42,906 results match your criteria neural stem

Involvement of Oct4-type transcription factor Pou5f3 in posterior spinal cord formation in zebrafish embryos.

Dev Growth Differ 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama City, Saitama, 338-8570, Japan.

In vertebrate embryogenesis, elongation of the posterior body is driven by de novo production of the axial and paraxial mesoderm as well as the neural tube at the posterior end. This process is presumed to depend on the stem cell-like population in the tail bud region, but the details of the gene regulatory network involved are unknown. Previous studies suggested the involvement of pou5f3, an Oct4-type POU gene in zebrafish, in axial elongation. Read More

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SOX9 defines distinct populations of cells in SHH medulloblastoma but is not required for Math1-driven tumour formation.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

UQ Diamantina Institute, University of Queensland

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumour and there is an urgent need for molecularly targeted and subgroup-specific therapies. The stem cell factor SOX9, has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma (SHH-MB) subgroup tumors, given its role as a downstream target of Hedgehog signaling and in functionally promoting SHH-MB metastasis and treatment resistance. However, the functional requirement for SOX9 in the genesis of MB remains to be determined. Read More

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Clinical evidence that a dysregulated master neural network modulator may aid in diagnosing schizophrenia.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Neurobiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 236-0004 Yokohama, Japan;

There are no validated biomarkers for schizophrenia (SCZ), a disorder linked to neural network dysfunction. We demonstrate that collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2), a master regulator of cytoskeleton and, hence, neural circuitry, may form the basis for a biomarker because its activity is uniquely imbalanced in SCZ patients. CRMP2's activity depends upon its phosphorylation state. Read More

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Reprogramming Stars #2: Reprogramming Towards Neural Lineages-An Interview with Dr. Henrik Ahlenius.

Cell Reprogram 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Molecular Medicine and Gene Therapy, Lund Stem Cell Centre, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

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The evolutionary acquisition and mode of functions of promoter-associated non-coding RNAs (pancRNAs) for mammalian development.

Essays Biochem 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Graduate School of Integrated Sciences for Life, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan.

Increasing evidence has shown that many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in gene regulation in a variety of ways such as transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Promoter-associated non-coding RNAs (pancRNAs), which are categorized into the most abundant single-copy lncRNA biotype, play vital regulatory roles in finely tuning cellular specification at the epigenomic level. In short, pancRNAs can directly or indirectly regulate downstream genes to participate in the development of organisms in a cell-specific manner. Read More

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Research progress on mechanism and imaging of temporal lobe injury induced by radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, 71 Xinmin Street, Changchun, 130021, China.

Radiotherapy (RT) is an effective treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC). Radiation-induced temporal lobe injury (TLI) is a serious complication of RT. Late symptoms of radiation-induced TLI are irreversible and manifest as memory loss, cognitive impairment, and even temporal lobe necrosis (TLN). Read More

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Future directions in preclinical and translational cancer neuroscience research.

Nat Cancer 2021 Nov 17;1:1027-1031. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Center for Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Center for Pain Research and, Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Recent advances in cancer neuroscience necessitate the systematic analysis of neural influences in cancer as potential therapeutic targets in oncology. Here, we outline recommendations for future preclinical and translational research in this field. Read More

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November 2021

Regulation of fractone heparan sulfate composition in young and aged subventricular zone neurogenic niches.

Glycobiology 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Research Institute for Diseases of Old Age, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Fractones, specialized extracellular matrix structures found in the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenic niche, can capture growth factors, such as basic fibroblast growth factor, from the extracellular milieu through a heparin-binding mechanism for neural stem cell presentation, which promotes neurogenesis. During aging, a decline in neurogenesis correlates with a change in the composition of heparan sulfate (HS) within fractones. In this study, we used antibodies that recognize specific short oligosaccharides with varying sulfation to evaluate the HS composition in fractones in young and aged brains. Read More

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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Systems for Personalising Epilepsy Treatment: Research Ethics Challenges and New Insights for the Ethics of Personalised Medicine.

