38,087 results match your criteria neuronal death

Inhibition of Death-associated Protein Kinase 1 Attenuates Cis P-tau and Neurodegeneration in Traumatic Brain Injury.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 May 9:102072. Epub 2021 May 9.

Division of Translational Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215, USA; Cancer Research Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215, USA; Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and disability in young people and may lead to the development of progressive neurodegeneration, such as that observed in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We have recently found that the conformation-specific cis phosphorylated form of tau (cis P-tau) is a major early driver of neurodegeneration after TBI. However, not much is known about how cis P-tau is regulated in TBI. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effect of Ultrasound Neuromodulation on Kainic Acid-Induced Epilepsy in mice.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 May 12;PP. Epub 2021 May 12.

Preliminary evidence suggest that low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke, d epression and other conditions leading to neuronal cell death (e.g., Pa rkinson's disease). Read More

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Inhibition of γH2AX, COX-2 and regulation of antioxidant enzymes in MPP-exposed SH-SY5Y cells pre-treated with rutin.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medical Biosciences, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, South Africa.

Many plant-derived bioactive compounds such as rutin are reportedly effective in attenuating neuronal death in most neurodegenerative disorders. Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the gradual degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain, and has previously been modelled in-vitro through the specific neurotoxic activity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) on dopaminergic neurons. Rutin is a bioflavonoid with multiple pharmacological effects, and this study investigated the neuroprotective effects of rutin in the human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cell line using the neurotoxin MPP. Read More

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Identification of retinoblastoma binding protein 7 (Rbbp7) as a mediator against tau acetylation and subsequent neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Arizona State University-Banner Neurodegenerative Disease Research Center at the Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Evidence indicates that tau hyper-phosphorylation and subsequent neurofibrillary tangle formation contribute to the extensive neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Recent work has identified that increased tau acetylation can promote tau phosphorylation. Tau acetylation occurs at lysine 280 resulting from increased expression of the lysine acetyltransferase p300. Read More

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Imaging of Allografted Glial-Restricted Progenitor Cell Survival and Hydrogel Scaffold Biodegradation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of MR Research, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States.

Transplanted glial-restricted progenitor (GRP) cells have potential to focally replace defunct astrocytes and produce remyelinating oligodendrocytes to avert neuronal death and dysfunction. However, most central nervous system cell therapeutic paradigms are hampered by high initial cell death and a host anti-graft immune response. We show here that composite hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels of tunable mechanical strengths can significantly improve transplanted GRP survival and differentiation. Read More

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Dihydrolipoic acid enhances autophagy and alleviates neurological deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

Exp Neurol 2021 May 8:113752. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; Brain research institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Autophagy is a crucial pathological process in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, we investigated the role of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) on enhancing autophagy and alleviating neurological deficits after SAH. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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Altered nuclear architecture in blood cells from Huntington's disease patients.

Neurol Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

CompuMAINE Lab, Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME, 04469, USA.

Background: Cell nuclear architecture has been explored in cancer and laminopathies but not in neurodegenerative disorders. Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to neuronal death. Chromosome-wide changes in gene expression have been reported in HD, not only in the brain but also in peripheral blood cells, but whether this translates into nuclear and chromosome architecture alterations has not yet been studied. Read More

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Methylmercury induces neuronal cell death by inducing TNF-α expression through the ASK1/p38 signaling pathway in microglia.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9832. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratory of Molecular and Biochemical Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aoba-ku, Aramaki, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578, Japan.

We recently found that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may be involved in neuronal cell death induced by methylmercury in the mouse brain. Here, we examined the cells involved in the induction of TNF-α expression by methylmercury in the mouse brain by in situ hybridization. TNF-α-expressing cells were found throughout the brain and were identified as microglia by immunostaining for ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1). Read More

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The Pathological Role of Astrocytic MAOB in Parkinsonism Revealed by Genetic Ablation and Over-expression of MAOB.

Exp Neurobiol 2021 Apr;30(2):113-119

Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Korea.

