45 results match your criteria neurons 192igg-saporin


Long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA3 to CA1 synapses may be induced in vivo by activation of septal cholinergic inputs.

Int J Neurosci 2020 Sep 23:1-7. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Neurophysiology of Learning Lab, Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia.

Purpose/aim: The role of cholinergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus remains controversial since different studies showed either no influence or its modulatory effect on glutamatergic hippocampal synapses. It remains unclear whether septal cholinergic input can modulate plasticity of synapses formed by CA3 pyramids on CA1 neurons. The aim of the study was to clarify the role of septal input in the development of LTP in this synapse. Read More

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September 2020

Cholinergic Deficit Induced by Central Administration of 192IgG-Saporin Is Associated With Activation of Microglia and Cell Loss in the Dorsal Hippocampus of Rats.

Front Neurosci 2019 12;13:146. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. Administration of the immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin to rats, an animal model of AD, leads to degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the medial septal area. In the present study, cholinergic cell death was induced by intracerebroventricular administration of 192IgG-saporin. Read More

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Effects of Cholinergic Lesions and Cholinesterase Inhibitors on Aromatase and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Different Regions of the Rat Brain.

Neuroscience 2018 08 29;384:203-213. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. Electronic address:

Cholinergic projections have been shown to interact with estrogens in ways that influence synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. The mechanisms are not well understood. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cholinergic projections influence brain estrogen production by affecting aromatase (ARO), or influence estrogen signaling by affecting estrogen receptor expression. Read More

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Intracerebroventricular Administration of IgG-Saporin Alters Expression of Microglia-Associated Genes in the Dorsal But Not Ventral Hippocampus.

Front Mol Neurosci 2017 17;10:429. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

One of important aspects of development of Alzheimer's disease is degeneration of septal cholinergic neurons that innervate the hippocampus. We took advantage of widely used model of cholinergic deficit in the hippocampus, intracerebroventricular administration of IgG-saporin (Ig-saporin), to analyze the postponed consequences of cholinergic deficit in different parts of the hippocampus. We studied effects of the immunotoxin on the behavior of rats and gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus using RNA-seq approach. Read More

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January 2018

Increase in cortical endocannabinoid signaling in a rat model of basal forebrain cholinergic dysfunction.

Neuroscience 2017 Oct 18;362:206-218. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing. University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), B° Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain. Electronic address:

The basal forebrain cholinergic pathways progressively degenerate during the progression of Alzheimer's disease, leading to an irreversible impairment of memory and thinking skills. The stereotaxic lesion with 192IgG-saporin in the rat brain has been used to eliminate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and is aimed at emulating the cognitive damage described in this disease in order to explore its effects on behavior and on neurotransmission. Learning and memory processes that are controlled by cholinergic neurotransmission are also modulated by the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. Read More

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October 2017

Treatment Efficacy of NGF Nanoparticles Combining Neural Stem Cell Transplantation on Alzheimer's Disease Model Rats.

Med Sci Monit 2015 Nov 21;21:3608-15. Epub 2015 Nov 21.

Department of Anatomy, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (mainland).

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. It causes progressive brain disorder involving loss of normal memory and thinking skills. The transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been reported to improve learning and memory function of AD rats, and protects basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Read More

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November 2015

Donepezil plus estradiol treatment enhances learning and delay-dependent memory performance by young ovariectomized rats with partial loss of septal cholinergic neurons.

Horm Behav 2011 Apr 3;59(4):503-11. Epub 2011 Feb 3.

University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, 1004 Salk Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Effects of estrogen therapy on cognitive performance appear to diminish with age and time following the loss of ovarian function. We hypothesize that this is due to a reduction in basal forebrain cholinergic function and that treatment with a cholinergic enhancer can reverse the effect. This study tested whether combining the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil with estradiol treatment can enhance/restore estradiol effects on cognitive performance in young ovariectomized rats with selective lesions of septal cholinergic neurons. Read More

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Lesion of cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis enhances response to general anesthetics.

Exp Neurol 2011 Apr 2;228(2):259-69. Epub 2011 Feb 2.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1.

Acetylcholine in the brain has been associated with consciousness and general anesthesia effects. We tested the hypothesis that the integrity of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) affects the response to general anesthetics. Cholinergic neurons in NBM were selectively lesioned by bilateral infusion of 192IgG-saporin in adult, male Long-Evans rats, and control rats were infused with saline. Read More

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Effects of ibotenate and 192IgG-saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis/substantia innominata on spontaneous sleep and wake states and on recovery sleep after sleep deprivation in rats.

J Neurosci 2008 Jan;28(2):491-504

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1X5, Canada.

