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A Scalable Bayesian Sampling Method Based on Stochastic Gradient Descent Isotropization.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Oct 28;23(11). Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Data Science Department, Eurecom, 06410 Biot, France.

Stochastic gradient sg-based algorithms for Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (sgmcmc) tackle large-scale Bayesian modeling problems by operating on mini-batches and injecting noise on sgsteps. The sampling properties of these algorithms are determined by user choices, such as the covariance of the injected noise and the learning rate, and by problem-specific factors, such as assumptions on the loss landscape and the covariance of sg noise. However, current sgmcmc algorithms applied to popular complex models such as Deep Nets cannot simultaneously satisfy the assumptions on loss landscapes and on the behavior of the covariance of the sg noise, while operating with the practical requirement of non-vanishing learning rates. Read More

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October 2021

Association between guilds of birds in the African-Western Palaearctic region and the tick species one of the main vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

One Health 2021 Dec 11;13:100349. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Medical Sciences, Zoonosis Science Center, Uppsala University, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.

Introduction: The ecology of the vertebrate host contributes to the geographical range expansion of ticks. In this study, we investigated which tick taxa that infest and are dispersed by birds along African-Western Palaearctic flyways during northward migration, and whether bird ecology was associated with tick taxa.

Materials And Methods: Ticks were collected from birds trapped at bird observatories in Spain, Italy, Greece, and Israel during the spring migration of 2014 and 2015, using mist nets. Read More

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December 2021

Machine learning traditional regression models predicting treatment outcomes for binge-eating disorder from a randomized controlled trial.

Psychol Med 2021 Nov 25:1-12. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: While effective treatments exist for binge-eating disorder (BED), prediction of treatment outcomes has proven difficult, and few reliable predictors have been identified. Machine learning is a promising method for improving the accuracy of difficult-to-predict outcomes. We compared the accuracy of traditional and machine-learning approaches for predicting BED treatment outcomes. Read More

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November 2021

Diversity and abundance of tabanids in Northern Spain.

Parasitol Res 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Facultad de Veterinaria, Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Parasitología, Universidad de Extremadura, Av. universidad s/n, Caceres, 10003, Spain.

Tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) are large haematophagous flies that cause both direct (by biting nuisance) and indirect (primarily by mechanical transmission of diseases) damage to host species. Research studies on this family have received little attention in some parts of Europe. Our aims were to characterise the species richness, abundance, and peak of activity of tabanid fly species in a region of Northern Spain. Read More

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November 2021

Elevated Myeloperoxidase-DNA Complex Levels in Sera of Patients with IgA Vasculitis.

Pathobiology 2021 Nov 23:1-6. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Dermatology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Introduction: IgA vasculitis is a systemic disease that results from the entrapment of circulating IgA-containing immune complexes in small-vessel walls in the skin, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. An excessive formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is involved in the pathogenesis of vasculitis, especially in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. This study aimed to clarify whether NETs are implicated in IgA vasculitis. Read More

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November 2021

The quest for an accurate functional tumor volume with Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT.

J Nucl Med 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, United States.

Ga-labelled somatostatin analog PET/CT (SSA PET/CT) is now standard of care component in management of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). However, treatment response for NETs is still performed with morphologic size measurements from other modalities, which can result in inaccurate disease burden. Functional tumor volume (FTV) acquired from SSA PET/CT has been suggested as a possible metric, but no validated measurement tool to measure FTV exists. Read More

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November 2021

A colorimetric test for the evaluation of the insecticide content of LLINs used on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

Malar J 2021 Nov 10;20(1):433. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Medical Care Development International, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea.

Background: Insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of insecticides are used as the vector control interventions in the fight against malaria. Measuring the actual amount of deposits of insecticides on bed nets and walls is essential for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of the intervention. A colorimetric "Test Kit" designed for use as a screening tool, able to detect the type II pyrethroids on fabrics and sprayed walls, was used for the first time to detect deltamethrin on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) deployed on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Read More

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November 2021

Time to give up traditional methods for the management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Oct;9(29):8627-8646

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Health Sciences Turkey, Keçiören Health Administration and Research Center, Ankara 06190, Turkey.

