBV+ B cell lymphoma cell line (M14) with low frequency trafficking to the CNS was neuroadapted to generate a highly neuroinvasive B-cell population (MUN14). Read More

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Identification and evaluation of the inhibitory effect of Prunella vulgaris extract on SARS-coronavirus 2 virus entry.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0251649. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Molecular Human Retrovirology, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Until now, antiviral therapeutic agents are still urgently required for treatment or prevention of SARS-coronavirus 2 (SCoV-2) virus infection. In this study, we established a sensitive SCoV-2 Spike glycoprotein (SP), including an SP mutant D614G, pseudotyped HIV-1-based vector system and tested their ability to infect ACE2-expressing cells. Based on this system, we have demonstrated that an aqueous extract from the Natural herb Prunella vulgaris (NhPV) displayed potent inhibitory effects on SCoV-2 SP (including SPG614 mutant) pseudotyped virus (SCoV-2-SP-PVs) mediated infections. Read More

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Heterologous immunization with Covishield and Pfizer vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 elicits a robust humoral immune response.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 05 31;15(5):653-656. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Understanding the efficacy and durability of heterologous immunization schedules against SARS-CoV-2 is critical, as supply demands and vaccine choices become significant issues in the global vaccination strategy. Here we characterize the neutralizing antibodies produced in two subjects who received combination immunizations against SARS-CoV-2, first with Covishield (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccine, followed 33 days later with a second dose (booster) shot of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Serum samples were collected 25 days following the primary vaccination and 13 days after the secondary Pfizer vaccination. Read More

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Identification of novel T-cell epitopes on infectious bronchitis virus N protein and development of a multi-epitope vaccine.

J Virol 2021 Jun 9:JVI0066721. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China.

Cellular immune responses play a key role in the control of viral infection. The nucleocapsid (N) protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major immunogenic protein that can induce protective immunity. To screen for potential T-cell epitopes on IBV N protein, forty overlapping peptides covering the entirety of the N protein were designed and synthesized. Read More

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Potent germline-like monoclonal antibodies: rapid identification of promising candidates for antibody-based antiviral therapy.

Antib Ther 2021 Apr 17;4(2):89-98. Epub 2021 May 17.

MOE/NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

In recent years, fully human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are making up an increasing share of the pharmaceutical market. However, to improve affinity and efficacy of antibodies, many somatic hypermutations could be introduced during affinity maturation, which cause several issues including safety and efficacy and limit their application in clinic. Here, we propose a special class of human mAbs with limited level of somatic mutations, referred to as germline-like mAbs. Read More

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Antibodies elicited by mRNA-1273 vaccination bind more broadly to the receptor binding domain than do those from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Basic Sciences Division and Computational Biology Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with mutations in key antibody epitopes has raised concerns that antigenic evolution could erode adaptive immunity elicited by prior infection or vaccination. The susceptibility of immunity to viral evolution is shaped in part by the breadth of epitopes targeted by antibodies elicited by vaccination or natural infection. To investigate how human antibody responses to vaccines are influenced by viral mutations, we used deep mutational scanning to compare the specificity of polyclonal antibodies elicited by either two doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine or natural infection with SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Recognize the role of CD146/MCAM in the osteosarcoma progression: an in vitro study.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Jun 8;21(1):300. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Nangang District, Harbin, 150001, China.

Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common malignant bone tumor with poor prognosis. We previously reviewed that CD146 is correlated with multiple cancer progression, while its impact on OS is currently not systematically studied.

Methods: MG63 was transfected with lentivirus to express CD146 ectopically, and anti-CD146 neutralizing antibody ab75769 was used to inhibit 143B. Read More

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A self-assembling nanoparticle: Implications for the development of thermostable vaccine candidates.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Effective controls on viral infections rely on the continuous development in vaccine technology. Nanoparticle (NP) antigens are highly immunogenic based on their unique physicochemical properties, making them molecular scaffolds to present soluble vaccine antigens. Here, viral targets (113-354 aas) were genetically fused to N terminal of mi3, a protein that self-assembles into nanoparticles composed of 60 subunits. Read More

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An Overview About the Role of Adaptive Immunity in Keeping SARS-CoV-2 Reinfections at Bay.

Viral Immunol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide emergency that has affected millions of populations in developed and underdeveloped countries. To our surprise, many people have been tested positive twice. Few cases of true reinfections involved genetic alterations in the virus. Read More

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