The cause of Parkinson's disease has been traditionally believed to be the dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). This traditional view has been recently challenged by the proposal that reactive astrocytes serve as key players in the pathology of Parkinson's disease through excessive GABA release. This aberrant astrocytic GABA is synthesized by the enzymatic action of monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), whose pharmacological inhibition and gene-silencing are reported to significantly alleviate parkinsonian motor symptoms in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Read More

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Mild hypothermia facilitates mitochondrial transfer from astrocytes to injured neurons during oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 7:135940. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050000, Hebei, China. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial dysfunction is now considered an important sign of neuronal death during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Studies have shown that the transfer of mitochondria from astrocytes to injured neurons contributes to endogenous neuroprotection after stroke. Basic and clinical studies have shown that mild hypothermia exerts a clear protective effect on neurons after cerebral ischemic injury, but the role of mild hypothermia in this endogenous neuroprotective mechanism remains unclear. Read More

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Withania coagulans extract attenuates oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis of cerebellar purkinje neurons after ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR, Iran.

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, consequences of oxidative stress (OS), and neuronal death in the susceptible brain areas including the cerebellum. Newly, remarkable attention has been paid to a natural diet with the capability to scavenge ROS. Withania coagulans root extract (WCE) is rich in components with antioxidants properties. Read More

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Correlated conformational dynamics of the human GluN1-GluN2A type N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.

J Mol Model 2021 May 10;27(6):162. Epub 2021 May 10.

Bioinformatics and Genetics Department, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Kadir Has University, 34083 Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey.

N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels found in the nerve cell membranes. As a result of overexcitation of NMDARs, neuronal death occurs and may lead to diseases such as epilepsy, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. In this study, human GluN1- GluN2A type NMDAR structure is modeled based on the X-ray structure of the Xenopus laevis template and missing loops are added by ab-initio loop modeling. Read More

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The Renin-Angiotensin System Modulates Dopaminergic Neurotransmission: A New Player on the Scene.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2021 22;13:638519. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Centro de Altos Estudios en Ciencias Humanas y de la Salud, Universidad Abierta Interamericana, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an extrapyramidal disorder characterized by neuronal degeneration in several regions of the peripheral and central nervous systems. It is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's. It has become a major health problem, affecting 1% of the world population over 60 years old and 3% of people beyond 80 years. Read More

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Reduced impact of viral load of HHV-6 in liquor on severity of AESD due to exanthema subitum: A case report and literature review.

Brain Dev 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurology, Nagano Children's Hospital, Azumino, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: The most common causative pathogen of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) was reported as HHV-6. Although excitotoxic injury with delayed neuronal death is considered to be a possible pathogenesis of AESD, the detailed pathophysiology remains unclear.

Case Presentation: We present a twelve-month-old girl with AESD due to HHV-6 primary infection. Read More

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TP53INP1 exerts neuroprotection under ageing and Parkinson's disease-related stress condition.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 8;12(5):460. Epub 2021 May 8.

Aix Marseille University, CNRS, IBDM, NeuroMarseille, Marseille, France.

TP53INP1 is a stress-induced protein, which acts as a dual positive regulator of transcription and of autophagy and whose deficiency has been linked with cancer and metabolic syndrome. Here, we addressed the unexplored role of TP53INP1 and of its Drosophila homolog dDOR in the maintenance of neuronal homeostasis under chronic stress, focusing on dopamine (DA) neurons under normal ageing- and Parkinson's disease (PD)-related context. Trp53inp1 mice displayed additional loss of DA neurons in the substantia nigra compared to wild-type (WT) mice, both with ageing and in a PD model based on targeted overexpression of α-synuclein. Read More

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Analysis of Silymarin-Modulating Effects against Acrylamide-Induced Cerebellar Damage in Male Rats: Biochemical and Pathological Markers.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 May 6:101964. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Background: Acrylamide (ACR) is a well-proven neurotoxin and potential food carcinogen in humans and rodent models. Silymarin (SIL) is a flavonoid mixture isolated from seeds, leaves, and fruits of Silymarin marianum (milk thistle) that possesses a free-radical scavenging effect.

