25,498 results match your criteria neuronal populations

Parkinson's disease.

Lancet 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Neurogenetics and Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck and University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany.

Parkinson's disease is a recognisable clinical syndrome with a range of causes and clinical presentations. Parkinson's disease represents a fast-growing neurodegenerative condition; the rising prevalence worldwide resembles the many characteristics typically observed during a pandemic, except for an infectious cause. In most populations, 3-5% of Parkinson's disease is explained by genetic causes linked to known Parkinson's disease genes, thus representing monogenic Parkinson's disease, whereas 90 genetic risk variants collectively explain 16-36% of the heritable risk of non-monogenic Parkinson's disease. Read More

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Distinct circuits in rat central amygdala for defensive behaviors evoked by socially signaled imminent versus remote danger.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Emotions Neurobiology, BRAINCITY-Centre of Excellence for Neural Plasticity and Brain Disorders, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Animals display a rich repertoire of defensive responses adequate to the threat proximity. In social species, these reactions can be additionally influenced by the behavior of fearful conspecifics. However, the majority of neuroscientific studies on socially triggered defensive responses focuses on one type of behavior, freezing. Read More

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Plasma Concentrations of Magnesium and Risk of Dementia: A General Population Study of 102 648 Individuals.

Clin Chem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Low and high concentrations of plasma magnesium are associated with increased risk of future all-cause dementia; however, the underlying reasons remain elusive. The magnesium ion is an important electrolyte serving as a cofactor in many enzymatic processes in the human organism. Magnesium affects both neuronal and vascular functions. Read More

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Potential of medicinal plants as neuroprotective and therapeutic properties against amyloid-β-related toxicity, and glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in human neural cells.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Mauritius, Réduit. Mauritius.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are notorious neurodegenerative diseases amongst the general population. Being age-associated diseases, the prevalence of AD and PD is forecasted to rapidly escalate with the progressive aging population of the world. These diseases are complex and multifactorial. Read More

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Distinct neuronal populations contribute to trace conditioning and extinction learning in the hippocampal CA1.

Elife 2021 Apr 12;10. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, United States.

Trace conditioning and extinction learning depend on the hippocampus, but it remains unclear how neural activity in the hippocampus is modulated during these two different behavioral processes. To explore this question, we performed calcium imaging from a large number of individual CA1 neurons during both trace eye-blink conditioning and subsequent extinction learning in mice. Our findings reveal that distinct populations of CA1 cells contribute to trace conditioned learning versus extinction learning, as learning emerges. Read More

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Quantitative morphometric and cell-type-specific population analysis of microglia-enriched cultures subcloned to high purity from newborn rat brains.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 6;10:119-129. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Morphological and functional characterizations of cultured microglia are essential for the improved understanding of their roles in neuronal health and disease. Although some studies (phenotype analysis, phagocytosis) can be carried out in mixed or microglia-enriched cultures, in others (gene expression) pure microglia must be used. If the use of genetically modified microglial cells is not feasible, isolation of resident microglia from nervous tissue must be carried out. Read More

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Mitochondrial OMA1 and OPA1 as Gatekeepers of Organellar Structure/Function and Cellular Stress Response.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:626117. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biology, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, United States.

Mammalian mitochondria are emerging as a critical stress-responsive contributor to cellular life/death and developmental outcomes. Maintained as an organellar network distributed throughout the cell, mitochondria respond to cellular stimuli and stresses through highly sensitive structural dynamics, particularly in energetically demanding cell settings such as cardiac and muscle tissues. Fusion allows individual mitochondria to form an interconnected reticular network, while fission divides the network into a collection of vesicular organelles. Read More

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Glial Cell-Based Vascular Mechanisms and Transplantation Therapies in Brain Vessel and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 26;15:627682. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) with severe neurological/psychiatric symptoms, such as cerebrovascular pathology in AD, CAA, and chronic stroke, have brought greater attention with their incidence and prevalence having markedly increased over the past few years. Causes of the significant neuropathologies, especially those observed in neurological diseases in the CNS, are commonly believed to involve multiple factors such as an age, a total environment, genetics, and an immunity contributing to their progression, neuronal, and vascular injuries. We primarily focused on the studies of glial involvement/dysfunction in part with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the neurovascular unit (NVU) changes, and the vascular mechanisms, which have been both suggested as critical roles in chronic stroke and many other NDDs. Read More

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Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA and Neuroprotective Immunity in Parkinson's disease.

