6,314 results match your criteria neurochemical changes

Born to move: a review on the impact of physical exercise on brain health and the evidence from human controlled trials.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2021 Jun;79(6):536-550

Universidade Tiradentes, Departamento de Medicina, Laboratório de Biociências da Cinética Humana, Aracaju SE, Brazil.

Background: Physical exercise has been found to impact neurophysiological and structural aspects of the human brain. However, most research has used animal models, which yields much confusion regarding the real effects of exercise on the human brain, as well as the underlying mechanisms.

Objective: To present an update on the impact of physical exercise on brain health; and to review and analyze the evidence exclusively from human randomized controlled studies from the last six years. Read More

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Decreased thalamo-cortico connectivity during an implicit sequence motor learning task and 7 days escitalopram intake.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 23;11(1):15060. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods and Development Group, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Evidence suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) reorganize neural networks via a transient window of neuroplasticity. While previous findings support an effect of SSRIs on intrinsic functional connectivity, little is known regarding the influence of SSRI-administration on connectivity during sequence motor learning. To investigate this, we administered 20 mg escitalopram or placebo for 1-week to 60 healthy female participants undergoing concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging and sequence motor training in a double-blind randomized controlled design. Read More

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Dopaminergic brainstem disconnection is common to pharmacological and pathological consciousness perturbation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(30)

University Division of Anaesthesia, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SP, United Kingdom;

Clinical research into consciousness has long focused on cortical macroscopic networks and their disruption in pathological or pharmacological consciousness perturbation. Despite demonstrating diagnostic utility in disorders of consciousness (DoC) and monitoring anesthetic depth, these cortico-centric approaches have been unable to characterize which neurochemical systems may underpin consciousness alterations. Instead, preclinical experiments have long implicated the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brainstem. Read More

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Neurometabolic Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Motor Inhibition in Young and Older Adults: Evidence from Multiple Regional H-MR Spectroscopy.

Cereb Cortex Commun 2020 27;1(1):tgaa028. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Movement Control & Neuroplasticity Research Group, Department of Movement Sciences, Group Biomedical Sciences, KU Leuven, 3001, Heverlee, Belgium.

Suboptimal inhibitory control is a major factor contributing to motor/cognitive deficits in older age and pathology. Here, we provide novel insights into the neurochemical biomarkers of inhibitory control in healthy young and older adults and highlight putative neurometabolic correlates of deficient inhibitory functions in normal aging. Age-related alterations in levels of glutamate-glutamine complex (Glx), -acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (mIns) were assessed in the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA), bilateral sensorimotor cortex (SM1), bilateral striatum (STR), and occipital cortex (OCC) with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS). Read More

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Cocaine-Induced Changes in Tonic Dopamine Concentrations Measured Using Multiple-Cyclic Square Wave Voltammetry .

Front Pharmacol 2021 6;12:705254. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

For over 40 years, microdialysis techniques have been at the forefront in measuring the effects of illicit substances on brain tonic extracellular levels of dopamine that underlie many aspects of drug addiction. However, the size of microdialysis probes and sampling rate may limit this technique's ability to provide an accurate assessment of drug effects in microneural environments. A novel electrochemical method known as multiple-cyclic square wave voltammetry (M-CSWV), was recently developed to measure second-to-second changes in tonic dopamine levels at microelectrodes, providing spatiotemporal resolution superior to microdialysis. Read More

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Effects of combined exposure to modeled radiation and gravitation factors of the interplanetary flight: Monkeys' cognitive functions and the content of monoamines and their metabolites; cytogenetic changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Life Sci Space Res (Amst) 2021 Aug 27;30:45-54. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), 123007, Moscow, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

In a study on primates (Macaca mulatta), neurobiological and radiobiological effects have been studied of the synchronous combined action of 7-day antiorthostatic hypokinesia and exposure of the monkeys' head first to γ-rays during 24 h and then to accelerated C ions. The neurobiological effects were evaluated by the cognitive functions which model the basic elements of operator activity and the concentration of monoamines and their metabolites in peripheral blood. The radiobiological effects were evaluated by the chromosomal aberration and DNA double-strand break (DSB) yield in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Read More

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Dose related acute behavioral and neurochemical profile of pioglitazone.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Mar;34(2):615-620

Department of Neurosurgery, Oxford University Hospital, Oxford, UK OX3 9DU.

