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Probiotics in Counteracting the Role of Neutrophils in Cancer Metastasis.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Nov 10;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 10.

School of Bio Sciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Vellore 632014, India.

Neutrophils are known for their role geared towards pathogen clearance by different mechanisms that they initiate, primarily by the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, their immune-surveillance capacity accompanied with plasticity in existing as interchangeable subsets, discovered recently, has revealed their property to contribute to complex cancer pathologies including tumor initiation, growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Although there is a growing body of evidence suggesting a critical balance between the protumoral and antitumoral neutrophil phenotypes, an in-depth signaling pathway analysis would aid in determination of anticipatory, diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Read More

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November 2021

Neutrophil NET Formation with Microbial Stimuli Requires Late Stage NADPH Oxidase Activity.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Nov 9;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Pathology and Biomedical Science, University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand.

Neutrophils respond to a range of stimuli by releasing extracellular traps (NETs), a mesh consisting of chromatin plus granule and cytoplasmic proteins. We have investigated NET release in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), (PAO1), and , and the involvement of NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. An oxidative mechanism was involved with each stimulus, and the NOX2 inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) gave almost total inhibition. Read More

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November 2021

Elevated Myeloperoxidase-DNA Complex Levels in Sera of Patients with IgA Vasculitis.

Pathobiology 2021 Nov 23:1-6. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Dermatology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Introduction: IgA vasculitis is a systemic disease that results from the entrapment of circulating IgA-containing immune complexes in small-vessel walls in the skin, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. An excessive formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is involved in the pathogenesis of vasculitis, especially in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. This study aimed to clarify whether NETs are implicated in IgA vasculitis. Read More

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November 2021

Receptor-Mediated NETosis on Neutrophils.

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:775267. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a web-like structures containing chromatin, have a significant role in assisting the capture and killing of microorganisms by neutrophils during infection. The specific engagement of cell-surface receptors by extracellular signaling molecules activates diverse intracellular signaling cascades and regulates neutrophil effector functions, including phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species release, degranulation, and NET formation. However, overproduction of NETs is closely related to the occurrence of inflammation, autoimmune disorders, non-canonical thrombosis and tumor metastasis. Read More

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November 2021

Knowledge, attitudes and control practices regarding venomous arthropods among staff and students in a Nigerian public university campus.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Nov 13. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.

Background: The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes and control practices among the staff and students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU), Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria, regarding venomous arthropods.

Methods: The knowledge, attitudes and control practices regarding venomous arthropods were assessed in 350 participants.

Results: The respondents were aware of the presence of venomous arthropods at NAU and they had seen them on campus, with spiders (40. Read More

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November 2021

Octyl gallate decrease lymphocyte activation and regulates neutrophil extracellular traps release.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Biofísica Celular e Inflamação, Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Avenida Ipiranga 6681, prédio 12, bloco C, sala 221, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900, Brazil.

Background: Inflammation is a complex mechanism with an objective to destroy and eliminate the invading microorganisms. During acute inflammation, the neutrophils are the major cells involved in this process and, although they defend the organism, must die to not generate damage. The two major mechanisms that drive neutrophils to death are: apoptosis and a novel mechanism recently discovered denominated NETosis. Read More

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November 2021

Changes in Brain Matrix Glycan Sulfation Associate With Reactive Gliosis and Motor Coordination in Mice With Head Trauma.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 28;15:745288. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC), Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, United States.

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that enmesh and regulate neurocircuits involved in motor and sensory function. Maladaptive changes to the composition and/or abundance of PNNs have been implicated in preclinical models of neuroinflammation and neurocircuit destabilization. The central nervous system (CNS) is limited in its capacity to repair and reorganize neural networks following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and little is known about mechanisms of ECM repair in the adult brain after TBI. Read More

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October 2021

Potential therapeutics in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: what does the immune system have to offer? A narrative review.