Biomaterials 2021 Mar 31;272:120786. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, Center for Neurodegenerative Disorders, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA. Electronic address:

Restoring numbers and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a novel therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders. Whether Treg function is boosted by adoptive cell transfer, pharmaceuticals, or immune modulators, the final result is a robust anti-inflammatory and neuronal sparing response. Herein, a newly developed lipid nanoparticle (LNP) containing mRNA encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Gm-csf mRNA) was developed to peripherally induce Tregs and used for treatment in preclinical Parkinson's disease (PD) models. Read More

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Temporally specific roles of ventral tegmental area projections to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex in attention and impulse control.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Translational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands

Deficits in impulse control and attention are prominent in the symptomatology of mental disorders such as ADHD, substance addiction, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Frontostriatal structures, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcb), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and their dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been implicated in impulse control and attention. What remains unclear, is how the temporal pattern of activity of these VTA projections contributes to these processes. Read More

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Cytokine receptor clustering in sensory neurons with an engineered cytokine fusion protein triggers unique pain resolution pathways.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Center for Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3584 EA Utrecht, The Netherlands;

New therapeutic approaches to resolve persistent pain are highly needed. We tested the hypothesis that manipulation of cytokine receptors on sensory neurons by clustering regulatory cytokine receptor pairs with a fusion protein of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 (IL4-10 FP) would redirect signaling pathways to optimally boost pain-resolution pathways. We demonstrate that a population of mouse sensory neurons express both receptors for the regulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. Read More

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Topographic maps and neural tuning for sensory substitution dimensions learned in adulthood in a congenital blind subject.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 6:118029. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

The Baruch Ivcher Institute for Brain, Mind & Technology, School of Psychology, Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya, P.O. Box 167, Herzliya, 46150, Israel. Electronic address:

Topographic maps, a key principle of brain organization, emerge during development. It remains unclear, however, whether topographic maps can represent a new sensory experience learned in adulthood. MaMe, a congenitally blind individual, has been extensively trained in adulthood for perception of a 2D auditory-space (soundscape) where the y- and x-axes are represented by pitch and time, respectively. Read More

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Paraventricular Calcitonin Receptor Expressing Neurons Modulate Energy Homeostasis in Male Mice.

Endocrinology 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) is a heterogeneous collection of neurons that play important roles in modulating feeding and energy expenditure. Abnormal development or ablation of the PVH results in hyperphagic obesity and defects in energy expenditure whereas selective activation of defined PVH neuronal populations can suppress feeding and may promote energy expenditure. Here, we characterize the contribution of calcitonin receptor-expressing PVH neurons (CalcR PVH) to energy balance control. Read More

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Dual-Viral Transduction Utilizing Highly Efficient Retrograde Lentivirus Improves Labeling of Long Propriospinal Neurons.

Front Neuroanat 2021 22;15:635921. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Interdisciplinary Program in Translational Neuroscience, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States.

The nervous system coordinates pathways and circuits to process sensory information and govern motor behaviors. Mapping these pathways is important to further understand the connectivity throughout the nervous system and is vital for developing treatments for neuronal diseases and disorders. We targeted long ascending propriospinal neurons (LAPNs) in the rat spinal cord utilizing Fluoro-Ruby (FR) [10kD rhodamine dextran amine (RDA)], and two dual-viral systems. Read More

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Subcellular Dissection of a Simple Neural Circuit: Functional Domains of the Mauthner-Cell During Habituation.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 22;15:648487. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

MTA-ELTE Motor Pharmacology Research Group, Budapest, Hungary.

Sensorimotor integration is a pivotal feature of the nervous system for ensuring a coordinated motor response to external stimuli. In essence, such neural circuits can optimize behavioral performance based on the saliency of environmental cues. In zebrafish, habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR) is a simple behavior integrated into the startle command neurons, called the Mauthner cells. Read More

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Leptin, the brain and energy homeostasis: From an apparently simple to a highly complex neuronal system.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Marche Polytechnic University, Via Tronto 10/A, 60020, Ancona, Italy.