Diabetics are twice as likely to have depression. It's normal to have long periods of sadness and anxiety. Pioglitazone has important role in the inflammatory response, which suggests that it might have the associated anti-depressant effects being manifested by its anti-depressant profile which needs further exploration. Read More

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The hypothalamus and its role in hypertension.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;182:333-354

A.L. Myasnikov Research Institute of Clinical Cardiology, Russian Cardiology Research Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia; Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

For the majority of hypertensive patients, the etiology of their disease is unknown. The hypothalamus is a central structure of the brain which provides an adaptive, integrative, autonomic, and neuroendocrine response to any fluctuations in physiological conditions of the external or internal environment. Hypothalamic insufficiency leads to severe metabolic and functional disorders, including persistent increase in blood pressure. Read More

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MicroPET/CT assessment of neurochemical effects in the brain after long-term methylphenidate treatment in nonhuman primates.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Jul 12;87:107017. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, United States of America.

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant approved by the FDA to treatment Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). MPH is believed to exert its pharmacological effects via preferential blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET), resulting in increased monoamine levels in the synapse. We used a quantitative non-invasive PET imaging technique to study the effects of long-term methylphenidate use on the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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Komagataella pastoris KM71H modulates neuroimmune and oxidative stress parameters in animal models of depression: A proposal for a new probiotic with antidepressant-like effect.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jul 8:105740. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Technologic Development Center, Division of Biotechnology, Neurobiotechnology Research Group, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Many studies have suggested that imbalance of the gut microbial composition leads to an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes oxidative stress, and this are directly associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Clinical data indicated that the probiotics have positive impacts on the central nervous system and thus may have a key role to treatment of MDD. This study examined the benefits of administration of Komagataella pastoris KM71H (8 log UFC·g/animal, intragastric route) in attenuating behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroendocrine changes in animal models of depressive-like behavior induced by repeated restraint stress and lipopolysaccharide (0. Read More

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Endometritis decreases the population of uterine neurons in the paracervical ganglion and changes the expression of sympathetic neurotransmitters in sexually mature gilts.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jul 10;17(1):240. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719, Olsztyn, Poland.

Background: The focus of the study was to examine the impact of the inflamed uterus on the population of the paracervical ganglion (PCG) uterus-innervating perikarya and their chemical coding. Fast Blue retrograde tracer was injected into the wall of uterine horns on the 17th day of the first studied estrous cycle. After 28 days, either Escherichia coli suspension or saline was applied to the horns of the uterus, whereas the control group received laparotomy only. Read More

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Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 Modulates the Brain Reward Response to Reduce Binge Eating and Anxiety-Like Behavior in Rat.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health. Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, Spanish Council for Scientific Research(IATA-CSIC), Valencia, Spain.

Food addiction (FA) is characterized by behavioral and neurochemical changes linked to loss of food intake control. Gut microbiota may influence appetite and food intake via endocrine and neural routes. The gut microbiota is known to impact homeostatic energy mechanisms, but its role in regulating the reward system is less certain. Read More

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Melatonin protects against methamphetamine-induced Alzheimer's disease-like pathological changes in rat hippocampus.

Neurochem Int 2021 Sep 2;148:105121. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Research Center for Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Chulabhorn Royal Academy, 54 Kamphaeng Phet 6 Road, Lak Si, Bangkok, 10210, Thailand. Electronic address:

Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug of abuse. METH use is associated with cognitive impairments and neurochemical abnormalities comparable to pathological changes observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These observations have stimulated the idea that METH abusers might be prone to develop AD-like signs and symptoms. Read More

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September 2021

Enteric Nervous System Remodeling in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study.

Neurotrauma Rep 2020 22;1(1):125-136. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

UMR Inserm 1235, Research Unit, The Enteric Nervous System in Gut and Brain Diseases (TENS), University of Nantes, Nantes, France.

The physiopathology of digestive disorders in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) remains largely unknown, particularly the involvement of the enteric nervous system (ENS). We aimed in a rat model of chronic thoracic SCI to characterize (1) changes in the neurochemical coding of enteric neurons and their putative consequences upon neuromuscular response, and (2) the inflammatory response of the colon. motility of proximal and distal colon segments of SCI and control (CT) rats were studied in an organ chamber in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and bethanechol. Read More

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October 2020

Neurochemical changes underlying cognitive impairment in olfactory bulbectomized rats and the impact of the mGlu-positive allosteric modulator CDPPB.

