3,175 results match your criteria neurochemical model

Changes in the mesocorticolimbic pathway after low dose reserpine-treatment in Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR): implications for cognitive deficits in a progressive animal model for Parkinson's Disease.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 7:113349. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Reserpine (RES) is an irreversible inhibitor of VMAT2 used to study Parkinson's disease (PD) and screening for antiparkinsonian treatments in rodents. Recently, the repeated treatment with a low dose of reserpine was proposed as a model capable of emulating progressive neurochemical, motor and non-motor impairments in PD. Conversely, compared to Wistar rats, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) are resistant to motor changes induced by repeated treatment with a low dose of RES. Read More

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A model of dopamine and serotonin-kynurenine metabolism in cortisolemia: Implications for depression.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 10;17(5):e1008956. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

A major factor contributing to the etiology of depression is a neurochemical imbalance of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, which is caused by persistently high levels of circulating stress hormones. Here, a computational model is proposed to investigate the interplay between dopaminergic and serotonergic-kynurenine metabolism under cortisolemia and its consequences for the onset of depression. The model was formulated as a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations represented with power-law functions. Read More

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Ghrelin restores memory impairment following olfactory bulbectomy in mice by activating hippocampal NMDA1 and MAPK1 gene expression.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 5;410:113341. Epub 2021 May 5.

Instituto de Fisiología Humana, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA), CONICET and Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Santa Rosa 1085, X5000ESU, Córdoba, Argentina; Functional Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, BMC, Husargatan 3, Box 593, SE-751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.

Ghrelin (Ghrl) is an orexigenic peptide with potential roles in the modulation of anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms induced by bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OB) in rodents. In the present work, we assessed whether intrahippocampal Ghrl could reverse OB-induced depressive-like and amnesic effects by regulating molecular mechanisms related to neuroplasticity. Adult female albino Swiss mice were divided into sham and OB groups, and infused with saline (S) or Ghrl 0. Read More

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Disruption of prepulse inhibition is associated with compulsive behavior severity and nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor changes in Sapap3 knockout mice.

Sci Rep 2021 May 3;11(1):9442. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Translational Neuroscience Program, Center for Neuroscience Program, Center for Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, BSPII Room 227, 450 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA, 15219, USA.

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with disruption of sensorimotor gating, which may contribute to difficulties inhibiting intrusive thoughts and compulsive rituals. Neural mechanisms underlying these disturbances are unclear; however, striatal dopamine is implicated in regulation of sensorimotor gating and OCD pathophysiology. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between sensorimotor gating, compulsive behavior, and striatal dopamine receptor levels in Sapap3 knockout mice (KOs), a widely used preclinical model system for OCD research. Read More

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Benincasa hispida alleviates amyloid pathology by inhibition of Keap1/Nrf2-axis: Emphasis on oxidative and inflammatory stress involved in Alzheimer's disease model.

Neuropeptides 2021 Apr 22;88:102151. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

A. U. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University Visakhapatnam, 530003, India.

Objectives: Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive and memory impairment. Benincasa hispida is being used in the treatment of various neurological diseases in Ayurveda system of medicine. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of Benincasa hispida fruit extract in the Alzheimer's disease rats. Read More

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Downregulation of miR-383 reduces depression-like behavior through targeting Wnt family member 2 (Wnt2) in rats.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9223. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Qingdao Mental Health Center, Qingdao University, No. 299 Nanjing Road, Qingdao City, 266000, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

This study aimed to evaluate the role of miR-383 in the regulation of Wnt-2 signaling in the rat model of chronic stress. The male SD rats with depressive-like behaviors were stimulated with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) including ice-water swimming for 5 min, food deprivation for 24 h, water deprivation for 24 h, stimulating tail for 1 min, turning night into day, shaking for 15 min (once/s), and wrap restraint (5 min/time) every day for 21 days. The expression levels of miRNAs were detected by qRT-PCR, and the expression levels of Wnt2, depression-impacted proteins (GFAP, BDNF, CREB), brain neurotransmitters (5-HT, NE, DA) and apoptosis-related proteins (Bax and Bcl-2) were evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot. Read More

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N-3 PUFA Prevent Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Beta-Amyloid-Induced Toxicity.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are involved in brain disorders associated to amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity for which oxidative stress, neurochemical dysfunctions, and neuroinflammation are underlying mechanisms. Here, mechanisms through which lifelong exposure to n-3 PUFA-enriched or n-6/n-3 balanced diets could elicit a protective role in a rat model of Aβ-induced toxicity were investigated. To this aim, we quantified hippocampal reactive oxygen species (ROS) amount, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and interleukin-10 levels, NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1, NOX2, superoxide dismutase 1, and glutathione contents, as well as plasmatic malondialdehyde. Read More

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Neuroprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Riparin I in a Model of Depression Induced by Corticosterone in Female Mice.