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare and heterogeneous disease group and constitute 0.5% of all malignancies. The annual incidence of NETs is increasing worldwide. Read More

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October 2021

Combinatorial aspects of the Löwenstein avoidance rule. Part I: the independence polynomial.

Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv 2021 Nov 24;77(Pt 6):548-558. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149 Bloco A, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941-909, Brazil.

According to Löwenstein's rule, Al-O-Al bridges are forbidden in the aluminosilicate framework of zeolites. A graph-theoretical interpretation of the rule, based on the concept of independent sets, was proposed earlier. It was shown that one can apply the vector method to the associated periodic net and define a maximal Al/(Al+Si) ratio for any aluminosilicate framework following the rule; this ratio was called the independence ratio of the net. Read More

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November 2021

Aged neutrophils form mitochondria-dependent vital NETs to promote breast cancer lung metastasis.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 10;9(10)

Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Immune Therapy of Zhejiang Province, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China

Background: Neutrophils-linked premetastatic niche plays a key role in tumor metastasis, but not much is known about the heterogeneity and diverse role of neutrophils in niche formation. Our study focuses on the existence and biological function of a rarely delved subset of neutrophils, named as tumor-associated aged neutrophils (Naged, CXCR4CD62L), involved in premetastatic niche formation during breast cancer metastasis.

Methods: We explored the distributions of Naged in 206 patients and mice models (4T1 and MMTV-PyMT) by flow cytometry. Read More

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October 2021

Use of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG as a serological biomarker to assess temporal exposure to Anopheles' mosquito bites in Lower Moshi.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(10):e0259131. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Centre for Medical Parasitology, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Malaria prevalence in the highlands of Northern Tanzania is currently below 1% making this an elimination prone setting. As climate changes may facilitate increasing distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes in such settings, there is a need to monitor changes in risks of exposure to ensure that established control tools meet the required needs. This study explored the use of human antibodies against gambiae salivary gland protein 6 peptide 1 (gSG6-P1) as a biomarker of Anopheles exposure and assessed temporal exposure to mosquito bites in populations living in Lower Moshi, Northern Tanzania. Read More

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October 2021

Genomic signatures of host adaptation in group B Salmonella enterica ST416/ST417 from harbour porpoises.

Vet Res 2021 Oct 21;52(1):134. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Microbiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.

A type of monophasic group B Salmonella enterica with the antigenic formula 4,12:a:- ("Fulica-like") has been described as associated with harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), most frequently recovered from lung samples. In the present study, lung tissue samples from 47 porpoises found along the Swedish coast or as bycatch in fishing nets were analysed, two of which were positive for S. enterica. Read More

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October 2021

Two Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors (PitNETs) with Very High Proliferation and TP53 Mutation - High-Grade PitNET or PitNEC?

Endocr Pathol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg, UKE, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

We report two pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) with very high Ki67 labeling indices, many mitoses and TP53 mutation (nearly all tumor cell nuclei were positive for p53). One of the tumors had bone and liver metastases. One was a corticotroph cell tumor; the other was a lactotroph tumor. Read More

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October 2021

NFIL3 Facilitates Neutrophil Autophagy, Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Inflammation During Gout REDD1-Dependent mTOR Inactivation.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 30;8:692781. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Autophagy pathways play an important role in immunity and inflammation pathogen clearance mechanisms mediated by immune cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils. In particular, autophagic activity is essential for the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a distinct form of active neutrophil death. The current study set out to elucidate the mechanism of the NFIL3/REDD1/mTOR axis in neutrophil autophagy and NET formation during gout inflammation. Read More

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September 2021

Interruption of neutrophil extracellular traps formation dictates host defense and tubular HOXA5 stability to augment efficacy of anti-Fn14 therapy against septic AKI.

Theranostics 2021 13;11(19):9431-9451. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang, P.R. China.

The immunosuppressive, inflammatory microenvironment orchestrated by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) plays a principal role in pathogenesis of sepsis. Fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14) has been established as a potential target for septic acute kidney injury (AKI), making further therapeutic benefits from combined NETs and Fn14 blockade possible. The concurrence of NETs and Fn14 in mice and patients with septic AKI were assessed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and studies. Read More

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September 2021

[Endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors].