Leptin, produced and secreted by white adipose tissue in tight relationship with adipose mass, informs the brain about the status of the energy stores serving as the main peripheral signal for energy balance regulation through interaction with a multitude of highly interconnected neuronal populations. Most obese patients display resistance to the anorectic effect of the hormone. The present review unravels the multiple levels of complexity that trigger hypothalamic response to leptin with the objective of highlighting those critical hubs that, mainly in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, may undergo obesity-induced alterations and create an obstacle to leptin action. Read More

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Spontaneous seizures and elevated seizure susceptibility in response to somatic mutation of sodium channel Scn8a in the mouse.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.

De novo mutations of neuronal sodium channels are responsible for approximately 5% of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, but the role of somatic mutation of these genes in adult-onset epilepsy is not known. We evaluated the role of post-zygotic somatic mutation by adult activation of a conditional allele of the pathogenic variant Scn8aR1872W in the mouse. After activation of CAG-CRE-ER by tamoxifen, the mutant transcript was expressed throughout the brain at a level proportional to tamoxifen dose. Read More

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Sleep-related traits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbidity: shared genetic risk factors, molecular mechanisms, and causal effects.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 6:1-39. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Post-Graduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.

Objectives: To evaluate the shared genetic components, common pathways and causal relationship between ADHD and sleep-related phenotypes.

Methods: We used the largest genome-wide association summary statistics available for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and various sleep-related phenotypes (insomnia, napping, daytime dozing, snoring, ease getting up, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration and chronotype). We estimated the genomic correlation using cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR) and investigated the potential common mechanisms using gene-based cross-trait metanalyses and functional enrichment analyses. Read More

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Malleability of gamma rhythms enhances population-level correlations.

J Comput Neurosci 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, 10012, USA.

An important problem in systems neuroscience is to understand how information is communicated among brain regions, and it has been proposed that communication is mediated by neuronal oscillations, such as rhythms in the gamma band. We sought to investigate this idea by using a network model with two components, a source (sending) and a target (receiving) component, both built to resemble local populations in the cerebral cortex. To measure the effectiveness of communication, we used population-level correlations in spike times between the source and target. Read More

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Time-Lapse Imaging of Neuronal Arborization using Sparse Adeno-Associated Virus Labeling of Genetically Targeted Retinal Cell Populations.

J Vis Exp 2021 Mar 19(169). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Program for Neuroscience and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto;

Discovering mechanisms that pattern dendritic arbors requires methods to visualize, image, and analyze dendrites during development. The mouse retina is a powerful model system for the investigation of cell type-specific mechanisms of neuronal morphogenesis and connectivity. The organization and composition of retinal subtypes are well-defined, and genetic tools are available to access specific types during development. Read More

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Prevention of cognitive decline in subjective cognitive decline APOE ε4 carriers after EGCG and a multimodal intervention (PENSA): Study design.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2021 31;7(1):e12155. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Integrative Pharmacology and Systems Neurosciences Research Group, Neurosciences Research Program Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM) Barcelona Spain.

Introduction: Subjects exhibiting subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are at an increased risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the delay between risk exposure and disease onset, SCD individuals are increasingly considered a good target population for cost-effective lifestyle-based Alzheimer's disease prevention trials.

Methods: The PENSA study is a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial that aims to evaluate the efficacy of a personalized multimodal intervention in lifestyle (diet counseling, physical activity, cognitive training, and social engagement) combined with the use of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) over 12 months, in slowing down cognitive decline and improving brain connectivity. Read More

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Neurodegeneration and axonal mRNA transportation.

Am J Neurodegener Dis 2021 15;10(1):1-12. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Lincoln College, University of Oxford Oxford, UK.

The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases is accelerating in rapidly aging global population. Novel and effective diagnostic and therapeutic methods are required to tackle the global issue of neurodegeneration in the future. A better understanding of the potential molecular mechanism causing neurodegeneration can shed light on dysfunctional processes in diseased neurons, which can pave the way to design and synthesize novel targets for early diagnosis during the asymptomatic phase of the disease. Read More

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February 2021

Exploring Common Therapeutic Targets for Neurodegenerative Disorders Using Transcriptome Study.