Neuropsychobiology 2021 Apr 29:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Drug Research and Development Center, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Background: Depression is a common, chronic, and often recurrent serious mood disorder. Conventional antidepressants present limitations that stimulate the search for new drugs. Antioxidant and neuroprotective substances are potential antidepressant agents. Read More

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Smo-Shh signaling activator purmorphamine ameliorates neurobehavioral, molecular, and morphological alterations in an intracerebroventricular propionic acid-induced experimental model of autism.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2021 Apr 28:9603271211013456. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Neuropharmacology Division, Department of Pharmacology, 75126ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disease characterized by cognitive and sensorimotor impairment. Numerous research findings have consistently shown that alteration of Smo-Shh (smoothened-sonic hedgehog) signaling during the developmental process plays a significant role in ASD and triggers neuronal changes by promoting neuroinflammation and apoptotic markers. Purmorphamine (PUR), a small purine-derived agonist of the Smo-Shh pathway, shows resistance to hippocampal neuronal cell oxidation and decreases neuronal cell death. Read More

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Pentoxifylline prevents epileptic seizure via modulating HMGB1/RAGE/TLR4 signaling pathway and improves memory in Pentylenetetrazol kindling rats.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Epilepsy is a chronic widely prevalent neurologic disorder, affecting brain functions with broad spectrum of deleterious consequences. High-mobility group box1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear non-histone protein that targets vital cell receptor of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and advanced glycation end products (RAGE). HMGB1 mediated TLR4/RAGE cascade has been scored as a key culprit in neuro-inflammatory signaling that critically evokes development of impaired cognition and epilepsy. Read More

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The dynamics of nigrostriatal system damage and neurobehavioral changes in the rotenone rat model of Parkinson's disease.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Apr 21;173:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Neurochemistry, Research Center of Neurology, Volokolamskoe shosse, 80, Moscow, 125367, Russia.

Subcutaneous administration of rotenone to rats is currently a widely used method of reproducing Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms, due to its convenience and effectiveness. Despite this, its influence on the temporal dynamics of parkinsonism development has yet to be investigated. The present study characterizes behavioral and neurochemical disruptancies underlying the dynamics of parkinsonism development in rats, induced by chronic subcutaneous administration of 2 mg/kg rotenone over the course of 18 days. Read More

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Exploratory study on neurochemical effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in brains of mice.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 May 21;59(5):1099-1110. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

There is now a relatively large body of evidence suggesting a relationship between dysfunction of myelin and oligodendrocytes and the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia, and also suggesting that ultrasound methods may alleviate some of the symptoms of depression. We have applied low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) to the brains of mice treated with the demyelinating drug cuprizone, a drug that has been used as the basis for a rodent model relevant to a number of psychiatric and neurologic disorders including depression, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. Prior to conducting the studies in mice, preliminary studies were carried out on the effects of LIPUS in vitro in neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells and primary glial cells. Read More

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Pairing of neonatal phencyclidine exposure and acute adolescent stress in male rats as a novel developmental model of schizophrenia.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 16;409:113308. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 10595, United States. Electronic address:

Improved understanding of the neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms underlying schizophrenia is essential for the identification of biological markers and developing new therapeutic targets. The development of behaviorally faithful, predictive animal models is crucial to this endeavor. We have developed a novel two-hit paradigm designed to recapitulate in rodents the developmental process leading to appearance of human schizophrenia symptomatology. Read More

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Analysis of morphological and neurochemical changes in subthalamic nucleus neurons in response to a unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the substantia nigra in adult rats.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 20;10:96-103. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons undergo changes in their pattern of activity and morphology during the clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD). Striatal dopamine depletion and hyperactivity of neurons in the parafascicular nucleus (Pf) of the intralaminar thalamus are predicted to contribute to the STN changes.

Objective: This study investigated possible morphological and neurochemical changes in STN neurons in a rat model of unilateral, nigral dopamine neuron loss, in relation to previously documented alterations in Pf neurons. Read More

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Characterization of nonmotor behavioral impairments and their neurochemical mechanisms in the MitoPark mouse model of progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease.