Brain Res 2021 Jul 1;1768:147577. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Neurobiology, 12 Smętna Street, 31-343 Kraków, Poland. Electronic address:

The olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rat model is a well-established model of depression in which antidepressant drugs reverse deficits in the passive avoidance test 14 days after administration. Recently, the olfactory bulbectomized rat model has been proposed to be a model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the available data indicate similarities between the changes that typically occur in AD and those observed in OBX animals. In the present study, the occurrence of neurochemical impairments related to AD were investigated 8 months after OB ablation. Read More

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Chronic Red Bull Consumption during Adolescence: Effect on Mesocortical and Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission and Cardiovascular System in Adult Rats.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Jun 24;14(7). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria SP 8, Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato, Italy.

Energy drinks are very popular nonalcoholic beverages among adolescents and young adults for their stimulant effects. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated intraoral Red Bull (RB) infusion on dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens shell and core and in the medial prefrontal cortex and on cardiac contractility in adult rats exposed to chronic RB consumption. Rats were subjected to 4 weeks of RB voluntary consumption from adolescence to adulthood. Read More

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Problems with Social Cognition and Decision-Making in Huntington's Disease: Why Is it Important?

Brain Sci 2021 Jun 24;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0PY, UK.

Huntington's disease starts slowly and progresses over a 15-20 year period. Motor changes begin subtly, often going unnoticed by patients although they are typically visible to those close to them. At this point, it is the early non-motor problems of HD that arguably cause the most functional impairment. Read More

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Chronic Ultraviolet Irradiation to the Skin Dysregulates Adrenal Medulla and Dopamine Metabolism In Vivo.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Herbal Medicine Resources Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 111 Geonjae-ro, Naju 58245, Korea.

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a strong biological effect on skin biology, and it switches on adaptive mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in organs such as the skin, adrenal glands, and brain. In this study, we examined the adaptation of the body to repeated bouts of UVB radiation, especially with respect to the catecholamine synthesis pathway of the adrenal glands. The effects of UVB on catecholamine-related enzymes were determined by neurochemical and histological analyses. Read More

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Postnatal exposure to fluoxetine led to cognitive-emotional alterations and decreased parvalbumin positive neurons in the hippocampus of juvenile Wistar rats.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during development results in behavioural impairment in adulthood in humans and animal models. Indeed, serotonergic overexpression in early life leads to structural and functional changes in brain circuits that control cognition and emotion. However, the effects of developmental exposure to these substances on the behaviour of adolescent rats are conflicting and remain poorly characterised. Read More

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Female but not male rats show biphasic effects of low doses of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol on anxiety: can cannabidiol interfere with these effects?

Neuropharmacology 2021 Jun 26;196:108684. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:

Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa. It can produce dose-dependent anxiolytic or anxiogenic effects in males. THC effects on anxiety have scarcely been studied in females, despite their higher prevalence of anxiety disorders. Read More

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Post-weaning social isolation impairs purinergic signaling in rat brain.

Neurochem Int 2021 Sep 24;148:105111. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica, ICBS, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Early life stressors, such as social isolation (SI), can disrupt brain development contributing to behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adulthood. Purinergic receptors and ectonucleotidases are key regulators of brain development in embryonic and postnatal periods, and they are involved in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. The extracellular ATP drives purinergic signaling by activating P2X and P2Y receptors and it is hydrolyzed by ectonucleotidases in adenosine, which activates P1 receptors. Read More

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September 2021

Disturbance of prefrontal cortical myelination in olfactory bulbectomized mice is associated with depressive-like behavior.

Neurochem Int 2021 Sep 23;148:105112. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, 2600-1 Kitakanemaru, Ohtawara, Tochigi, 324-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Recent studies have reported that demyelination is associated with the development of depression. Olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rodents are a useful experimental animal model for depressive disorder. However, little is known about the change in myelination in the brain of OBX mice. Read More

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September 2021

Analgesic effect of central relaxin receptor activation on persistent inflammatory pain in mice: behavioral and neurochemical data.