Chirurg 2021 Nov 7;92(11):996-1002. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Klinische Abteilung für Viszeralchirurgie, Medizinische Universität Wien, ENETS- Center of Excellence, Universitätsklinik für Allgemeinchirurgie, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Wien, Österreich.

Endocrine tumors and here in particular gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NET), pheochromocytomas (PC), paragangliomas (PGL) and thyroid tumors are prime examples of the importance of molecular pathology and molecular biology for the diagnostics, classification and ultimately also the (surgical) treatment of these diseases. The GEP-NETs are graded using the Ki-67 index. This determines the type of molecular imaging (DOTA/DOPA/FDG-PET/CT), the possible treatment (surgical and/or radiopeptide therapy), antiproliferative and symptom-controlling treatment with somatostatin analogues and ultimately also the prognosis. Read More

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November 2021

Assessing health system factors affecting access and delivery of IPTp-SP and ITN to pregnant women attending ANC clinics in Ghana.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Oct 6;21(1):1056. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

School of Medicine, University of Health and Allied Science, Ho, Ghana.

Introduction: Malaria interventions including use of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp-SP) and distribution of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) have been implemented through ante-natal clinic (ANC) services in Ghana. Yet, the high ANC attendance is not commensurate with the uptake of these interventions, with missed opportunities to deliver the interventions. This study sought to assess the health system factors affecting access and delivery of IPTp-SP and ITN as defined by the Ghana Malaria Policy Guideline to eligible pregnant women attending ANC clinic sessions. Read More

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October 2021

Toxoplasma gondii-Induced Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Amplify the Innate and Adaptive Response.

mBio 2021 Oct 5;12(5):e0130721. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Instituto Rene Rachou, FIOCRUZ-MG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Toxoplasmosis affects one-third of the human population worldwide. Humans are accidental hosts and are infected after consumption of undercooked meat and water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii cysts and oocysts, respectively. Neutrophils have been shown to participate in the control of T. Read More

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October 2021

miR-3146 induces neutrophil extracellular traps to aggravate gout flare.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Nov 4;35(11):e24032. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Gout is an inflammatory arthritis and is characterized by the accumulation of deposited monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the joints. miRNAs may act as key regulators of gout pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to explore the underlying role and molecular mechanism of miR-3146 in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) during the pathogenesis of gout. Read More

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November 2021

Associations of Toll-like Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with NETosis Activity as Prognostic Criteria for the Severity of Pneumonia.

Sovrem Tekhnologii Med 2021 28;13(3):47-53. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Associate Professor, Department of Medical Genetics; I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), 8/2 Trubetskaya St., Moscow, 119991, Russia; Geneticist, Center for Personalized Medicine; Moscow Clinical Scientific Center named after A.S. Loginov, Moscow Healthcare Department, 86 Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow, 111123, Russia.

was to determine the molecular genetic prognostic criteria for the severity of the course pneumonia based on the analysis of the association of genetic polymorphism in toll-like receptors with the severity of NETosis.

Materials And Methods: The study included 38 patients with the main diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia with a severe course. All the patients underwent standard clinical laboratory examinations, computed tomography of the thoracic organs, microbiological examination of blood and tracheobronchial aspirate. Read More

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Nonrandom Selection and Multiple Blood Feeding of Human Hosts by Anopheles Vectors: Implications for Malaria Transmission in Papua New Guinea.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, and Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.

Nonrandom selection and multiple blood feeding of human hosts by Anopheles mosquitoes may exacerbate malaria transmission. Both patterns of blood feeding and their relationship to malaria epidemiology were investigated in Anopheles vectors in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Blood samples from humans and mosquito blood meals were collected in villages and human genetic profiles ("fingerprints") were analyzed by genotyping 23 microsatellites and a sex-specific marker. Read More

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September 2021

Y/Lu-DOTATOC: From Preclinical Studies to Application in Humans.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Sep 13;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Nuclear Medicine Unit, University Hospital, 44124 Ferrara, Italy.