Authors:
Nadir Yehya

Transl Pediatr 2021 Oct;10(10):2689-2699

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Since first described, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been understood to be an inflammatory disease with a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response. While fewer investigations have studied these phenomena in pediatric ARDS (PARDS), similar pathways are believed to be involved. Significant attention has been paid to the innate immune system, particularly neutrophils and neutrophil-related signaling, more recent studies have provided additional nuance regarding the role of upstream damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and subsequent neutrophil-mediated inflammation, lung permeability, and alveolar epithelial damage. Read More

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October 2021

Nets-within-nets for modeling emergent patterns in ontogenetic processes.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 9;19:5701-5721. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Politecnico di Torino, Control and Computer Engineering Department, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129, Italy.

Ontogenesis is the development of an organism from its earliest stage to maturity, including homeostasis maintenance throughout adulthood despite environmental perturbations. Almost all cells of a multicellular organism share the same genomic information. Nevertheless, phenotypic diversity and complex supra-cellular architectures emerge at every level, starting from tissues and organs. Read More

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October 2021

Influence of iron- and zinc-chelating agents on neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2021 18;46(2):135-139. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is one of the neutrophils' mechanisms involved in the response to infection. NETs are released from the cell in response to a biological or synthetic stimulus to entrap, immobilize and kill pathogens. Metal ions and metal binding proteins were identified in the structure of NETs, but their role in NET release remains unclear. Read More

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Zinc-dependent histone deacetylases drive neutrophil extracellular trap formation and potentiate local and systemic inflammation.

iScience 2021 Nov 11;24(11):103256. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Division of Immunology, Boston, 02115 MA, USA.

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) driven by viruses or bacteria, as well as in numerous immune-mediated disorders. Histone citrullination by the enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and the consequent decondensation of chromatin are hallmarks in the induction of NETs. Nevertheless, additional histone modifications that may govern NETosis are largely overlooked. Read More

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November 2021

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Exacerbate Ischemic Brain Damage.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, No. 12 Middle Wulumuqi Road, Jing'an District, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Most acute strokes are ischemic, and subsequent neuroinflammation promotes further damage leading to cell death but also plays a beneficial role by promoting cellular repair. Neutrophils are forerunners to brain lesions after ischemic stroke and exert elaborate functions. While neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) possess a fundamental antimicrobial function within the innate immune system under physiological circumstances, increasing evidence indicates that NETosis, the release process of NETs, occurs in the pathogenic process of stroke. Read More

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November 2021

Decreased miR-4512 Levels in Monocytes and Macrophages of Individuals With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Contribute to Innate Immune Activation and Neutrsophil NETosis by Targeting TLR4 and CXCL2.

Front Immunol 2021 14;12:756825. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with complex etiology that is not yet entirely understood. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms and therapeutic potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) in SLE in a Tibetan population.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SLE patients (n = 5) and healthy controls (n = 5) were used for miRNA-mRNA co-sequencing to detect miRNAs related to immune abnormalities associated with SLE. Read More

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October 2021

Aged neutrophils form mitochondria-dependent vital NETs to promote breast cancer lung metastasis.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 10;9(10)

Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Immune Therapy of Zhejiang Province, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China

Background: Neutrophils-linked premetastatic niche plays a key role in tumor metastasis, but not much is known about the heterogeneity and diverse role of neutrophils in niche formation. Our study focuses on the existence and biological function of a rarely delved subset of neutrophils, named as tumor-associated aged neutrophils (Naged, CXCR4CD62L), involved in premetastatic niche formation during breast cancer metastasis.

Methods: We explored the distributions of Naged in 206 patients and mice models (4T1 and MMTV-PyMT) by flow cytometry. Read More

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October 2021

Netting Gut Disease: Neutrophil Extracellular Trap in Intestinal Pathology.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:5541222. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Many gut disease etiologies are attributed to the presence of robust inflammatory cell recruitment. The recruitment of neutrophils plays a vital role in inflammatory infiltration. Neutrophils have various antimicrobial effector mechanisms, including phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and degranulation. Read More

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October 2021

Proteinous Components of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Are Arrested by the Cell Wall Proteins of during Fungal Infection, and Can Be Used in the Host Invasion.