AJOB Neurosci 2021 Jul 29:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong.

ABSTRACTThis paper examines potential ethical and legal issues arising during the research, development and clinical use of a proposed strategy in personalized medicine (PM): using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived tissue cultures as predictive models of individual patients to inform treatment decisions. We focus on epilepsy treatment as a likely early application of this strategy, for which early-stage stage research is underway. In relation to the research process, we examine issues associated with biological samples; data; health; vulnerable populations; neural organoids; and what level of accuracy justifies using the iPSC-derived neural tissue system. Read More

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Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy for Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer That is Either Endocrine-Pretreated or Hormone Receptor-Negative: ASCO Guideline Update.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 29:JCO2101374. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC.

Purpose: This guideline updates recommendations of the ASCO guideline on chemotherapy and targeted therapy for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) that is either endocrine-pretreated or hormone receptor (HR)-negative.

Methods: An Expert Panel conducted a targeted systematic literature review guided by a signals approach to identify new, potentially practice-changing data that might translate into revised guideline recommendations.

Results: The Expert Panel reviewed abstracts from the literature review and retained 14 articles. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Modeling of Neurological Disorders.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2352:237-251

Stem Cells, Aging and Neurodegeneration group, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurology, Lund Stem Cell Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Recent advances in genome editing have brought new hopes for personalized and precision medicine but have also dramatically facilitated disease modeling studies. Combined with reprogramming approaches, stem cells and differentiation toward neural lineages, genome engineering holds great potential for regenerative approaches and to model neurological disorders. The use of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells combined with neural differentiation allows studying the effect of specific mutations in different brain cells. Read More

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January 2021

Transcriptional Profiling During Neural Conversion.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2352:171-181

Functional Genomics and Bioinformatics Core, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, SD, USA.

The processes that underlie neuronal conversion ultimately involve a reorganization of transcriptional networks to establish a neuronal cell fate. As such, transcriptional profiling is a key component toward understanding this process. In this chapter, we will discuss methods of elucidating transcriptional networks during neuronal reprogramming and considerations that should be incorporated in experimental design. Read More

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January 2021

Single Transcription Factor-Based Differentiation Allowing Fast and Efficient Oligodendrocyte Generation via SOX10 Overexpression.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2352:149-170

Departamento Biologia Celular, Genetica y Fisiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica de Malaga-IBIMA, Universidad de Malaga, Malaga, Spain.

Oligodendrocytes are the main glial cell type in the central nervous system supporting the axonal part of neurons via myelin and lactate delivery. Both the conductive myelin formation and the energy support via lactate can be affected in diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, respectively. Therefore, human disease modeling is needed to gain more mechanistic insights to drive drug discovery research. Read More

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January 2021

Direct Conversion of Human Fibroblasts to Induced Neurons.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2352:73-96

Neural Aging Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Biology and CMBI, Leopold-Franzens-University, Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria.

Progressive aging is a physiological process that represents a central risk factor for the development of several human age-associated chronic diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. A major focus in biomedical research is the pursuit for appropriate model systems to better model the biology of human aging and the interface between aging and disease mechanisms. Direct conversion of human fibroblasts into induced neurons (iNs) has emerged as a novel technology for the in vitro modeling of age-dependent neurological diseases. Read More

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January 2021

RGCC balances self-renewal and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells in the developing mammalian neocortex.

EMBO Rep 2021 Jul 29:e51781. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

During neocortical development, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide symmetrically to self-renew at the early stage and then divide asymmetrically to generate post-mitotic neurons. The molecular mechanisms regulating the balance between NSC self-renewal and neurogenesis are not fully understood. Using mouse in utero electroporation (IUE) technique and in vitro human NSC differentiation models including cerebral organoids (hCOs), we show here that regulator of cell cycle (RGCC) modulates NSC self-renewal and neuronal differentiation by affecting cell cycle regulation and spindle orientation. Read More

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Fine-tuning of dual-SMAD inhibition to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells into neural crest stem cells.