The PRRT (Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy) is a promising modality treatment for patients with inoperable or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of these patients are favorably comparable with standard therapies. The protagonist in this type of therapy is a somatostatin-modified peptide fragment ([Tyr3] octreotide), equipped with a specific chelating system (DOTA) capable of creating a stable bond with β-emitting radionuclides, such as yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. Read More

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September 2021

Extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production in Fresh Donkey Sperm Exposed to Reductive Stress, Oxidative Stress and NETosis.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 27;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Equine Reproduction Service, Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Autonomous University of Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Jenny shows a large endometrial reaction after semen influx to the uterus with a large amount of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) migrating into the uterine lumen. PMN act as a sperm selection mechanism through phagocytosis and NETosis (DNA extrudes and, together with proteins, trap spermatozoa). While a reduced percentage of spermatozoa are phagocytosed by PMN, most are found to be attached to neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Read More

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Metastatic Patterns of Duodenopancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Patients With Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University Department of Endocrine Surgical Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht Department of Endocrine Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht Cancer Center, Utrecht Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 syndrome (MEN1) often develop multifocal duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (dpNETs). Nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) and duodenal gastrinomas are the most frequent origins of metastasis. Current guidelines recommend surgery based on tumor functionality, size ≥2 cm, grade or presence of lymph node metastases. Read More

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September 2021

The Involvement of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Disease Activity Associated With IgA Vasculitis.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:668974. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Objectives: This aim of this study was to determine whether neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are involved in the pathogenesis of IgA vasculitis (IgAV) and investigate whether the circulating NETs levels are associated with disease activity in children.

Methods: We performed a case-control study and collected blood samples from 193 children with different stages of IgAV (61 were at the onset stage, 64 at the remission stage, 43 at the active stage, and 25 were undergoing drug withdrawal). A total of 192 healthy children were recruited as controls. Read More

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October 2021

The Correlation of the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio and the Platelet-Lymphocyte Ratio With Pathological Findings in Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Cureus 2021 Aug 13;13(8):e17164. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Medical Oncology, University of Health Sciences, Adana City Education and Research Hospital, Adana, TUR.

Introduction The relationship between clinical prognostic factors and blood neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in some tumors has been investigated. In this study, we examined whether there is a relationship between pathological prognostic factors and NLR as well as PLR only in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Methods A total of 115 patients with a NET diagnosis between 2014-2020 were included in the study. Read More

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[Insecticide-Treated Net Use In Sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis].

Ig Sanita Pubbl 2021 Jul-Aug;78(4):564-582

Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon.

Background: Countries in sub-Saharan Africa remain the most affected by malaria, with nearly 93% of cases and 94% of deaths in 2018 according to the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the WHO, in order to significantly reduce malaria- related incidence and mortality, at least 80% of the population should be covered with insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs). Hence our objective which was on the one hand to determine the rates in terms of possession and use of ITNs in countries located in Sub- Saharan Africa between January 2015 and January 2020, and to determine the impact of the use of ITNs on the probability of being infected with malaria. Read More

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September 2021

Management of Duodenal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Surgical versus Endoscopic Mucosal Resection.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Surgery, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Background: Management of duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (DNETs) is not standardized, with smaller lesions (< 1-2 cm) generally treated by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and larger DNETs by surgical resection (SR). This study reviewed how patients were selected for treatment and compared outcomes.

Patients And Methods: Patients with DNETs undergoing resection were identified through institutional databases, and clinicopathologic data recorded. Read More

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September 2021

Microbiota metabolite butyrate constrains neutrophil functions and ameliorates mucosal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1968257

Center for IBD Research, Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Host-microbial cross-talk plays a crucial role in maintenance of gut homeostasis. However, how microbiota-derived metabolites, e.g. Read More

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September 2021

The seasonal cycle of micro and meso-plastics in surface waters in a coastal environment (Ría de Vigo, NW Spain).

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jan 1;803:150021. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Centro Oceanografico de Vigo (IEO, CSIC), Subida a Radio Faro 50, 36390 Vigo, Spain.

Marine litter is an emerging environmental problem. In this study, micro and mesoplastics were determined for the first time in seawater in Ría de Vigo (Spain) identifying their concentration, annual cycle, size, shape and polymer composition. Besides, temporal variations at an annual scale were also established. Read More

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January 2022