16,052 results match your criteria neurons accompanied

Deletion of BDNF in Pax2 Lineage-Derived Interneuron Precursors in the Hindbrain Hampers the Proportion of Excitation/Inhibition, Learning, and Behavior.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 26;14:642679. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Tübingen Hearing Research Centre, Molecular Physiology of Hearing, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Numerous studies indicate that deficits in the proper integration or migration of specific GABAergic precursor cells from the subpallium to the cortex can lead to severe cognitive dysfunctions and neurodevelopmental pathogenesis linked to intellectual disabilities. A different set of GABAergic precursors cells that express Pax2 migrate to hindbrain regions, targeting, for example auditory or somatosensory brainstem regions. We demonstrate that the absence of BDNF in Pax2-lineage descendants of KOs causes severe cognitive disabilities. Read More

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Prenatal exposure to nicotine in mice is associated with alterations in development and cellular and synaptic effects of alcohol in a brainstem arousal nucleus.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Apr 7:106980. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen,Copenhagen, Denmark 2100. Electronic address:

Using drugs of abuse while pregnant has tremendous negative consequences for the offspring, including an enhanced risk for substance use disorder (SUD). This vulnerability suggests that gestational exposure to drugs alters the developmental trajectory of neurons important in SUD processes, which could lead to later life changes in responsiveness to motivationally salient stimuli. The laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) gates the behaviorally relevant firing pattern signaling stimuli saliency in mesoaccumbal circuits. Read More

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The CD200R1 microglial inhibitory receptor as a therapeutic target in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Apr 6;18(1):88. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Cerebral Ischemia and Neurodegeneration, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August-Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: It is suggested that neuroinflammation, in which activated microglial cells play a relevant role, contributes to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Consequently, the modulation of microglial activation is a potential therapeutic target to be taken into account to act against the dopaminergic neurodegeneration occurring in this neurological disorder. Several soluble and membrane-associated inhibitory mechanisms contribute to maintaining microglial cells in a quiescent/surveillant phenotype in physiological conditions. Read More

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Role of the caudate-putamen nucleus in sensory gating in induced tinnitus in rats.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Nov;16(11):2250-2256

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Tinnitus can be described as the conscious perception of sound without external stimulation, and it is often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Current clinical treatments for tinnitus are ineffective. Although recent studies have indicated that the caudate-putamen nucleus may be a sensory gating area involved in noise elimination in tinnitus, the underlying mechanisms of this disorder are yet to be determined. Read More

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November 2021

Onecut Regulates Core Components of the Molecular Machinery for Neurotransmission in Photoreceptor Differentiation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 18;9:602450. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, Italy.

Photoreceptor cells (PRC) are neurons highly specialized for sensing light stimuli and have considerably diversified during evolution. The genetic mechanisms that underlie photoreceptor differentiation and accompanied the progressive increase in complexity and diversification of this sensory cell type are a matter of great interest in the field. A role of the homeodomain transcription factor Onecut (Oc) in photoreceptor cell formation is proposed throughout multicellular organisms. Read More

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Maternal Opioid Exposure Culminates in Perturbed Murine Neurodevelopment and Hyperactive Phenotype in Adolescence.

Neuroscience 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555, United States; Center for Addiction Research, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555, United States. Electronic address:

Opioid use by women during pregnancy has risen dramatically since 2004, accompanied by a striking increase in the prevalence of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) and other long-term neurological deficits. However, the effect and mechanisms of prenatal opioid affecting fetal neurodevelopment are largely unknown. To translate from the clinical presentation, we developed a novel mouse model to study the neurodevelopmental consequences of maternal opioid use and management. Read More

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Knock-Down of HDAC2 in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Neurons Improves Neuronal Mitochondrial Dynamics, Neuronal Maturation and Reduces Amyloid Beta Peptides.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 3;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is a major HDAC protein in the adult brain and has been shown to regulate many neuronal genes. The aberrant expression of HDAC2 and subsequent dysregulation of neuronal gene expression is implicated in neurodegeneration and brain aging. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons (hiPSC-Ns) are widely used models for studying neurodegenerative disease mechanisms, but the role of HDAC2 in hiPSC-N differentiation and maturation has not been explored. Read More

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Genetic deletion of the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) impairs growth and blunts endocrine response to fasting in Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice.

