231 results match your criteria neurons sgcs


β2 adrenergic receptor mediates noradrenergic action to induce CREB phosphorylation in satellite glial cells of dorsal root ganglia to regulate visceral hypersensitivity.

Pain 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0551, USA.

Abstract: Sympathoneuronal outflow into dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is suggested to be involved in sympathetically maintained chronic pain, which is mediated by norepinephrine (NE) action on DRG cells. The present study combined in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify the cell types of DRG that received NE action and examined cell-type specific expression of adrenergic receptors (ARs) in DRG. Using DRG explants, we identified that NE acted on satellite glial cells (SGCs) to induce the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding (CREB). Read More

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Cisplatin-induced activation and functional modulation of satellite glial cells lead to cytokine-mediated modulation of sensory neuron excitability.

Exp Neurol 2021 Mar 14;341:113695. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Neurology and Center for Translational Neuro- and Behavioral Sciences (C-TNBS), University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147 Essen, Germany.

Cisplatin plays an essential role in the treatment of various cancers. Cisplatin exhibits high efficacy, but it often leads to severe neurotoxic side effects, such as chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy (CIPN). The pathophysiology of CIPN is not fully understood. Read More

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How do neurons in sensory ganglia communicate with satellite glial cells?

Brain Res 2021 Jun 22;1760:147384. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91240, Israel; Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

Neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia maintain bidirectional communications that are believed to be largely mediated by chemical messengers. Nerve injury leads to SGC activation, which was proposed to be mediated by nitric oxide (NO) released from active neurons, but evidence for this is lacking. Here we tested the idea that increased neuronal firing is a major factor in NO release. Read More

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Functional P2X Receptors in the Auditory Nerve of Hearing Rodents Localize Exclusively to Peripheral Glia.

J Neurosci 2021 Mar 9;41(12):2615-2629. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

UCL Ear Institute, University College London, London WC1X 8EE, United Kingdom

P2X receptors (P2XRs) are associated with numerous pathophysiological mechanisms, and this promotes them as therapeutic targets for certain neurodegenerative conditions. However, the identity of P2XR-expressing cells in the nervous system remains contentious. Here, we examined P2XR functionality in auditory nerve cells from rodents of either sex, and determined their functional and anatomic expression pattern. Read More

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Satellite Glial Cells and Astrocytes, a Comparative Review.

Neurochem Res 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Astroglia are neural cells, heterogeneous in form and function, which act as supportive elements of the central nervous system; astrocytes contribute to all aspects of neural functions in health and disease. Through their highly ramified processes, astrocytes form close physical contacts with synapses and blood vessels, and are integrated into functional syncytia by gap junctions. Astrocytes interact among themselves and with other cells types (e. Read More

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February 2021

Single-cell transcriptomic profiling of satellite glial cells in stellate ganglia reveals developmental and functional axial dynamics.

Glia 2021 May 12;69(5):1281-1291. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

UCLA Neurocardiology Research Center of Excellence, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Stellate ganglion neurons, important mediators of cardiopulmonary neurotransmission, are surrounded by satellite glial cells (SGCs), which are essential for the function, maintenance, and development of neurons. However, it remains unknown whether SGCs in adult sympathetic ganglia exhibit any functional diversity, and what role this plays in modulating neurotransmission. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing of mouse stellate ganglia (n = 8 animals), focusing on SGCs (n = 11,595 cells). Read More

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Oxygen sensing in crustaceans: functions and mechanisms.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2021 Jan 3;207(1):1-15. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Animals that live in changing environments need to adjust their metabolism to maintain body functions, and sensing these changing conditions is essential for mediating the short- and long-term physiological and behavioral responses that make these adjustments. Previous research on nematodes and insects facing changing oxygen levels has shown that these animals rapidly respond using atypical soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGCs) as oxygen sensors connected to downstream cGMP pathways, and they respond more slowly using hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) that are further modulated by oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylases (PHs). Crustaceans are known to respond in different ways to hypoxia, but the mechanisms responsible for sensing oxygen levels are more poorly understood than in nematodes and insects. Read More

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January 2021

Satellite Glial Cells Give Rise to Nociceptive Sensory Neurons.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Jan 3. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Cell Biology, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.

Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons can transmit information about noxious stimulus to cerebral cortex via spinal cord, and play an important role in the pain pathway. Alterations of the pain pathway lead to CIPA (congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis) or chronic pain. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that nerve damage leads to the regeneration of neurons in DRG, which may contribute to pain modulation in feedback. Read More

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January 2021

Satellite glia as a critical component of diabetic neuropathy: Role of lipocalin-2 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-2 axis in the dorsal root ganglion.

Glia 2021 Apr 29;69(4):971-996. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of uncontrolled diabetes. The pathogenesis of DPN is associated with chronic inflammation in dorsal root ganglion (DRG), eventually causing structural and functional changes. Studies on DPN have primarily focused on neuronal component, and there is limited knowledge about the role of satellite glial cells (SGCs), although they completely enclose neuronal soma in DRG. Read More

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Dendritic morphology and inhibitory regulation distinguish dentate semilunar granule cells from granule cells through distinct stages of postnatal development.

Brain Struct Funct 2020 Dec 29;225(9):2841-2855. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 07103, USA.

Semilunar granule cells (SGCs) have been proposed as a morpho-functionally distinct class of hippocampal dentate projection neurons contributing to feedback inhibition and memory processing in juvenile rats. However, the structural and physiological features that can reliably classify granule cells (GCs) from SGCs through postnatal development remain unresolved. Focusing on postnatal days 11-13, 28-42, and > 120, corresponding with human infancy, adolescence, and adulthood, we examined the somato-dendritic morphology and inhibitory regulation in SGCs and GCs to determine the cell-type specific features. Read More

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December 2020

Divergent membrane properties of mouse cochlear glial cells around hearing onset.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Feb 25;99(2):679-698. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

UCL Ear Institute, University College London, London, UK.

Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, and together with their attendant glia, form the auditory nerve. Within the cochlea, satellite glial cells (SGCs) encapsulate the cell body of SGNs, whereas Schwann cells (SCs) wrap their peripherally- and centrally-directed neurites. Despite their likely importance in auditory nerve function and homeostasis, the physiological properties of auditory glial cells have evaded description. Read More

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February 2021

Spinal neuron-glia-immune interaction in cross-organ sensitization.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2020 12 21;319(6):G748-G760. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), historically considered as regional gastrointestinal disorders with heightened colonic sensitivity, are increasingly recognized to have concurrent dysfunction of other visceral and somatic organs, such as urinary bladder hyperactivity, leg pain, and skin hypersensitivity. The interorgan sensory cross talk is, at large, termed "cross-organ sensitization." These organs, anatomically distant from one another, physiologically interlock through projecting their sensory information into dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and then the spinal cord for integrative processing. Read More

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December 2020

CGRP Modulates Orofacial Pain through Mediating Neuron-Glia Crosstalk.

J Dent Res 2021 01 27;100(1):98-105. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a crucial role in the modulation of orofacial pain, and we hypothesized that CGRP mediated a neuron-glia crosstalk in orofacial pain. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms whereby CGRP mediated trigeminal neuron-glia crosstalk in modulating orofacial pain. Orofacial pain was elicited by ligating closed-coil springs between incisors and molars. Read More

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January 2021

Emerging importance of satellite glia in nervous system function and dysfunction.

Nat Rev Neurosci 2020 09 22;21(9):485-498. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Dominick Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Satellite glial cells (SGCs) closely envelop cell bodies of neurons in sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia. This unique organization is not found elsewhere in the nervous system. SGCs in sensory ganglia are activated by numerous types of nerve injury and inflammation. Read More

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September 2020

Cytoarchitectural analysis of the neuron-to-glia association in the dorsal root ganglia of normal and diabetic mice.

J Anat 2020 11 24;237(5):988-997. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, Grugliasco, Italy.

Dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) host the somata of sensory neurons which convey information from the periphery to the central nervous system. These neurons have heterogeneous size and neurochemistry, and those of small-to-medium size, which play an important role in nociception, form two distinct subpopulations based on the presence (peptidergic) or absence (non-peptidergic) of transmitter neuropeptides. Few investigations have so far addressed the spatial relationship between neurochemically different subpopulations of DRG neurons and glia. Read More

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November 2020

Peripheral Inflammatory Hyperalgesia Depends on P2X7 Receptors in Satellite Glial Cells.

Front Physiol 2020 25;11:473. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.

Peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia depends on the sensitization of primary nociceptive neurons. Inflammation drives molecular alterations not only locally but also in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) where interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and purinoceptors are upregulated. Activation of the P2X7 purinoceptors by ATP is essential for IL-1β maturation and release. Read More

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Differences in pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide and calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the trigeminovascular system.

Cephalalgia 2020 10 2;40(12):1296-1309. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Glostrup Research Institute, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark.

Background: Several neurotransmitters are expressed in the neurons of the trigeminal ganglion. One such signalling molecule is the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). PACAP signalling has been suggested to have a possible role in the pathophysiology of primary headaches. Read More

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October 2020

Satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia express functional transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 that is sensitized in neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

Mol Pain 2020 Jan-Dec;16:1744806920925425

Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is well documented as an important molecule in pain hypersensitivity following inflammation and nerve injury and in many other cellular biological processes. Here, we show that TRPA1 is expressed not only by sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) but also in their adjacent satellite glial cells (SGCs), as well as nonmyelinating Schwann cells. TRPA1 immunoreactivity is also detected in various cutaneous structures of sensory neuronal terminals, including small and large caliber cutaneous sensory fibers and endings. Read More

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Activation and functional modulation of satellite glial cells by oxaliplatin lead to hyperexcitability of sensory neurons in vitro.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2020 06 8;105:103499. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Lab, University Hospital Essen, Germany. Electronic address:

Platinum-based chemotherapeutics still play an important role in cancer therapy, however, severe side effects, such as painful neuropathy, occur frequently. The pathophysiologic mechanisms depend on the applied chemotherapeutic agent and are still controversial. In addition to neuronal damage, disturbance of glial cell activity may contribute to neurotoxicity. Read More

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Satellite glia activation in dorsal root ganglion contributes to mechanical allodynia after selective motor fiber injury in adult rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Jul 30;127:110187. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

School of Chinese Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China; Brain Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence suggests that activation of satellite glia cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia play important roles in the development of neuropathic pain. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of SGC activation in a novel model of motor nerve injury induced pain hypersensitivity. The neuropathic pain model was established by cervical 8 ventral root avulsion (C8VA). Read More

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Changes in the transcriptional fingerprint of satellite glial cells following peripheral nerve injury.

Glia 2020 07 11;68(7):1375-1395. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Danish Research Institute of Translational Neuroscience (DANDRITE), Nordic-EMBL Partnership for Molecular Medicine, Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are homeostatic cells enveloping the somata of peripheral sensory and autonomic neurons. A wide variety of neuronal stressors trigger activation of SGCs, contributing to, for example, neuropathic pain through modulation of neuronal activity. However, compared to neurons and other glial cells of the nervous system, SGCs have received modest scientific attention and very little is known about SGC biology, possibly due to the experimental challenges associated with studying them in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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BDNF-TrkB and proBDNF-p75NTR/Sortilin Signaling Pathways are Involved in Mitochondria-Mediated Neuronal Apoptosis in Dorsal Root Ganglia after Sciatic Nerve Transection.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;19(1):66-82

Institute of Neuroscience, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China.

Background: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) plays critical roles during development of the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in neuronal survival after injury. Although proBDNF induces neuronal apoptosis after injury in vivo, whether it can also act as a death factor in vitro and in vivo under physiological conditions and after nerve injury, as well as its mechanism of inducing apoptosis, is still unclear.