Cells 2021 10 13;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Comparative Biochemistry and Bioanalytics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Krakow, Poland.

One of defense mechanisms of the human immune system to counteract infection by the opportunistic fungal pathogen is the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of invasion, and the subsequent production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that efficiently capture and kill the invader cells. In the current study, we demonstrate that within these structures composed of chromatin and proteins, the latter play a pivotal role in the entrapment of the fungal pathogen. The proteinous components of NETs, such as the granular enzymes elastase, myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin, as well as histones and cathelicidin-derived peptide LL-37, are involved in contact with the surface of cells. Read More

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October 2021

High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein in Cerebral Thromboemboli.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 19;22(20). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Würzburg, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.

High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) involved in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and thrombosis. NETs are regularly found in cerebral thromboemboli. We here analyzed associated HMGB1 expression in human thromboemboli retrieved via mechanical thrombectomy from 37 stroke patients with large vessel occlusion. Read More

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October 2021

CGAT: Cell Graph ATtention Network for Grading of Pancreatic Disease Histology Images.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:727610. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, United States.

Early detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most aggressive malignancies of the pancreas, is crucial to avoid metastatic spread to other body regions. Detection of pancreatic cancer is typically carried out by assessing the distribution and arrangement of tumor and immune cells in histology images. This is further complicated due to morphological similarities with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and the co-occurrence of precursor lesions in the same tissue. Read More

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November 2021

miRbiom: Machine-learning on Bayesian causal nets of RBP-miRNA interactions successfully predicts miRNA profiles.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(10):e0258550. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Studio of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics, The Himalayan Centre for High-throughput Computational Biology, (HiCHiCoB, A BIC supported by DBT, India)CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR-IHBT), Palampur (HP), India.

Formation of mature miRNAs and their expression is a highly controlled process. It is very much dependent upon the post-transcriptional regulatory events. Recent findings suggest that several RNA binding proteins beyond Drosha/Dicer are involved in the processing of miRNAs. Read More

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October 2021

Mechanism of neutrophil extracellular traps generation and their role in trophoblasts apoptosis in gestational diabetes mellitus.

Cell Signal 2021 Dec 8;88:110168. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 324 Jingwu Street, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Shandong Provincial, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 238 Jingshi East Road, Jinan, Shandong 250014, China; The Laboratory of Placenta-Related Diseases, Key Laboratory of Birth Regulation and Control Technology of National Health Commission of China, 238 Jingshi East Road, Jinan, Shandong 250014, China. Electronic address:

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic syndrome occurring in pregnant women and increases the risk of placental dysplasia. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may play a critical role in placental dysplasia. NETosis (neutrophil cell death by NET release) depends on NADPH/ROS pathway. Read More

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December 2021

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Augmented Alveolar Macrophage Pyroptosis via AIM2 Inflammasome Activation in LPS-Induced ALI/ARDS.

J Inflamm Res 2021 21;14:4839-4858. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, National Key Clinical Specialty, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha City, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Uncontrollable inflammation is a critical feature of gram-negative bacterial pneumonia-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Both neutrophils and alveolar macrophages participate in inflammation, but how their interaction augments inflammation and triggers ARDS is unclear. The authors hypothesize that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are formed during neutrophil NETosis, partly cause alveolar macrophage pyroptosis and worsen the severity of ARDS. Read More

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September 2021

Enzymes Present in Neutrophil Extracellular Traps May Stimulate the Fibrogenic PGF Pathway in the Mare Endometrium.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Sep 6;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

CIISA-Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal.

Endometrosis, a fibrotic disease of mare endometrium, impairs uterine function. Prostaglandins (PG), despite modulating reproductive physiological functions, may also cause local pathological collagen deposition (fibrogenesis). We have previously shown that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may also favor mare endometrosis. Read More

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September 2021

Neutrophils as Regulators and Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Inflammation in the Context of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

Biomedicines 2021 Sep 16;9(9). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of General Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, University Hospital Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Neutrophils represent up to 70% of circulating leukocytes in healthy humans and combat infection mostly by phagocytosis, degranulation and NETosis. It has been reported that neutrophils are centrally involved in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathogenesis. The natural course of AAA is growth and rupture, if left undiagnosed or untreated. Read More

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September 2021

The FcγRIII Engagement Augments PMA-Stimulated Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) Formation by Granulocytes Partially via Cross-Talk between Syk-ERK-NF-κB and PKC-ROS Signaling Pathways.