Exp Neurol 2021 Apr 8;341:113716. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Parkinson Disorders Research Program, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, United States of America. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a key player in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The MitoPark mouse, a transgenic mitochondrial impairment model developed by specific inactivation of TFAM in dopaminergic neurons, spontaneously exhibits progressive motor deficits and neurodegeneration, recapitulating several features of PD. Since nonmotor symptoms are now recognized as important features of the prodromal stage of PD, we comprehensively assessed the clinically relevant motor and nonmotor deficiencies from ages 8-24 wk in both male and female MitoPark mice and their littermate controls. Read More

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Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Spice/K2 herbal mixtures, containing synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018, have been marketed as marijuana surrogates since 2004. We demonstrated that JWH-018 has cannabinoid CB1 receptor-dependent reinforcing properties and acutely increases dopamine transmission selectively in the NAc shell. Here we tested the hypothesis that repeated administration of JWH-018 (i) modulates behaviour, (ii) affects dopamine transmission and its responsiveness to motivational stimuli, and (iii) is associated with a neuroinflammatory phenotype. Read More

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Neurogenesis and Neuroplasticity in Major Depression: Its Therapeutic Implication.

Michel Bourin

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1305:157-173

Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, University of Nantes, Nantes, France.

The neurochemical model of depression, based on monoaminergic theories, does not allow on its own to understand the mechanism of action of antidepressants. This approach does not explain the gap between the immediate biochemical modulations induced by antidepressants and the time required for their clinical action. Several hypotheses have been developed to try to explain more precisely the action of these molecules, each of them involving mechanisms of receptor regulation. Read More

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Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo Model to Assess Amphetamine Tolerance.

Brain Behav Evol 2021 Apr 8:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biology, Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University, Jupiter, Florida, USA.

Amphetamine is a potent psychostimulant also used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. In vivo and in vitro data have demonstrated that amphetamine increases the amount of extra synaptic dopamine by both inhibiting reuptake and promoting efflux of dopamine through the dopamine transporter. Previous studies have shown that chronic use of amphetamine causes tolerance to the drug. Read More

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Serotonin Transporter Ala276 Mouse: Novel Model to Assess the Neurochemical and Behavioral Impact of Thr276 Phosphorylation In Vivo.

Neurochem Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biomedical Science, Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Jupiter, FL, USA.

The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling and is a major target for antidepressants and psychostimulants. Human SERT coding variants have been identified in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that impact transporter phosphorylation, cell surface trafficking and/or conformational dynamics. Prior to an initial description of a novel mouse line expressing the non-phosphorylatable SERT substitution Thr276Ala, we review efforts made to elucidate the structure and conformational dynamics of SERT with a focus on research implicating phosphorylation at Thr276 as a determinant of SERT conformational dynamics. Read More

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Is Riparin III a promising drug in the treatment for depression?

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Mar 30;162:105824. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Neuropsychopharmacology Laboratory, Drug Research and Development Center, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Electronic address:

Stress is crucially related to the pathophysiology of mood disorders, including depression. Since the effectiveness and number of the current pharmacological options still presents significant limitations, research on new substances is paramount. In rodents, several findings have indicated that corticosterone administration induces the manifestation of behavioral and neurochemical aspects of depression. Read More

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Fiber-Based Electrochemical Biosensors for Monitoring pH and Transient Neurometabolic Lactate.

Anal Chem 2021 05 2;93(17):6646-6655. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, U.K.

Developing tools that are able to monitor transient neurochemical dynamics is important to decipher brain chemistry and function. Multifunctional polymer-based fibers have been recently applied to monitor and modulate neural activity. Here, we explore the potential of polymer fibers comprising six graphite-doped electrodes and two microfluidic channels within a flexible polycarbonate body as a platform for sensing pH and neurometabolic lactate. Read More

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Spirulina platensis reduces the schizophrenic-like symptoms in rat model by restoring altered APO-E and RTN-4 protein expression in prefrontal cortex.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 29;277:119417. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurochemistry and Biochemical Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Aims: Schizophrenia (SZ) is recognized as a neuropsychiatric disorder in humans with accelerated mortality and profound morbidity followed with impairments in social as well as vocational functioning. Though various antipsychotics are being considered as approved treatment therapy for the psychotic symptoms of SZ but they also exert adverse effects and also lack efficacy in treating full spectrum of the disorder. Spirulina platensis (blue-green algae), a nutritional supplement, constitutes a variety of multi-nutrients and possesses a large number of neuroprotective activities. Read More

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Long-term ovarian hormone deprivation alters functional connectivity, brain neurochemical profile and white matter integrity in the Tg2576 amyloid mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Feb 22;102:139-150. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Bio-imaging Lab- Member of INMIND consortium, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Premenopausal bilateral ovariectomy is considered to be one of the risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate long-term neurological consequences of ovariectomy in a rodent AD model, TG2576 (TG), and wild-type mice (WT) that underwent an ovariectomy or sham-operation, using in vivo MRI biomarkers. Read More

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February 2021

Multitarget Effect of 2-(4-(Methylthio)phenyl)-3-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl)thiazolidin-4-one in a Scopolamine-Induced Amnesic Rat Model.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jun 23;46(6):1554-1566. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Laboratório de Química Aplicada a Bioativos, Centro Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brasil.