The basal forebrain (BF) is known for its role in cortical and behavioral activation, and has been postulated to have a role in compensatory mechanisms after sleep loss. However, specific neuronal phenotypes responsible for these roles are unclear. We investigated the effects of ibotenate (IBO) and 192IgG-saporin (SAP) lesions of the caudal BF on spontaneous sleep-waking and electroencephalogram (EEG), and recovery sleep and EEG after 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD). Read More

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January 2008

Estradiol enhances DMP acquisition via a mechanism not mediated by turning strategy but which requires intact basal forebrain cholinergic projections.

Authors:
Robert B Gibbs

Horm Behav 2007 Sep 31;52(3):352-9. Epub 2007 May 31.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, 1004 Salk Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

This study examined whether effects on turning strategy, use of an allocentric strategy, and/or short-term spatial memory account for the effects of estradiol treatment on acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position (DMP) T-maze task, in rats with and without basal forebrain cholinergic lesions. Ovariectomized rats received either 192IgG saporin (SAP) or saline injected into the medial septum. Two weeks later, half of each group received either continuous estradiol treatment (5-mm silastic capsule containing 17-beta-estradiol implanted s. Read More

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September 2007

Cholinergic lesions produce task-selective effects on delayed matching to position and configural association learning related to response pattern and strategy.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2007 Jul 20;88(1):19-32. Epub 2007 Apr 20.

Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, 1004 Salk Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

192IgG-saporin (SAP) was used to selectively destroy cholinergic neurons in the rostral basal forebrain (e.g., medial septum (MS) and vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (VDB)) and/or the caudal basal forebrain (e. Read More

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Sound sequence discrimination learning is dependent on cholinergic inputs to the rat auditory cortex.

Neurosci Res 2004 Sep;50(1):113-23

Department of Neurophysiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahimachi, Niigata 951-8585, Japan.

In rat auditory cortex (AC) slices, synaptic potentiation following heterosynaptic stimulation is affected by the stimulus sequence used for induction. It was hypothesized that this sequence-dependent plasticity might be partly involved in the cellular mechanisms underlying sound sequence discrimination. Sequence dependence is abolished by muscarinic receptor antagonists. Read More

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September 2004

Decreased neurogenesis after cholinergic forebrain lesion in the adult rat.

J Neurosci Res 2004 Jul;77(2):155-65

Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Adult neurogenesis has been shown to be regulated by a multitude of extracellular cues, including hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters. The cholinergic system of the basal forebrain is one of the key transmitter systems for learning and memory. Because adult neurogenesis has been implicated in cognitive performance, the present work aims at defining the role of cholinergic input for adult neurogenesis by using an immunotoxic lesion approach. Read More

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The role of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic projection in T-maze rewarded alternation.

Behav Brain Res 2003 Jul;143(1):41-8

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3UD, England, Oxford, UK.

Administration of 192IgG-saporin, a cholinergic neurotoxin, to the medial septum destroys the cell bodies from which the septo-hippocampal cholinergic projection originates, leading to reductions in both hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Despite reports that 192IgG-saporin-induced cholinergic loss leads to post-operative impairments in acquisition and performance of spatial memory tasks, a number of other reports have described intact spatial memory performance following these lesions. Factors that might account for these different outcomes include variations in toxin injection sites or volumes, and post-operative testing at times that might permit regeneration of damaged neuronal processes. Read More

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A role for the basal forebrain cholinergic system in estrogen-induced disinhibition of hippocampal pyramidal cells.

J Neurosci 2003 Jun;23(11):4479-90

Department of Neurobiology and Physiology and Northwestern University Institute for Neuroscience, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA.

Estrogen transiently disinhibits hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in adult female rats and prolongs the decay time of IPSCs in these cells. Estrogen-induced changes in synaptic inhibition are likely to be causally related to subsequent enhancements in excitatory synaptic function in CA1 pyramidal cells. Currently, it is unknown how or on what cells estrogen acts to regulate synaptic inhibition in the hippocampus. Read More

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Neural stem cells and cholinergic neurons: regulation by immunolesion and treatment with mitogens, retinoic acid, and nerve growth factor.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Jun 30;100(12):7325-30. Epub 2003 May 30.

Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (Bologna), Italy.

Degenerative diseases represent a severe problem because of the very limited repair capability of the nervous system. To test the potential of using stem cells in the adult central nervous system as "brain-marrow" for repair purposes, several issues need to be clarified. We are exploring the possibility of influencing, in vivo, proliferation, migration, and phenotype lineage of stem cells in the brain of adult animals with selective neural lesions by exogenous administration (alone or in combination) of hormones, cytokines, and neurotrophins. Read More

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Mnemonic deficits in animals depend upon the degree of cholinergic deficit and task complexity.

Exp Neurol 2002 Sep;177(1):292-305

Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0624 , USA.