Pain Rep 2021 Jul-Aug;6(2):e937. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of Neurodegenerative Diseases, UMR 5393, CNRS, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Introduction: The relaxin peptide signaling system is involved in diverse physiological processes, but its possible roles in the brain, including nociception, are largely unexplored.

Objective: In light of abundant expression of relaxin receptor (RXFP1) mRNA/protein in brain regions involved in pain processing, we investigated the effects of central RXFP1 activation on nociceptive behavior in a mouse model of inflammatory pain and examined the neurochemical phenotype and connectivity of relaxin and RXFP1 mRNA-positive neurons.

Methods: Mice were injected with Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) into a hind paw. Read More

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Paternal exposure to excessive methionine altered behavior and neurochemical activities in zebrafish offspring.

Amino Acids 2021 Jul 22;53(7):1153-1167. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina e Ciências da Saúde, Escola de Medicina, Pontifícia Universidade Católica Do Rio Grande Do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

An increase in plasma L-methionine (Met) levels, even if transitory, can cause important toxicological alterations in the affected individuals. Met is essential in the regulation of epigenetic mechanisms and its influence on the subsequent generation has been investigated. However, few studies have explored the influence of a temporary increase in Met levels in parents on their offspring. Read More

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Be Fit, Be Sharp, Be Well: The Case for Exercise as a Treatment for Cognitive Impairment in Late-life Depression.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2021 Jun 22:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA.

Objective: To lay out the argument that exercise impacts neurobiological targets common to both mood and cognitive functioning, and thus more research should be conducted on its use as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for cognitive impairment in late-life depression (LLD).

Method: This narrative review summarizes the literature on cognitive impairment in LLD, describes the structural and functional brain changes and neurochemical changes that are linked to both cognitive impairment and mood disruption, and explains how exercise targets these same neurobiological changes and can thus provide an alternative or adjunctive treatment for cognitive impairment in LLD.

Results: Cognitive impairment is common in LLD and predicts recurrence of depression, poor response to antidepressant treatment, and overall disability. Read More

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Progesterone and Allopregnanolone Neuroprotective Effects in the Wobbler Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Laboratory of Neuroendocrine Biochemistry, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental-CONICET, Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Progesterone regulates a number of processes in neurons and glial cells not directly involved in reproduction or sex behavior. Several neuroprotective effects are better observed under pathological conditions, as shown in the Wobbler mouse model of amyotrophic laterals sclerosis (ALS). Wobbler mice are characterized by forelimb atrophy due to motoneuron degeneration in the spinal cord, and include microgliosis and astrogliosis. Read More

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Advances in the pharmacotherapeutic management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Jun 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental disorder, is associated with anxiety, depression, and social awkwardness resulting from past traumatic episodes like natural disasters, accidents, terrorist attacks, war, rape, and sexual violence. It affects primarily the amygdala, cortex, and hippocampus where neurochemical changes result in altered behavior. PTSD patients display impaired fear extinction, and past events keep haunting them. Read More

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1H-1,2,3-triazole grafted tacrine-chalcone conjugates as potential cholinesterase inhibitors with the evaluation of their behavioral tests and oxidative stress in mice brain cells.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jun 6;114:105053. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

The present paper explicates the synthesis of 1H-1,2,3-triazole tethered tacrine-chalcone conjugates and evaluation of their AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity. In-vitroAChE inhibition assay revealed three compounds, 9h, 9i, and 11f, being more potent than the standard drug tacrine and further evaluated against butyrylcholinesterase. The present study was extended to investigate the anti-amnestic effect of promising compoundson scopolamine-induced behavioral and neurochemical changes in mice. Read More

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Bimodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces alcohol consumption and induces long-term neurochemical changes in rats with neuropathic pain.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 7;759:136014. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Laboratory of Pain Pharmacology and Neuromodulation: Preclinical Investigations - Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Biological Sciences: Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Laboratoryof Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated bimodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on alcohol consumption and immunohistological and neurochemical parameters in nerve-injured rats. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats were distributed into six groups: control, neuropathic pain (NP) + sham-tDCS, NP + alcohol + sham-tDCS, alcohol + sham-tDCS, alcohol + tDCS, and NP + alcohol + tDCS. NP is induced by chronic sciatic nerve constriction (CCI). Read More

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