Objective: In this work, the primary focus was to investigate the efficacy of SIL to mitigate ACR-induced subacute neurotoxic effects and oxidative changes in rat cerebellum. Read More

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The first knock-in rat model for glutaric aciduria type I allows further insights into pathophysiology in brain and periphery.

Mol Genet Metab 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Pediatric Metabolic Unit, Pediatrics, Woman-Mother-Child Department, University of Lausanne and University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I, OMIM # 231670) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). Patients develop acute encephalopathic crises (AEC) with striatal injury most often triggered by catabolic stress. The pathophysiology of GA-I, particularly in brain, is still not fully understood. Read More

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Glial cell response to Epstein-Barr Virus infection: A plausible contribution to virus-associated inflammatory reactions in the brain.

Virology 2021 Apr 21;559:182-195. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Infection Bio-engineering Group, Discipline of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, India. Electronic address:

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is clinically related to various neurological ailments. The manipulation of neural homeostasis through altered glial cells functions is enigmatic. We investigated EBV mediated nuances in glial cells through direct infection (group-1) or by supplementing them with EBV-infected lymphocytes (PBMCs) supernatant (group-3). Read More

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Syntheses and neuroprotective effects evolution of oxymatrine derivatives as anti-Alzheimer's disease agents.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 150040, People's Republic of China.

While screening for natural product scaffolds as potential anti Alzheimer's disease (AD), oxymatrine (OMT) was found to relieve symptoms of AD through diminishing death of neuronal cells caused by microglia induced inflammation. In this study, 13 derivatives of OMT were synthesized and their neuroprotective effects were evaluated on Aβ induced PC12 cells using MTT method. In addition, the best neuroprotective potencies were obtained with compounds 4, 6e and 6f, which were selected for evaluation of decrease of IL-1β and TNF-α in Aβ -treated PC12 cells. Read More

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Virgin Coconut Oil-Induced Neuroprotection in Lipopolysaccharide-Challenged Rats is Mediated, in Part, Through Cholinergic, Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Pathways.

J Diet Suppl 2020 Oct 14:1-27. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Collaborative Drug Discovery Research (CDDR) Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Cawangan Selangor, Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Neuroinflammation is associated with neuronal cell death and could lead to chronic neurodegeneration. This study investigated the neuroprotective potential of virgin coconut oil (VCO) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytotoxicity of neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. The findings were validated using Wistar rats, which were fed with 1-10 g/kg VCO for 31 days, exposed to LPS (0. Read More

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October 2020

Identification of genes involved in neuronal cell death and recovery over time in rat axotomy and neurorrhaphy models through RNA sequencing.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2021 May 5;113:103628. Epub 2021 May 5.

Regeneration Medicine Research Center, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Facial nerves are frequently injured during cosmetic or other types of facial surgery. However, information on the genes involved in the damage and recovery of the facial nerves is limited. Here, we aimed to identify the genes affected by facial nerve injury and repair using next-generation sequencing. Read More

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Prenatal stress and KCl-induced depolarization modulate cell death, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes, oxidative and inflammatory response in primary cortical neurons.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 4:105053. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Infant Center, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; Laboratory of Cellular Biophysics and Inflammation, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Maternal stress has been described as an important component in the offspring's cerebral development, altering the susceptibility to diseases in later life. Moreover, the postnatal period is essential for the development and integration of several peripheral and central systems related to the control of homeostasis. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of prenatal stress on the activation of cortical neurons, by performing experiments both under basal conditions and after KCl-induced depolarization. Read More

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Preservation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca stores by deletion of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 promotes ER retrotranslocation, proteostasis, and protein outer segment localization in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel-deficient cone photoreceptors.