Cholinergic system dysfunction, oxidative damage, and alterations in ion pump activity have been associated with memory loss and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. 1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones have emerged as a class of compounds with potential therapeutic effects due to their potent anticholinesterase activity. Accordingly, this study investigated the effect of the 2-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)-3-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl)thiazolidin-4-one (DS12) compound on memory, cholinergic and oxidative stress parameters, ion pump activity, and serum biochemical markers in a scopolamine-induced memory deficit model. Read More

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Retinal Ganglion Cells Functional Changes in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease Are Linked with Neurotransmitter Alterations.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencia de Valparaíso, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia worldwide. This neurodegenerative syndrome affects cognition, memory, behavior, and the visual system, particularly the retina.

Objective: This work aims to determine whether the 5xFAD mouse, a transgenic model of AD, displays changes in the function of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and if those alterations are correlated with changes in the expression of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitters. Read More

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The neurotherapeutic role of a selenium-functionalized quinoline in hypothalamic obese rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Bioquímica e Bioprospecção, Laboratório de Pesquisa em Farmacologia Bioquímica (LaFarBio), Grupo de Pesquisa em Neurobiotecnologia (GPN), Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Capão do Leão, Pelotas, RS, CEP 96010-900, Brazil.

Rationale: Obesity is considered one of the major global health problems and increases the risk of several medical complications, such as diabetes and mental illnesses.

Objective: The present study investigated the effect of 7-chloro-4-(phenylselanyl) quinoline (4-PSQ) on obesity parameters, behavioral and neurochemical alterations in hypothalamic obese rats.

Methods: Male Wistar rats received subcutaneous neonatal injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG, 4g/kg) or saline. Read More

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rTMS induces analgesia and modulates neuroinflammation and neuroplasticity in neuropathic pain model rats.

Brain Res 2021 Jul 15;1762:147427. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Farmacologia e Terapêutica - Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Laboratório de Farmacologia da Dor e Neuromodulação: Investigações Pré-clínicas - Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina: Ciências Médicas - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Neuropathic pain (NP) is related to the presence of hyperalgesia, allodynia, and spontaneous pain, affecting 7%-10% of the general population. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is applied for NP relief, especially in patients with refractory pain. As NP response to existing treatments is often insufficient, we aimed to evaluate rTMS treatment on the nociceptive response of rats submitted to an NP model and its effect on pro-and anti-neuroinflammatory cytokine and neurotrophin levels. Read More

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Contingent Tunes of Neurochemical Ensembles in the Norm and Pathology: Can We See the Patterns?

Irina Trofimova

Neuropsychobiology 2021 15;80(2):101-133. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada,

Background/aims: Progress in the development of DSM/ICD taxonomies has revealed limitations of both label-based and dimensionality approaches. These approaches fail to address the contingent, nonlinear, context-dependent, and transient nature of those biomarkers linked to specific symptoms of psychopathology or to specific biobehavioural traits of healthy people (temperament). The present review aims to highlight the benefits of a functional constructivism approach in the analysis of neurochemical biomarkers underlying temperament and psychopathology. Read More

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Weight gain as a risk factor for progressive neurochemical abnormalities in first episode mania patients: a longitudinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

Psychol Med 2021 Mar 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Mood Disorders Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: We previously reported that bipolar disorder (BD) patients with clinically significant weight gain (CSWG; ⩾7% of baseline weight) in the 12 months after their first manic episode experienced greater limbic brain volume loss than patients without CSWG. It is unknown whether CSWG is also a risk factor for progressive neurochemical abnormalities.

Methods: We investigated whether 12-month CSWG predicted greater 12-month decreases in hippocampal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and greater increases in glutamate + glutamine (Glx) following a first manic episode. Read More

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Glutamate- and GABA-Modulated Connectivity in Auditory Hallucinations-A Combined Resting State fMRI and MR Spectroscopy Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 17;12:643564. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been linked to aberrant interhemispheric connectivity between the left and the right superior temporal gyrus (STG), labeled the interhemispheric miscommunication theory. The present study investigated if interhemispheric miscommunication is modulated at the neurochemical level by glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in temporal and prefrontal lobe areas, as proposed by the theory. We combined resting-state fMRI connectivity with MR spectroscopy (MRS) in a sample of 81 psychosis patients, comparing patients with high hallucination severity (high-AVH) and low hallucination severity (low-AVH) groups. Read More

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February 2021