Biomedicines 2021 Sep 1;9(9). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 10002, Taiwan.

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant white blood cell in the circulation capable of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation after stimulation. Both NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in NET formation. The IgG is the most abundant immunoglobulin in human serum. Read More

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September 2021

Leveling Up the Controversial Role of Neutrophils in Cancer: When the Complexity Becomes Entangled.

Cells 2021 09 20;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Hadassah Medical School, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Ein Kerem Campus, P.O.B. 12272, Jerusalem 9112102, Israel.

Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cell in the circulation of human and act as gatekeepers to discard foreign elements that have entered the body. They are essential in initiating immune responses for eliminating invaders, such as microorganisms and alien particles, as well as to act as immune surveyors of cancer cells, especially during the initial stages of carcinogenesis and for eliminating single metastatic cells in the circulation and in the premetastatic organs. Since neutrophils can secrete a whole range of factors stored in their many granules as well as produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species upon stimulation, neutrophils may directly or indirectly affect carcinogenesis in both the positive and negative directions. Read More

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September 2021

Neutrophil-mediated mechanisms of damage and in-vitro protective effect of colchicine in non-vascular Behçet's syndrome.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Dec 8;206(3):410-421. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences 'Mario Serio', University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy.

Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a systemic vasculitis with several clinical manifestations. Neutrophil hyperactivation mediates vascular BS pathogenesis, via both a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) release. Here, we investigated neutrophil-mediated mechanisms of damage in non-vascular BS manifestations and explored the in-vitro effects of colchicine in counteracting these mechanisms. Read More

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December 2021

Addiction and the cerebellum with a focus on actions of opioid receptors.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Sep 20;131:229-247. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Neuroscience Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence suggests that the cerebellum could play a role in the higher cognitive processes involved in addiction as the cerebellum contains anatomical and functional pathways to circuitry controlling motivation and saliency. In addition, the cerebellum exhibits a widespread presence of receptors, including opioid receptors which are known to play a prominent role in synaptic and circuit mechanisms of plasticity associated with drug use and development of addiction to opioids and other drugs of abuse. Further, the presence of perineural nets (PNNs) in the cerebellum which contain proteins known to alter synaptic plasticity could contribute to addiction. Read More

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September 2021

The Involvement of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Disease Activity Associated With IgA Vasculitis.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:668974. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Objectives: This aim of this study was to determine whether neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are involved in the pathogenesis of IgA vasculitis (IgAV) and investigate whether the circulating NETs levels are associated with disease activity in children.

Methods: We performed a case-control study and collected blood samples from 193 children with different stages of IgAV (61 were at the onset stage, 64 at the remission stage, 43 at the active stage, and 25 were undergoing drug withdrawal). A total of 192 healthy children were recruited as controls. Read More

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October 2021

The impact of COVID-19 on diet quality, food security and nutrition in low and middle income countries: A systematic review of the evidence.

Clin Nutr 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Food Technology, Safety and Health, Belgium; University of Namur, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Belgium.

Background & Aims: The current global pandemic of Coronavirus (COVID-19), and measures adopted to reduce its spread, threaten the nutritional status of populations in Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Documenting how the COVID-19 affects diets, nutrition and food security can help generating evidence-informed recommendations for mitigating interventions and policies.

Methods: We carried out a systematic literature review. Read More

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Microbiota metabolite butyrate constrains neutrophil functions and ameliorates mucosal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1968257

Center for IBD Research, Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Host-microbial cross-talk plays a crucial role in maintenance of gut homeostasis. However, how microbiota-derived metabolites, e.g. Read More

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September 2021