The role of cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons in mnemonic behaviors was investigated using the immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin. We assessed two routes of immunotoxin administration: intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraparenchymal (INTRA). INTRA lesions of the medial septum (MS) and/or the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) were compared with ICV-lesions, INTRA-phosphate-buffered saline injected, and naive controls. Read More

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September 2002

Sequential upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in degenerating rat basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and in phagocytotic microglial cells.

Brain Res 2001 Apr;897(1-2):20-6

Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neurochemistry, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109, Leipzig, Germany.

To study the functional role of adhesion molecules in neurodegenerative events in vivo, the basal forebrain cholinergic lesion-induced expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 was studied by double immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. A single intracerebroventricular application of the cholinergic immunotoxin, 192IgG-saporin, produced a selective cholinergic cell loss in rat basal forebrain nuclei detectable by gradual loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive cells starting 3 days but being nearly complete 7 days after injection of the toxin. The degeneration of cholinergic neurons was accompanied by a striking appearance of activated microglial cells in the lesioned areas. Read More

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Rat basal forebrain cholinergic lesion affects neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in hippocampal and neocortical target regions.

Brain Res 2001 Jan;889(1-2):155-64

Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neurochemistry, University of Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, D-04109, Leipzig, Germany.

Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mechanisms have been assigned a role in cortical perfusion, learning and memory as well as in neuronal plasticity. Dysfunction of cortical cholinergic transmission has also been associated with reduced cortical cerebral blood flow and impaired performance in learning and memory tasks suggesting a link between the basal forebrain cholinergic system and cortical NO-mediated mechanisms. The aim of this study was therefore to study the influence of cholinergic input on neuronal NO-synthase (nNOS) activity in cortical cholinoceptive target neurons. Read More

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January 2001

[Non-cholinergic projections from basal forebrain to medial limbic cortex of rat].

Kaibogaku Zasshi 2000 Jun;75(3):285-97

Department of Anatomy, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Laminar distribution and synaptic organization of non-cholinergic projections to the medial limbic cortex from the basal forebrain (BF) were studied in rats. To eliminate BF cholinergic neurons selectively, a immunotoxin, 192IgG-saporin, was injected into lateral ventricle, and 7 days later, to label the remaining non-cholinergic elements, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) was injected into BF. In rats injected with the toxin, PHA-L labeled fibers, presumably originating from the remaining non-cholinergic neurons, were distributed in layers V-VI of the medial limbic cortex. Read More

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Intracerebroventricular infusion of CHO5, a rat monoclonal antibody directed against mouse low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75NTR), specifically labels basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in mouse brain.

Metab Brain Dis 2000 Mar;15(1):17-27

Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neurochemistry, University of Leipzig, Germany.

The finding that basal forebrain cholinergic cells are specifically endowed with the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75NTR has been employed to develop a cholinergic immunotoxin in rats by covalently linking the monoclonal antibody 192IgG against the rat p75NTR with the cytotoxic protein saporin (192IgG-saporin). Following intracebroventricular application of 192IgG-saporin, the antibody conjugate is taken up into cholinergic cells via the p75NTR, retrogradely transported to the cell body, where saporin exerts cytotoxic action. The lack of an appropriate antibody directed against mouse p75NTR has been hampered the development of a mouse-specific cholinergic immunotoxin, which should be a useful tool to study effects of cortical cholinergic deficits on processing of amyloid precursor protein in transgenic mice with Alzheimer pathology. Read More

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In vivo [125I]-iodobenzovesamicol binding reflects cortical cholinergic deficiency induced by specific immunolesion of rat basal forebrain cholinergic system.

Nucl Med Biol 2000 Jan;27(1):23-31

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Germany.

In this study, radiolabeled iodobenzovesamicol (IBVM), which is known to bind with high affinity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, was tested for its usefulness in imaging cortical cholinergic deficits in vivo. To induce reductions in cortical cholinergic input, the cholinergic immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin was employed. This has been shown to selectively and efficiently destroy basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats. Read More

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January 2000

Nerve growth factor (NGF) augments cortical and hippocampal cholinergic functioning after p75NGF receptor-mediated deafferentation but impairs inhibitory avoidance and induces fear-related behaviors.

J Neurosci 2000 Jan;20(2):834-44

Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0624, USA.

Nerve growth factor (NGF) enhances cholinergic functioning in animals with a compromised cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF). Immunotoxic lesions targeting low-affinity NGF receptor (p75NGF receptor)-bearing CBF neurons provide a selective model for testing the effects of NGF on residual cholinergic neurons. Rats received PBS or the immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin (192Sap) intracerebroventricularly at two doses (1 or 2. Read More

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January 2000

Redundant basal forebrain modulation in taste aversion memory formation.