Mol Metab 2021 Mar 30:101223. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objective: The orexigenic hormone ghrelin exerts its physiological effects by binding to and activating the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). The recent development of a Ghsr-IRES-Cre knock-in mouse line has made it possible to genetically access GHSR-expressing neurons. Inserting a Cre construct using a knock-in strategy, even when following an upstream internal ribosome entry site (IRES) can, however, interfere with expression of a targeted gene, with consequences for the phenotype emerging. Read More

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Dynamics of glutamatergic drive underlie diverse responses of olfactory bulb outputs .

eNeuro 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112

Mitral/tufted (MT) cells of the olfactory bulb (OB) show diverse temporal responses to odorant stimulation that are thought to encode odor information. Much of this diversity is thought to arise from inhibitory OB circuits, but the dynamics of excitatory input to MT cells, which is driven in a feedforward manner by sensory afferents, may also be important. To examine the contribution of excitatory input dynamics to generating temporal diversity in MT cells, we imaged glutamate signaling onto mitral and tufted cell dendrites in anesthetized and awake mice. Read More

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Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides inhibits lipopolysaccharide- and synthetic hemozoin-induced neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia: roles of NF-κB transcription factor and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Mar;73(1):118-134

Department of Pharmacy, School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.

Objectives: The effects of a root extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides on neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia stimulated with LPS and hemozoin were investigated.

Methods: ELISA, enzyme immunoassay and Griess assay were used to evaluate levels of cytokines, PGE2 and NO in culture supernatants, respectively. Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity was evaluated using a BV-2 microglia-HT-22 neuron transwell co-culture. Read More

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Dihydromyricetin inhibits oxidative stress and apoptosis in oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation‑induced HT22 cells by activating the Nrf2/HO‑1 pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jun 31;23(6). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180, P.R. China.

Cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion injury (CIRI) refers to the phenomenon that ischemic injury of the brain leads to the injury of brain cells, which is further aggravated after the recovery of blood reperfusion. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) has an effective therapeutic effect on vascular diseases; however, its role in CIRI has not been investigated. The oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) cell model was used on HT22 hippocampal neurons in mice, by oxygen and sugar deprivation. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ampreloxetine, a novel, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

Clin Auton Res 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Clinical and Translational Pharmacology, Theravance Biopharma US, Inc., 901 Gateway Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.

Purpose: Ampreloxetine is a novel, selective, long-acting norepinephrine reuptake (NET) inhibitor being investigated as a once-daily oral treatment for symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) in patients with autonomic synucleinopathies. The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of ampreloxetine in this target population.

Methods: Patients with nOH were enrolled in a multicenter, phase II clinical trial of ampreloxetine (NCT02705755). Read More

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All-trans retinoic acid induces synaptic plasticity in human cortical neurons.

Elife 2021 Mar 30;10. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neuroanatomy, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

A defining feature of the brain is the ability of its synaptic contacts to adapt structurally and functionally in an experience-dependent manner. In the human cortex, however, direct experimental evidence for coordinated structural and functional synaptic adaptation is currently lacking. Here, we probed synaptic plasticity in human cortical slices using the vitamin A derivative all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), a putative treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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Persistent sodium conductance contributes to orexin-A-mediated modulation of membrane excitability in neonatal rat mesencephalic V neurons.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Mar 24;753:135846. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Orexins are multifunctional hypothalamic neuropeptides that participate in the stimulation of feeding behavior and energy expenditure. However, little is known about their neuromodulatory effects in lower brainstem effector regions, including in the trigeminal neuronal system. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of orexin-A (Ox-A) on the membrane properties of mesencephalic trigeminal (Mes V) neurons that are critically involved in the generation and control of rhythmical oral motor activities. Read More

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INPP5E controls ciliary localization of phospholipids and odor response in olfactory sensory neurons.

