2,666,838 results match your criteria neurological disorders


Differential expression of gut miRNAs in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Jun 1;88:46-50. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Translational Brain Research, German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Munich, Germany; Department of Neurology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: In the present work, we aimed to investigate the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in routine colonic biopsies obtained from patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and to address their value as a diagnostic biomarker for PD and their mechanistic contribution to PD onset and progression.

Methods: Patients with PD (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 17) were prospectively recruited to undergo routine colonic biopsies for cancer screening. Total RNA was extracted from the biopsy material and the expression of miRNAs was quantified by Illumina High-Throughput Sequencing. Read More

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The occurrence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in aquaporin-4-antibody seronegative Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 28;53:103030. Epub 2021 May 28.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China; Department of Neurology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China. Electronic address:

Background: Despite inclusion in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab)-associated diseases are increasingly recognized as an independent disease entity. In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively update the rate of occurrence of MOG-Ab in Aquaporin4 (AQP4)-antibody seronegative NMOSD.

Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for studies reporting the rates of patients with MOG-Ab in NMOSD. Read More

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Widespread brain parenchymal HMGB1 and NF-κB neuroinflammatory responses upon cortical spreading depolarization in familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mice.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jun 9:105424. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Neuroinflammatory changes involving neuronal HMGB1 release and astrocytic NF-κB nuclear translocation occur following cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) in wildtype (WT) mice but it is unknown to what extent this occurs in the migraine brain. We therefore investigated in familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) knock-in mice, which express an intrinsic hyperexcitability phenotype, the extent of neuroinflammation without and after CSD. CSD was evoked in one hemisphere by pinprick (single CSD) or topical KCl application (multiple CSDs). Read More

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Glucose metabolic crosstalk and regulation in brain function and diseases.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 Jun 9:102089. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, United States; Department of Orthopedics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, United States; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, United States; Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, United States. Electronic address:

Brain glucose metabolism, including glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and glycogen turnover, produces ATP for energetic support and provides the precursors for the synthesis of biological macromolecules. Although glucose metabolism in neurons and astrocytes has been extensively studied, the glucose metabolism of microglia and oligodendrocytes, and their interactions with neurons and astrocytes, remain critical to understand brain function. Brain regions with heterogeneous cell composition and cell-type-specific profiles of glucose metabolism suggest that metabolic networks within the brain are complex. Read More

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Sensory Modulation of Airways Immunity.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 9:136042. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Lymphocyte Biology Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The airways are constantly exposed to a multitude of inhaled particles and, as such, require a finely tuned discrimination between harmful or potentially threatening stimuli, and discrete responses to maintain homeostasis. Both the immune and nervous systems have the ability to sense environmental (and internal) signals, to integrate the obtained information and to initiate a protective reaction. Lung immunity and innervation are known to be individually involved in these processes, but it is becoming clear that they can also influence one another via a multitude of complex mechanisms. Read More

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Emerging Infection, Vaccination, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome: A Review.

Neurol Ther 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system that typically develops within 4 weeks after infection. In addition to conventional infectious diseases with which we are familiar, emerging infectious diseases, such as Zika virus infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have also been suggested to be associated with GBS. GBS is mainly categorized into a demyelinating subtype known as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and an axonal subtype known as acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). Read More

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Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy as an Informational Reservoir Dynamically Linked to Metabolic and Immunological Processes Associated with COVID-19 Neurological Disorders.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center for Cognitive and Molecular Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is the dynamically determined co-expression of wild type (WT) inherited polymorphisms and collective time-dependent somatic mutations within individual mtDNA genomes. The temporal expression and distribution of cell-specific and tissue-specific mtDNA heteroplasmy in healthy individuals may be functionally associated with intracellular mitochondrial signaling pathways and nuclear DNA gene expression. The maintenance of endogenously regulated tissue-specific copy numbers of heteroplasmic mtDNA may represent a sensitive biomarker of homeostasis of mitochondrial dynamics, metabolic integrity, and immune competence. Read More

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The CXCL12/CXCR4/ACKR3 Response Axis in Chronic Neurodegenerative Disorders of the Central Nervous System: Therapeutic Target and Biomarker.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Province, Shenyang City, 110001, People's Republic of China.

There has been an increase in the incidence of chronic neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, over the recent years mostly due to the rise in the number of elderly individuals. In addition, various neurodegenerative disorders are related to imbalances in the CXCL12/CXCR4/ACKR3 response axis. Notably, the CXC Chemokine Ligand 12 (CXCL12) is essential for the development of the central nervous system. Read More

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Rethinking neurological attitudes towards vasovagal syncope: the EFAS recommendations regarding tilt table testing.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The recent recommendations regarding tilt table testing (TTT) from the European Federation of Autonomic Societies (EFAS) provides a rationale and evidence-base for the use of TTT in conditions that cause transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) and insights into current attitudes regarding TTT. Historically, only few neurologists took an interest in clinical disorders of the autonomic nervous system, and often focused their attention toward debilitating but rare causes of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Read More

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Adapting the listening time for micro-electrode recordings in deep brain stimulation interventions.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et de l'Image (LTSI - INSERM UMR 1099), Université de Rennes 1, Rennes, France.