Cell Prolif 2021 Jul 29:e13103. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School of CHA University, Sungnam, Korea.

Objectives: The derivation of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has been commonly induced by WNT activation in combination with dual-SMAD inhibition. In this study, by fine-tuning BMP signalling in the conventional dual-SMAD inhibition, we sought to generate large numbers of NCSCs without WNT activation.

Materials And Methods: In the absence of WNT activation, we modulated the level of BMP signalling in the dual-SMAD inhibition system to identify conditions that efficiently drove the differentiation of hPSCs into NCSCs. Read More

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Cell-Type-Specific Gene Expression in Developing Mouse Neocortex: Intermediate Progenitors Implicated in Axon Development.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 12;14:686034. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Cerebral cortex projection neurons (PNs) are generated from intermediate progenitors (IPs), which are in turn derived from radial glial progenitors (RGPs). To investigate developmental processes in IPs, we profiled IP transcriptomes in embryonic mouse neocortex, using transgenic -GFP mice, cell sorting, and microarrays. These data were used in combination with hybridization to ascertain gene sets specific for IPs, RGPs, PNs, interneurons, and other neural and non-neural cell types. Read More

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PARIS farnesylation prevents neurodegeneration in models of Parkinson's disease.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jul;13(604)

Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, South Korea.

Accumulation of the parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS; ), due to inactivation of parkin, contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD) through repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α; ) activity. Here, we identify farnesol as an inhibitor of PARIS. Farnesol promoted the farnesylation of PARIS, preventing its repression of PGC-1α via decreasing PARIS occupancy on the promoter. Read More

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Altered neuronal physiology, development, and function associated with a common chromosome 15 duplication involving CHRNA7.

BMC Biol 2021 Jul 28;19(1):147. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, Campus, Box 8103, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Copy number variants (CNVs) linked to genes involved in nervous system development or function are often associated with neuropsychiatric disease. While CNVs involving deletions generally cause severe and highly penetrant patient phenotypes, CNVs leading to duplications tend instead to exhibit widely variable and less penetrant phenotypic expressivity among affected individuals. CNVs located on chromosome 15q13. Read More

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Fabrication of Hyaluronic Acid-Gold Nanoparticles with Chitosan to Modulate Neural Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

J Chin Med Assoc 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Neurological Institute Head of Department of Neurosurgery Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC Department of Physical Therapy, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC Basic Medical Education Center, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC Blood Bank, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC Translational Medicine Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Chitosan (Chi) is a natural material which has been widely used in neural applications due to possessing better biocompatibility. In this research study, a novel of nanocomposites film based on Chitosan (Chi) with Hyaluronic Acid (HA), combined with varying amounts of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was created resulting in pure Chi, Chi-HA, Chi-HA-AuNPs (25 ppm) and Chi-HA-AuNPs (50 ppm).

Methods: This study focused on evaluating their effects on Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) viability, colony formation and biocompatibility. Read More

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Loss of mitochondrial transcription factor A in neural stem cells leads to immature brain development and triggers the activation of the integral stress response in vivo.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(7):e0255355. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biochemistry, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is significantly associated with neurological deficits and age-related neurological diseases. While mitochondria are dynamically regulated and properly maintained during neurogenesis, the manner in which mitochondrial activities are controlled and contribute to these processes is not fully understood. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) contributes to mitochondrial function by maintaining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Read More

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ELAVL4, splicing, and glutamatergic dysfunction precede neuron loss in MAPT mutation cerebral organoids.

Cell 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Neural Stem Cell Institute, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA. Electronic address:

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) because of MAPT mutation causes pathological accumulation of tau and glutamatergic cortical neuronal death by unknown mechanisms. We used human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cerebral organoids expressing tau-V337M and isogenic corrected controls to discover early alterations because of the mutation that precede neurodegeneration. At 2 months, mutant organoids show upregulated expression of MAPT, glutamatergic signaling pathways, and regulators, including the RNA-binding protein ELAVL4, and increased stress granules. Read More

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ATG7 safeguards human neural integrity.

