10,261 results match your criteria net experiments

Novel microbial-electrochemical filter with a computer-feedback pH control strategy for upgrading biogas into biomethane.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 6;332:125137. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Engineering and Energy, College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, WA 6150, Australia.

A novel microbial-electrochemical filter was designed and operated based on a combined microbial electrolysis cell and bio-trickling filter principles with the aim to maximize gas-liquid mass-transfer efficiency and minimize costs associated with bubbling biogas through liquid-filled reactor. CO/biogas feed to the MEF was done via a computer-feedback pH control strategy, linking CO feed directly to the OH production. As a result current efficiency was constant at around 100% throughout the period of experiments. Read More

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Improved 3D U-Net robustness against JPEG 2000 compression for male pelvic organ segmentation in radiotherapy.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2021 Jul 5;8(4):041207. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Université Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium.

Automation of organ segmentation, via convolutional neural networks (CNNs), is key to facilitate the work of medical practitioners by ensuring that the adequate radiation dose is delivered to the target area while avoiding harmful exposure of healthy organs. The issue with CNNs is that they require large amounts of data transfer and storage which makes the use of image compression a necessity. Compression will affect image quality which in turn affects the segmentation process. Read More

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Investigation of a Novel Deep Learning-Based Computed Tomography Perfusion Mapping Framework for Functional Lung Avoidance Radiotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:644703. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Functional lung avoidance radiation therapy aims to minimize dose delivery to the normal lung tissue while favoring dose deposition in the defective lung tissue based on the regional function information. However, the clinical acquisition of pulmonary functional images is resource-demanding, inconvenient, and technically challenging. This study aims to investigate the deep learning-based lung functional image synthesis from the CT domain. Read More

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Deep Segmentation of Point Clouds of Wheat.

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:608732. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

National Plant Phenomics Centre, Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom.

The 3D analysis of plants has become increasingly effective in modeling the relative structure of organs and other traits of interest. In this paper, we introduce a novel pattern-based deep neural network, Pattern-Net, for segmentation of point clouds of wheat. This study is the first to segment the point clouds of wheat into defined organs and to analyse their traits directly in 3D space. Read More

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Association between somatostatin analogues and diabetes mellitus in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor patients: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare analysis of 5235 patients.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 Apr 9:e1387. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are increasingly common malignancies and tend to have favorable long-term prognoses. Somatostatin analogues (SSA) are a first-line treatment for many NETs. Short-term experiments suggest an association between SSAs and hyperglycemia. Read More

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Oxidative Addition of Aryl and Alkyl Halides to a Reduced Iron Pincer Complex.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, United States.

The two-electron oxidative addition of aryl and alkyl halides to a reduced iron dinitrogen complex with a strong-field tridentate pincer ligand has been demonstrated. Addition of iodobenzene or bromobenzene to (3,5-MeCNC)Fe(N) (3,5-MeCNC = 2,6-(2,4,6-Me-CH-imidazol-2-ylidene)-3,5-Me-pyridine) resulted in rapid oxidative addition and formation of the diamagnetic, octahedral Fe(II) products (3,5-MeCNC)Fe(Ph)(N)(X), where X = I or Br. Competition experiments established the relative rate of oxidative addition of aryl halides as I > Br > Cl. Read More

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Leaf and tree responses of young European aspen trees to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration vary over the season.

Tree Physiol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) commonly stimulates net leaf assimilation, decreases stomatal conductance and has no clear effect on leaf respiration. However, effects of eCO2 on whole-tree functioning and its seasonal dynamics remain far more uncertain. To evaluate temporal and spatial variability in eCO2 effects, one-year-old European aspen trees were grown in two treatment chambers under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) and elevated (eCO2, 700 ppm) CO2 concentrations during an early (spring 2019) and late (autumn 2018) seasonal experiment (ESE and LSE, respectively). Read More

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Single-shot fringe projection profilometry based on deep learning and computer graphics.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8024-8040

Multiple works have applied deep learning to fringe projection profilometry (FPP) in recent years. However, to obtain a large amount of data from actual systems for training is still a tricky problem, and moreover, the network design and optimization is still worth exploring. In this paper, we introduce graphic software to build virtual FPP systems in order to generate the desired datasets conveniently and simply. Read More

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Data augmentation-based conditional Wasserstein generative adversarial network-gradient penalty for XSS attack detection system.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2020 14;6:e328. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

College of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China.

The rapid growth of the worldwide web and accompanied opportunities of web applications in various aspects of life have attracted the attention of organizations, governments, and individuals. Consequently, web applications have increasingly become the target of cyberattacks. Notably, cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks on web applications are increasing and have become the critical focus of information security experts' reports. Read More

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December 2020

Conditions stimulating neutral detergent fiber degradation by dosing branched-chain volatile fatty acids. I: Comparison with branched-chain amino acids and forage source in ruminal batch cultures.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210. Electronic address:

Three experiments assessed branched-chain volatile fatty acid (BCVFA) stimulation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) disappearance after 24 h of incubation in batch cultures derived from ruminal fluid inocula that were enriched with particulate-phase bacteria. In experiment 1, a control was compared with 3 treatments with isomolar doses of all 3 BCVFA (plus valerate), all 3 branched-chain AA (BCAA), or half of each BCVFA and BCAA mix with either alfalfa or grass hays (50%) and ground corn grain (50%). A portion of the BCAA and BCVFA doses were enriched with C, and valerate (also enriched with C) was added with BCVFA. Read More

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Biochar amendment mitigated NO emissions from paddy field during the wheat growing season.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 27;281:117026. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Agriculture and GHGs Mitigation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

Biochar may variably impact nitrogen (N) transformation and N-cycle-related microbial activities. Yet the mechanism of biochar amendment on nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from agricultural ecosystems remains unclear. Based on a 6-year long-term biochar amendment experiment, we applied a dual isotope (N-O) labeling technique with tracing transcriptional genes to differentiate the contribution of nitrifier nitrification (NN), nitrifier denitrification (ND), nitrification-coupled denitrification (NCD) and heterotrophic denitrification (HD) pathway to NO production. Read More

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Dynamics of nitrous oxide with depth in groundwater: Insights from ambient groundwater and laboratory incubation experiments (Hesbaye chalk aquifer, Belgium).