Objective: In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which proBDNF causes apoptosis in sensory neurons and Satellite Glial Cells (SGCs) in Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) After Sciatic Nerve Transection (SNT). Read More

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January 2020

Computational Model for Cross-Depolarization in DRG Neurons via Satellite Glial Cells using [K]: Role of Kir4.1 Channels and Extracellular Leakage.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2019 Jul;2019:2320-2323

Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are glial cells found in the peripheral nervous system where they tightly envelop the somata of the primary sensory neurons such as dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and nodose ganglion (NG) neurons. The somata of these neurons are generally compactly packed in their respective ganglia (DRG and NG). SGCs covering a neuron behave as an insulator of electrical activity from neighbouring neurons within the ganglion. Read More

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Activation of the RAS/B-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway in satellite glial cells contributes to substance p-mediated orofacial pain.

Eur J Neurosci 2020 06 5;51(11):2205-2218. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The cross talk between trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) is crucial for the regulation of inflammatory orofacial pain. Substance P (SP) plays an important role by activating neurokinin (NK)-I receptors in this cross talk. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) in neurons and SGCs of peripheral ganglions by peripheral inflammation is associated with inflammatory hypersensitivity. Read More

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The ATP-P2X7 Signaling Pathway Participates in the Regulation of Slit1 Expression in Satellite Glial Cells.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 19;13:420. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Anatomy, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Slit1 is one of the known signaling factors of the slit family and can promote neurite growth by binding to its receptor, Robo2. Upregulation of Slit1 expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after peripheral nerve injury plays an important role in nerve regeneration. Each sensory neuronal soma in the DRG is encapsulated by several surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) to form a neural structural unit. Read More

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September 2019

The P2Y receptor in the trigeminal ganglion contributes to the maintenance of inflammatory pain.

Neurochem Int 2019 12 3;131:104567. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

P2Y purinergic receptors expressed in neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) contribute to inflammatory and neuropathic pain. P2Y receptor expression is reported in the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and TG. In present study, the role of P2Y receptor in the TG in inflammatory orofacial pain of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated. Read More

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December 2019

Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in satellite glial cells of the trigeminal ganglion contributes to substance P-mediated inflammatory pain.

Int J Oral Sci 2019 09 10;11(3):24. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Inflammatory orofacial pain, in which substance P (SP) plays an important role, is closely related to the cross-talk between trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs). SGC activation is emerging as the key mechanism underlying inflammatory pain through different signalling mechanisms, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) activation, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways, and cytokine upregulation. However, in the TG, the mechanism underlying SP-mediated orofacial pain generated by SGCs is largely unknown. Read More

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September 2019

The effects of sympathetic nerve damage on satellite glial cells in the mouse superior cervical ganglion.

Auton Neurosci 2019 11 24;221:102584. Epub 2019 Aug 24.

Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91240, Israel; Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

Neurons in sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic ganglia are surrounded by satellite glial cell (SGCs). There is little information on the effects of nerve damage on SGCs in autonomic ganglia. We studied the consequences of damage to sympathetic nerve terminals by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on SGCs in the mouse superior cervical ganglia (Sup-CG). Read More

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November 2019

Downregulated UCHL1 Accelerates Gentamicin-Induced Auditory Cell Death via Autophagy.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Nov 30;56(11):7433-7447. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Otolaryngology, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5 Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, 443-721, Republic of Korea.

The clinical use of aminoglycoside antibiotics is partly limited by their ototoxicity. The pathogenesis of aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity still remains unknown. Here, RNA-sequencing was conducted to identify differentially expressed genes in rat cochlear organotypic cultures treated with gentamicin (GM), and 232 and 43 genes were commonly up- and downregulated, respectively, at day 1 and 2 after exposure. Read More

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November 2019

GABA receptor activation attenuates inflammatory orofacial pain by modulating interleukin-1β in satellite glial cells: Role of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

Brain Res Bull 2019 07 26;149:240-250. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Dept. of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, 610041, China. Electronic address:

Orofacial inflammation could activate satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) to produce interleukin 1β (IL-1β) which plays crucial roles in the development of inflammatory pain. Recent studies have shown that gamma-amino butyric acid-B (GABA) receptor could modulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord. The objective of this study was to investigate whether GABA receptors in TG SGCs attenuate inflammatory facial pain via mediating IL-1β following inflammation and its mechanisms. Read More

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