FASEB J 2021 Jun;35(6):e21579

Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca homeostasis relies on an appropriate balance between efflux- and influx-channel activity responding to dynamic changes of intracellular Ca levels. Dysregulation of this complex signaling network has been shown to contribute to neuronal and photoreceptor death in neuro- and retinal degenerative diseases, respectively. In mice with cone cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel deficiency, a model of achromatopsia/cone dystrophy, cones display early-onset ER stress-associated apoptosis and protein mislocalization. Read More

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Neurotoxicity of Unconjugated Bilirubin in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury .

Front Pediatr 2021 20;9:659477. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

The pathophysiology of bilirubin neurotoxicity in course of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term and preterm infants is still poorly understood. We hypothesized that oxidative stress may be a common mechanism that link hyperbilirubinemia and HIE. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) may enhance the HI brain injury by increasing oxidative stress and to test pioglitazone and allopurinol as new antioxidant therapeutic drugs . Read More

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Mechanisms of neuronal cell death in ischemic stroke and their therapeutic implications.

Med Res Rev 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurology and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Ischemic stroke caused by arterial occlusion is the most common type of stroke, which is among the most frequent causes of disability and death worldwide. Current treatment approaches involve achieving rapid reperfusion either pharmacologically or surgically, both of which are time-sensitive; moreover, blood flow recanalization often causes ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, even though neuroprotective intervention is urgently needed in the event of stroke, the exact mechanisms of neuronal death during ischemic stroke are still unclear, and consequently, the capacity for drug development has remained limited. Read More

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Multi-Parametric Evaluation of Cerebral Hemodynamics in Neonatal Piglets Using Non-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Disruption of brain oxygen delivery and consumption after hypoxic-ischemic injury contributes to neonatal mortality and neurological impairment. Measuring cerebral hemodynamic parameters, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO ), is clinically important.

Purpose: Phase-contrast (PC), velocity-selective arterial spin labeling (VSASL), and T -relaxation-under-phase-contrast (TRUPC) are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that have shown promising results in assessing cerebral hemodynamics in humans. Read More

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Transforming growth factor‑β1 functions as a competitive endogenous RNA that ameliorates intracranial hemorrhage injury by sponging microRNA‑93‑5p.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jul 6;24(1). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiujiang University, Jiujiang, Jiangxi 332000, P.R. China.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has the highest mortality rate of all stroke subtypes but an effective treatment has yet to be clinically implemented. Transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) has been reported to modulate microglia‑mediated neuroinflammation after ICH and promote functional recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Non‑coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have surfaced as critical regulators in human disease. Read More

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Obscure Involvement of MYC in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Neuronal Repair.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation, University of Belgrade, Visokog Stevana 2, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia.

MYC is well known as a potent oncogene involved in regulating cell cycle and metabolism. Augmented MYC expression leads to cell cycle dysregulation, intense cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Surprisingly, its increased expression in neurons does not induce their proliferation, but leads to neuronal cell death and consequent development of a neurodegenerative phenotype. Read More

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Cyanocobalamin improves memory impairment via inhibition of necrosis and apoptosis of hippocampal cell death after transient global ischemia/reperfusion.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Feb;24(2):160-166

Neurosciences Research Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.

Objectives: Brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) causes irreversible damage, particularly in the hippocampus. Cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) is known to be crucial for the proper operation of the nervous system. Vitamin B12 has been demonstrated to exert antioxidant effects via direct and indirect mechanisms. Read More

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February 2021

[Amyloid β hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease and Cl-ATPase-Neuronal cell death via PI4KIIα inhibition and recovery agents].

Chiyoko Inagaki

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2021 ;156(3):166-170

Kansai Medical University.

In the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, a decrease in phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) requiring Cl-ATPase activity was found. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, pathophysiological concentrations of amyloid β proteins (Aβs≤10 nM) lowered PIP levels and Cl-ATPase activity with an increase in intracellular Cl concentrations, resulting in Cl-dependent enhancements in glutamate neurotoxicity and, ultimately, neuronal cell death. Pathophysiological concentrations of Aβs(0. Read More

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