Front Genet 2021 19;12:639160. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Protein Bioinformatics Lab, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are well-known neuronal degenerative disorders that share common pathological events. Approved medications alleviate symptoms but do not address the root cause of the disease. Energy dysfunction in the neuronal population leads to various pathological events and ultimately results in neuronal death. Read More

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Astrocytic Propagation of Tau in the Context of Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 17;15:645233. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University (PSU), Hershey, PA, United States.

More than 6 million Americans are currently living with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the incidence is growing rapidly with our aging population. Numerous therapeutics have failed to make it to the clinic, potentially due to a focus on presumptive pathogenic proteins instead of cell-type-specific signaling mechanisms. The tau propagation hypothesis that inter-neuronal tau transfer drives AD pathology has recently garnered attention, as accumulation of pathological tau in the brain has high clinical significance in correlating with progression of cognitive AD symptoms. Read More

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Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration in Various Forms of Parkinsonism-Similarities and Differences.

Cells 2021 Mar 16;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Heath Science, Medical University of Warsaw, 03-285 Warsaw, Poland.

Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy body (DLB), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) belong to a group of neurodegenerative diseases called parkinsonian syndromes. They share several clinical, neuropathological and genetic features. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the progressive dysfunction of specific populations of neurons, determining clinical presentation. Read More

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Remapping of Adult-Born Neuron Activity during Fear Memory Consolidation in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 12;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine (WPI-IIIS), University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan.

The mammalian hippocampal dentate gyrus is a unique memory circuit in which a subset of neurons is continuously generated throughout the lifespan. Previous studies have shown that the dentate gyrus neuronal population can hold fear memory traces (i.e. Read More

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Ca Signalling Induced by NGF Identifies a Subset of Capsaicin-Excitable Neurons Displaying Enhanced Chemo-Nociception in Dorsal Root Ganglion Explants from Adult Mouse.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 4;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

International Centre for Neurotherapeutics, Dublin City University, Collins Avenue, D09 V209 Dublin, Ireland.

Nociceptors sense hazards via plasmalemmal cation channels, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Nerve growth factor (NGF) sensitises TRPV1 to capsaicin (CAPS), modulates nociceptor excitability and induces thermal hyperalgesia, but cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Confocal microscopy was used to image changes in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca]) across neuronal populations in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants from adult mice, which express a fluorescent reporter in their sensory neurons. Read More

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Intracerebral Administration of a Ligand-ASO Conjugate Selectively Reduces α-Synuclein Accumulation in Monoamine Neurons of Double Mutant Human A30P*A53T*α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 13;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona (IIBB), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

α-Synuclein (α-Syn) protein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Point mutations and multiplications of the α-Syn, which encodes the gene, are correlated with early-onset PD, therefore the reduction in a-Syn synthesis could be a potential therapy for PD if delivered to the key affected neurons. Several experimental strategies for PD have been developed in recent years using oligonucleotide therapeutics. Read More

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Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Degenerations Are Somatotopically Related and Temporally Ordered in the Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 13;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Inserm UMR_S 1118, Centre de Recherche en Biomédecine de Strasbourg, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, 67 000 Strasbourg, France.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and fatal neurodegenerative disease arising from the combined degeneration of upper motor neurons (UMN) in the motor cortex, and lower motor neurons (LMN) in the brainstem and spinal cord. This dual impairment raises two major questions: (i) are the degenerations of these two neuronal populations somatotopically related? and if yes (ii), where does neurodegeneration start? If studies carried out on ALS patients clearly demonstrated the somatotopic relationship between UMN and LMN degenerations, their temporal relationship remained an unanswered question. In the present study, we took advantage of the well-described model of ALS to interrogate the somatotopic and temporal relationships between UMN and LMN degenerations in ALS. Read More

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Is Involved in Subset Specification of Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 20;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, FNWI, University of Amsterdam, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

During development, mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons form into different molecular subsets. Knowledge of which factors contribute to the specification of these subsets is currently insufficient. In this study, we examined the role of , a member of the E-box protein family, in mdDA neuronal development and subset specification. Read More

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