J Cell Sci 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

University of Florida, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Gainesville, FL, USA

The lipid composition of the primary cilia membrane is emerging as a critical regulator of cilia formation, maintenance, and function. Here, we show that conditional deletion of the phosphoinositide 5'-phosphatase gene, , causative of Joubert syndrome in terminally developed mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) led to a dramatic remodeling of ciliary phospholipids that was accompanied by marked elongation of cilia. PI(4,5)P normally restricted to the proximal segment redistributed to the entire length of cilia in knockout mice with a reduction in PI(3,4)P and elevation of PI(3,4,5)P in the dendritic knob. Read More

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H3K27 modifiers regulate lifespan in C. elegans in a context-dependent manner.

BMC Biol 2021 Mar 25;19(1):59. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Evidence of global heterochromatin decay and aberrant gene expression in models of physiological and premature ageing have long supported the "heterochromatin loss theory of ageing", which proposes that ageing is aetiologically linked to, and accompanied by, a progressive, generalised loss of repressive epigenetic signatures. However, the remarkable plasticity of chromatin conformation suggests that the re-establishment of such marks could potentially revert the transcriptomic architecture of animal cells to a "younger" state, promoting longevity and healthspan. To expand our understanding of the ageing process and its connection to chromatin biology, we screened an RNAi library of chromatin-associated factors for increased longevity phenotypes. Read More

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Involvement of NMDA and GABA(A) receptors in modulation of spontaneous activity in hippocampal culture: Interrelations between burst firing and intracellular calcium signal.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Mar 22;553:99-106. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, 142290, Russia.

Spontaneous burst firing is a hallmark attributed to the neuronal network activity. It is known to be accompanied by intracellular calcium [Са] oscillations within the bursting neurons. Studying mechanisms underlying regulation of burst firing is highly relevant, since impairment in neuronal bursting accompanies different neurological disorders. Read More

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Chemical induction of neurogenic properties in mammalian Müller glia.

Stem Cells 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Müller glia (MG), cells that maintain homeostasis in the retina, are dormant stem cells that can regenerate neurons upon injury. However, the regenerative property of MG, which is reproducibly displayed in the lower vertebrates, is not readily observed in the mammals even upon forced expression of regulatory genes or exposure to growth factors. Here, we demonstrate a reproducible unmasking of the neurogenic properties of enriched rodent MG by serial exposure to different combinations of small molecules. Read More

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Extract Depresses Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Chemically-Induced Seizures in the Rat Hippocampus.

Front Pharmacol 2021 8;12:610025. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Health Science Center, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait.

Extracts of the tropical Cinderella plant are used traditionally to manage convulsive conditions in the West African sub-region. This study sought to determine the neuronal basis of the effectiveness of these plant extracts to suppress seizure activity. Using the hippocampal slice preparation from rats, the ability of the extract to depress excitatory synaptic transmission and seizure activity were investigated. Read More

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SGTA associates with intracellular aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases.

Mol Brain 2021 03 23;14(1):59. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neurology and Stroke Medicine, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Intracellular aggregates are a common pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Aggregates are mainly formed by aberrant disease-specific proteins and are accompanied by accumulation of other aggregate-interacting proteins. Although aggregate-interacting proteins have been considered to modulate the formation of aggregates and to be involved in molecular mechanisms of disease progression, the components of aggregate-interacting proteins remain unknown. Read More

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Mechanistic insights into the role of the chemokine CCL2/CCR2 axis in dorsal root ganglia to peripheral inflammation and pain hypersensitivity.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Mar 23;18(1):79. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Département de Pharmacologie & Physiologie, Institut de Pharmacologie de Sherbrooke, Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001, 12e Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1H 5N4, Canada.