Autophagy 2021 Jul 27:1-3. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Wellcome Centre for Mitochondrial Research, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

ATG7 drives macroautophagy, hereafter "autophagy", by generating ATG12-ATG5 conjugates and lipidating Atg8 homologs including LC3. A pioneering body of work has defined the requirement of ATG7 for survival in mice and shown that neural-specific deletion causes neurodegeneration, but it has not been ascertained whether human life is compatible with ATG7 dysfunction. Recently, we defined the importance of ATG7 in human physiology by identifying twelve patients from five families harboring pathogenic, biallelic variants causing a neurodevelopmental disorder. Read More

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Dual-enzymatically cross-linked gelatin hydrogel promotes neural differentiation and neurotrophin secretion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of moderate traumatic brain injury.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 24;187:200-213. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

School of Life Science, Zhengzhou University, 100 Science Road, Zhengzhou 450001, PR China. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most devastating nervous injuries. Neural tissue engineering based on stem cells and bioactive scaffold is a promising but challenging approach for neural repair. A cutting-edge system with capability to control the fate of encapsulated stem cells is attractive to enhance neural regeneration after TBI. Read More

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Histological Studies of the Ventricular-Subventricular Zone as Neural Stem Cell and Glioma Stem Cell Niche.

J Histochem Cytochem 2021 Jul 26:221554211032003. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

The neural stem cell niche of the ventricular-subventricular zone supports the persistence of stem and progenitor cells in the mature brain. This niche has many notable cytoarchitectural features that affect the activity of stem cells and may also support the survival and growth of invading tumor cells. Histochemical studies of the niche have revealed many proteins that, in combination, can help to reveal stem-like cells in the normal or cancer context, although many caveats persist in the quest to consistently identify these cells in the human brain. Read More

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Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Condition Medium Loaded on PCL Nanofibrous Scaffold Promoted Nerve Regeneration After Sciatic Nerve Transection in Male Rats.

Neurotox Res 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Nowadays, researchers pay a vast deal of attention to neural tissue regeneration due to its tremendous effect on the patient's life. There are many strategies, from using conventional autologous nerve grafts to the newly developed methods for reconstructing damaged nerves. Among the various therapeutic methods, incorporating highly potent biomolecules and growth factors, the damaged nerve site would promote nerve regeneration. Read More

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The expression of tenascin-C in neural stem/progenitor cells is stimulated by the growth factors EGF and FGF-2, but not by TGFβ1.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Cell Morphology and Molecular Neurobiology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) rely on internal and external cues determining their lineage decisions during brain development. The progenitor cells of the embryonic mammalian forebrain reside in the ventricular and subventricular zones of the lateral ventricles, where they proliferate, generate neurons and glial cells, and respond to external cues like growth factors. The extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounds NSPCs and influences the cell fate by providing mechanical scaffold, trophic support, and instructive signals. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles from neurons promote neural induction of stem cells through cyclin D1.

J Cell Biol 2021 Sep 26;220(9). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are thought to mediate the transport of proteins and RNAs involved in intercellular communication. Here, we show dynamic changes in the buoyant density and abundance of EVs that are secreted by PC12 cells stimulated with nerve growth factor (NGF), N2A cells treated with retinoic acid to induce neural differentiation, and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) differentiated into neuronal cells. EVs secreted from in vitro differentiated cells promote neural induction of mESCs. Read More

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September 2021

Towards a better understanding of the neuro-developmental role of autophagy in sickness and in health.

Cell Stress 2021 Jul 29;5(7):99-118. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas Margarita Salas, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.

Autophagy is a critical cellular process by which biomolecules and cellular organelles are degraded in an orderly manner inside lysosomes. This process is particularly important in neurons: these post-mitotic cells cannot divide or be easily replaced and are therefore especially sensitive to the accumulation of toxic proteins and damaged organelles. Dysregulation of neuronal autophagy is well documented in a range of neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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