Purpose: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a common treatment for a variety of neurological disorders which involves the precise placement of electrodes at particular subcortical locations such as the subthalamic nucleus. This placement is often guided by auditory analysis of micro-electrode recordings (MERs) which informs the clinical team as to the anatomic region in which the electrode is currently positioned. Recent automation attempts have lacked flexibility in terms of the amount of signal recorded, not allowing them to collect more signal when higher certainty is needed or less when the anatomy is unambiguous. Read More

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Inhibitory neurons in the superior colliculus mediate selection of spatially-directed movements.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 11;4(1):719. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, and Neuroscience Program University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Decision making is a cognitive process that mediates behaviors critical for survival. Choosing spatial targets is an experimentally-tractable form of decision making that depends on the midbrain superior colliculus (SC). While physiological and computational studies have uncovered the functional topographic organization of the SC, the role of specific SC cell types in spatial choice is unknown. Read More

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Cognitive load influences oculomotor behavior in natural scenes.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12405. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Psychology Department, Northeastern University, Boston, 02115, USA.

Cognitive neuroscience researchers have identified relationships between cognitive load and eye movement behavior that are consistent with oculomotor biomarkers for neurological disorders. We develop an adaptive visual search paradigm that manipulates task difficulty and examine the effect of cognitive load on oculomotor behavior in healthy young adults. Participants (N = 30) free-viewed a sequence of 100 natural scenes for 10 s each, while their eye movements were recorded. Read More

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Unexpected overdose of oral cyclosporine in a kidney transplant patient: a case report.

Eur J Hosp Pharm 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Univ Rennes, CHU Rennes, Inserm, EHESP, IRSET (Institut de recherche en santé, environnement et travail) - UMR_S 1085, Rennes, France.

Cyclosporine is a widely used immunosuppressive agent to prevent rejection of solid organ transplant. Here, we describe the case of a 71-year-old man who received the prescribed dose of cyclosporine 10 times 6 days after a kidney transplantation because of a concentration miscalculation involving two galenic forms. The patient presented gastrointestinal and neurological disorders. Read More

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Late morbidity and mortality following revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease in the pediatric population.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jun 11:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Objective: There are limited reports on long-term morbidity in pediatric patients who have undergone surgical revascularization for moyamoya disease (MMD). Here, the authors report long-term morbidity and mortality in a population of pediatric patients who underwent pial synangiosis for MMD from 1988 through 2016.

Methods: A single-center retrospective review of the hospital and personal operative databases of the senior authors was carried out to identify all patients who were treated for MMD at Boston Children's Hospital between 1988 and 2016, and who experienced any episode of late morbidity or mortality, which the authors defined as an event resulting in significant neurological deficit or death occurring more than 1 year after revascularization surgery. Read More

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Estrogen Pendulum in Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's Disease: Review of Therapeutic Benefits and Outstanding Questions.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 8:136038. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Applied Neuroscience and Neuroimaging (RA) and Department of Experimental Neuroscience (SVO), National Institute of Mental Health, Topolová 748, 250 67, Klecany, Czech Republic.

Although produced largely in the periphery, gonadal steroids play a key role in regulating the development and functions of the central nervous system and have been implicated in several chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) most prominent. Despite major differences in pathobiology and clinical manifestations, in both conditions, estrogen transpires primarily with protective effects, buffering the onset and progression of diseases at various levels. As a result, estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) emerges as one of the most widely discussed adjuvant interventions. Read More

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SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling activation by mangiferin attenuates cerebral hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in neuroblastoma cells.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 8:174236. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Xi'an Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Xi'an No.3 Hospital, School of Life Sciences and Medicine, Northwest University, 10 Fengcheng Three Road, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education. Faculty of Life Sciences, Northwest University, 229 Taibai North Road, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with poor prognoses in the setting of ischemic brain diseases. Silence information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is a member of the third class of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent sirtuins. Recently, the role of SIRT1/peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway in organ (especially the brain) protection under various pathological conditions has been widely investigated. Read More

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Affirming NIH's commitment to addressing structural racism in the biomedical research enterprise.

Cell 2021 Jun;184(12):3075-3079

Immediate Office of the Director (IMOD)/OD, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

NIH has acknowledged and committed to ending structural racism. The framework for NIH's approach, summarized here, includes understanding barriers; developing robust health disparities/equity research; improving its internal culture; being transparent and accountable; and changing the extramural ecosystem so that diversity, equity, and inclusion are reflected in funded research and the biomedical workforce. Read More

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Propranolol Activates the Orphan Nuclear Receptor TLX to Counteract Proliferation and Migration of Glioblastoma Cells.