J Neurosci 1999 Sep;19(17):7661-9

Instituto de Fisiología Celular Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-253, 04510 México, D.F., México.

Mnemonic deficits resulting from excitotoxic lesion of the basal forebrain have been classically attributed to the resulting depletion of cortical acetylcholine activity. It has been demonstrated that in spite of the strong cholinergic depletion after injections into the basal forebrain of the immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin, no detectable deficit can be found in the acquisition of several learning tasks, including conditioned taste aversion. Conversely, NMDA-induced lesions of the basal forebrain strongly impair taste aversion learning. Read More

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September 1999

Differential injury-dependent glial expression of interleukins-1 alpha, beta, and interleukin-6 in rat brain.

Glia 1999 Jul;27(1):75-87

Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neurochemistry, University of Leipzig, Germany.

Interleukins (IL)-1 alpha, beta and IL-6 may play essential roles in early inflammatory processes in response to degenerating cholinergic cells observed in the basal forebrain of Alzheimer patients. To address this question in vivo, two distinct lesion paradigms were used. A specific and selective basal forebrain cholinergic cell loss was achieved by a single intracerebroventricular application of the cholinergic immunotoxin, 192IgG-saporin. Read More

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Leukemia inhibitory factor expression is not induced in activated microglia and reactive astrocytes in response to rat basal forebrain cholinergic lesion.

Neurosci Lett 1999 May;267(1):53-6

Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Medical Faculty, Germany.

In adult intact rat brain, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) mRNA has been found to be constitutively expressed in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. To reveal a functional role of LIF in neurodegenerative events, the cellular expression pattern of LIF was determined by combining in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry after specific and selective degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic cells by a single intracerebroventricular application of the cholinergic immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin. Although basal forebrain cholinergic lesion resulted in a dramatic activation of micro- and astroglial cells at the lesion site, LIF mRNA expression was not detected in any of the lesion-induced activated glial cell types. Read More

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Glucose metabolism in cholinoceptive cortical rat brain regions after basal forebrain cholinergic lesion.

Int J Dev Neurosci 1998 Nov-Dec;16(7-8):675-90

Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neurochemistry, University of Leipzig Medical Faculty, Germany.

To address the question whether the changes in cortical glucose metabolism observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease are interrelated with, or consequences of, basal forebrain cholinergic cell loss, an experimental approach was employed to produce cortical cholinergic dysfunction in rat brain by administration of the cholinergic immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin. [14C]D-glucose utilization in brain homogenates, D-glucose-displaceable [3H]cytochalasin B binding to glucose transporters (GLUT). Northern and Western analyses, as well as in vivo [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography were used to quantify the regional glucose metabolism. Read More

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Cerebrospinal fluid cholinesterases--markers for loss of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons?

Int J Dev Neurosci 1998 Nov-Dec;16(7-8):669-73

Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neurochemistry, University of Leipzig, Germany.

The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that cholinergic basal forebrain neurons are a major source of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cholinesterases. To address this question enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in both CSF and parietal cortex were assayed following selective lesion of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons by a single intracerebroventricular application of the cholinergic immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin. Cholinergic immunolesions led to a dramatic decrease in total AChE activity in parietal cortex, which was due to the specific loss of the G4 molecular form while the activity of the G1 form was increased as compared to nonlesioned animals. Read More

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Disconnection of the amygdala central nucleus and substantia innominata/nucleus basalis disrupts increments in conditioned stimulus processing in rats.

Behav Neurosci 1999 Feb;113(1):143-51

Department of Psychology, Johns Hopkins University, USA.

Rats with a neurotoxic lesion of the amygdala central nucleus (CN) in one hemisphere and a 192 immunoglobulin G (192IgG)-saporin lesion of cholinergic neurons in the contralateral substantia innominata/nucleus basalis (SI/nBM) failed to show the enhanced attentional processing of a conditioned stimulus (CS) observed in sham-operated rats when that CS's predictive value was altered. Performance of these asymmetrically lesioned rats was poorer than that of rats with a unilateral lesion of either structure or with a symmetrical lesion of both structures in the same hemisphere. These results implicate connections between the CN and SI/nBM in the incremental attentional processing of CSs, extending previous research that has shown similar effects of bilateral lesions of either the CN or the SI/nBM. Read More

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February 1999

Galanin inhibits performance on rodent memory tasks.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998 Dec;863:305-22

Section on Behavioral Neuropharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1375, USA.

Central administration of galanin produces performance deficits on a variety of rodent learning and memory tasks. Galanin impairs acquisition and/or retention of the Morris water task, delayed nonmatching to position, T-maze delayed alternation, starburst radial maze, and passive avoidance in normal rats. A primary site of action is the ventral hippocampus, with an additional modulatory site in the medial septum-diagonal band. Read More

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December 1998