Background: Pain is reported as the leading cause of disability in the common forms of inflammatory arthritis conditions. Acting as a key player in nociceptive processing, neuroinflammation, and neuron-glia communication, the chemokine CCL2/CCR2 axis holds great promise for controlling chronic painful arthritis. Here, we investigated how the CCL2/CCR2 system in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contributes to the peripheral inflammatory pain sensitization. Read More

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Transcription factor-based gene therapy to treat glioblastoma through direct neuronal conversion.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Biology, Huck Institutes of Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Objective: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive adult primary cancer in the central nervous system. Therapeutic approaches for GBM treatment are under intense investigation, including the use of emerging immunotherapies. Here, we propose an alternative approach to treat GBM through reprogramming proliferative GBM cells into non-proliferative neurons. Read More

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Chronic Cyanuric Acid Exposure Depresses Hippocampal LTP but Does Not Disrupt Spatial Learning or Memory in the Morris Water Maze.

Neurotox Res 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Pediatric, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550001, China.

Exposure to cyanuric acid (CA) causes multiple organ failure accompanied by the involvement in kinds of target proteins, which are detectable and play central roles in the CNS. The hippocampus has been identified as a brain area which was especially vulnerable in developmental condition associated with cognitive dysfunction. No studies have examined the effects of CA on hippocampal function after in vitro or in vivo treatment. Read More

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VPS35 D620N knockin mice recapitulate cardinal features of Parkinson's disease.

Aging Cell 2021 Mar 21:e13347. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

D620N mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) gene causes late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and contributes to idiopathic PD. However, how D620N mutation leads to PD-related deficits in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, we thoroughly characterized the biochemical, pathological, and behavioral changes of a VPS35 D620N knockin (KI) mouse model with chronic aging. Read More

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Paclitaxel increases axonal localization and vesicular trafficking of Nav1.7.

Brain 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.

The microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (PTX) causes dose-limiting chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which is often accompanied by pain. Among the multifaceted effects of PTX is an increased expression of sodium channel NaV1.7 in rat and human sensory neurons, enhancing their excitability. Read More

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An extended release GLP-1 analogue increases α-synuclein accumulation in a mouse model of prodromal Parkinson's disease.

Exp Neurol 2021 Mar 13;341:113693. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Parkinson's Disease Center, Department of Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, USA. Electronic address:

The repurposing of drugs developed to treat type 2 diabetes for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) was encouraged by the beneficial effect exerted by the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue exenatide in a phase 2 clinical trial. The effects of GLP-1 analogues have been investigated extensively using rodent toxin models of PD. However, many of the toxin-based models used lack robust α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology, akin to the Lewy bodies and neurites seen in PD. Read More

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Selective disruption of trigeminal sensory neurogenesis and differentiation in a mouse model of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

The Fralin Biomedical Research Institute, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA, 24014, USA

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with cranial nerve anomalies and disordered oropharyngeal function including pediatric dysphagia. Using the 22q11DS mouse model, we asked whether sensory neuron differentiation in the trigeminal ganglion (CNgV) , which is essential for normal orofacial function, is disrupted. Read More

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Operant conditioning reveals task-specific responses of single neurons in a brain-machine interface.

J Neural Eng 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

The KITE Research Institute, University Health Network, 550 University Ave., Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2A2, CANADA.

Objective: Volitional modulation of single cortical neurons holds great potential for the implementation of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) because it can induce a rapid acquisition of arbitrary associations between machines and neural activity. It can also be used as a framework to study the limits of single-neuron control in BMIs.

Approach: We tested the control of a one-dimensional actuator in two BMI tasks which differed only in the neural contingency that determined when a reward was dispensed. Read More

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[Effects of estrogen on apoptosis of spiral ganglion cells in cochlea of aged C57BL/6J mice].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2020 Nov;36(6):529-533

Jiaxing Medical College, Jiaxing 314000.

To observe the effects of estrogen on cochlear spiral ganglia cell apoptosis in aged C57BL/6J mice, and to explore the possible mechanism of estrogen's protective effects on senile deafness. Forty C57BL/6J mice were divided into the following four groups (10 mice/group): 3 m group (3 months old group), 12 m group (12 months old sham operation group); In the 12 m OVX group (ovariectomized at 12 months), bilateral oophorectomy was performed at the age of 9 months and normal feeding was performed until the age of 12 months.The 12m OVX+E2 group (estrogen intervention group) underwent bilateral oophorectomy at 9 months of age. Read More

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November 2020