J Med Chem 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany.

The ligand-sensing transcription factor tailless homologue (TLX, NR2E1) is an essential regulator of neuronal stem cell homeostasis with appealing therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases and central nervous system tumors. However, knowledge on TLX ligands is scarce, providing an obstacle to target validation and medicinal chemistry. To discover TLX ligands, we have profiled a drug fragment collection for TLX modulation and identified several structurally diverse agonists and inverse agonists of the nuclear receptor. Read More

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Combining MGMT promoter pyrosequencing and protein expression to optimize prognosis stratification in glioblastoma.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Center of Brain Tumor, Institute for Brain Disorders and Beijing Key Laboratory of Brain Tumor, Beijing, China.

Pyrosequencing (PSQ) represents the golden standard for MGMT promoter status determination. Binary interpretation of results based on the threshold from the average of several CpGs tested would neglect the existence of the "gray zone". How to define the gray zone and reclassify patients in this subgroup remains to be elucidated. Read More

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Increased immune activation and signs of neuronal injury in HIV-negative people on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

AIDS 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Gothenburg, Sweden Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, United Kingdom Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Persistent immune activation in the central nervous system and systemically are common in people living with HIV (PLHIV) despite antiretroviral therapy. It is not known whether this is generated by HIV replication or other components such as coinfections and lifestyle-related factors.

Design: To determine the importance of different factors, it is crucial to find well-matched HIV-negative controls. Read More

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Genetic and Metabolic Neonatal Epilepsies.

Pediatr Ann 2021 Jun 1;50(6):e245-e253. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Seizures are a common neonatal neurological disorder with an incidence of 1 to 5 in 1,000 live births. Genetic and metabolic epilepsies account for 10% to 12% of all neonatal seizures. Correct identification and diagnosis are important factors, as they carry treatment and management implications. Read More

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Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Disease: Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management.

Authors:
Moon Hee Hur

Pediatr Ann 2021 Jun 1;50(6):e254-e258. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Pediatric demyelinating syndromes are a spectrum of diseases affecting the central nervous system. In the past decade, major advances have been made in this field, including the discovery of antibody-based biomarkers and treatment guidelines for specific syndromes. When myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies were first discovered, they were thought to be a biomarker for multiple sclerosis (MS). Read More

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The Role of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene Family in Glioma Based on Bioinformatics Analysis.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, P.R. China.

Glioma is the most common type of primary tumor in the central nervous system, and the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. N-myc downstream-regulated gene () family is reported to take part in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including some preliminary exploration in glioma. However, there has been no bioinformatics analysis of family in glioma yet. Read More

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Survival motor neuron deficiency slows myoblast fusion through reduced myomaker and myomixer expression.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Spinal muscular atrophy is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by insufficient levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Recently approved treatments aimed at increasing SMN protein levels have dramatically improved patient survival and have altered the disease landscape. While restoring SMN levels slows motor neuron loss, many patients continue to have smaller muscles and do not achieve normal motor milestones. Read More

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Regulation of microglia population dynamics throughout development, health, and disease.

Glia 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

The dynamic expansions and contractions of the microglia population in the central nervous system (CNS) to achieve homeostasis are likely vital for their function. Microglia respond to injury or disease but also help guide neurodevelopment, modulate neural circuitry throughout life, and direct regeneration. Throughout these processes, microglia density changes, as does the volume of area that each microglia surveys. Read More

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Neurological disease caused by Oropouche virus in northern Brazil: should it be included in the scope of clinical neurological diseases?

J Neurovirol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil.

We describe two neurological cases of Oropouche virus infection in northern Brazil, where the virus is endemic but neglected as a pathogen. This study reiterates the necessity of developing protocols for diagnosing infections and training medical personnel to recognize the pathogenicity of Oropouche virus in neurological infections. Read More

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Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE): Can They Be Used as Biomarkers for the Differential Diagnosis of This Disease?

Authors:
Elias Manca

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09042, Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy.

Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex immunological disease where both environmental factors and genetic predisposition lead to the dysregulation of important immune mechanisms. Eventually, the combination of these factors leads to the production of self-reactive antibodies that can target any organ or tissue of the human body. Autoantibodies can form immune complexes responsible for both the organ damage and the most severe complications. Read More

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RNA-sequencing of peripheral blood circular RNAs in Parkinson disease.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e25888

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University.

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play an important role in many neurological diseases and can serve as biomarkers for these diseases. However, the information about circRNAs in Parkinson disease (PD) remained limited. In this study, we aimed to determine the circRNAs expression profile in PD patients and discuss the significance of circRNAs in the diagnosis of PD. Read More

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Umbrella review of 42 systematic reviews with meta-analyses: the safety of proton pump inhibitors.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat and prevent acid-related disorders. Despite high efficacy, PPI safety has been increasingly scrutinised. However, no comprehensive review summarising investigations of various adverse events is available. Read More

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