J Contam Hydrol 2021 Mar 15;241:103797. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Chemical Oceanography Unit, University of Liѐge, Liѐge, Belgium.

Aquifers under agricultural areas are considered to be an indirect source of nitrous oxide emission (NO) to the atmosphere, which is the greenhouse gas (GHGs) characterized with the highest global warning potential and acts as a stratospheric ozone depletion agent. Previous investigations performed in the Cretaceous Hesbaye chalk aquifer in Eastern Belgium suggested that the dynamics of NO in the aquifer is controlled by overlapping biochemical processes such as nitrification and denitrification. The current study aims to obtain better insight concerning the factors controlling the distribution of NO concentration along a vertical dimension in the aquifer, and to capture and quantify the occurrence of nitrification and denitrification processes in the groundwater system. Read More

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Discovery of novel Staphylococcus aureus penicillin binding protein 2a inhibitors by multistep virtual screening and biological evaluation.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Mar 31:128001. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China; Institute of Bacterial Resistance, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China. Electronic address:

Penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) is an essential protein involved in the resistance to β-lactam antibiotics acquired by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and is a potential antibacterial target. In the current study, we employed a strategy that combined virtual screening with biological evaluation to discover novel inhibitors of PBP2a. In this investigation, a hybrid virtual screening method, consisting of drug-likeness evaluation (Lipinski's Rule of Five and ADMET) and rigid (LibDock) and semi-flexible (CDOCKER) docking-based virtual screenings, was used for retrieving novel PBP2a inhibitors from commercially available chemical databases. Read More

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Effect of Cryogenic Grinding on Fatigue Life of Additively Manufactured Maraging Steel.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;14(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Raclawicka 15-17, 75-620 Koszalin, Poland.

Additive manufacturing (AM) is replacing conventional manufacturing techniques due to its ability to manufacture complex structures with near-net shape and reduced material wastage. However, the poor surface integrity of the AM parts deteriorates the service life of the components. The AM parts should be subjected to post-processing treatment for improving surface integrity and fatigue life. Read More

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Multi-U-Net: Residual Module under Multisensory Field and Attention Mechanism Based Optimized U-Net for VHR Image Semantic Segmentation.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Key Laboratory of Smart City and Environment Modeling of Autonomous Region Universities, College of Resources and Environment Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China.

As the acquisition of very high resolution (VHR) images becomes easier, the complex characteristics of VHR images pose new challenges to traditional machine learning semantic segmentation methods. As an excellent convolutional neural network (CNN) structure, U-Net does not require manual intervention, and its high-precision features are widely used in image interpretation. However, as an end-to-end fully convolutional network, U-Net has not explored enough information from the full scale, and there is still room for improvement. Read More

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MSDU-Net: A Multi-Scale Dilated U-Net for Blur Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

A blur detection problem which aims to separate the blurred and clear regions of an image is widely used in many important computer vision tasks such object detection, semantic segmentation, and face recognition, attracting increasing attention from researchers and industry in recent years. To improve the quality of the image separation, many researchers have spent enormous efforts on extracting features from various scales of images. However, the matter of how to extract blur features and fuse these features synchronously is still a big challenge. Read More

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RN-Net: A Deep Learning Approach to 0-2 Hour Rainfall Nowcasting Based on Radar and Automatic Weather Station Data.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

School of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410000, China.

Precipitation has an important impact on people's daily life and disaster prevention and mitigation. However, it is difficult to provide more accurate results for rainfall nowcasting due to spin-up problems in numerical weather prediction models. Furthermore, existing rainfall nowcasting methods based on machine learning and deep learning cannot provide large-area rainfall nowcasting with high spatiotemporal resolution. Read More

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Biosafety and efficacy evaluation of a biodegradable magnesium-based drug-eluting stent in porcine coronary artery.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 1;11(1):7330. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Cardiology, RuiJin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 20025, People's Republic of China.

Although the drug-eluting stent (DES) has become the standard for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-based revascularization, concerns remain regarding the use of DES, mainly due to its permanent rigid constraint to vessels. A drug-eluting bioresorbable stent (BRS) was thus developed as an alternative to DES, which can be absorbed entirely after its therapeutic period. Magnesium (Mg)-based BRSs have attracted a great deal of attention due to their suitable mechanical properties, innovative chemical features, and well-proven biocompatibility. Read More

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3D Human Pose, Shape and Texture from Low-Resolution Images and Videos.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Mar 31;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

3D human pose and shape estimation from monocular images has been an active research area in computer vision. Existing deep learning methods for this task rely on high-resolution input, which however, is not always available in many scenarios such as video surveillance and sports broadcasting. Two common approaches to deal with low-resolution images are applying super-resolution techniques to the input, which may result in unpleasant artifacts, or simply training one model for each resolution, which is impractical in many realistic applications. Read More

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Prognostic Molecular Indices of Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Implications of S100P for Early Recurrence.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) often recur in patients undergoing hepatectomy, there are no reliable biomarkers of this undesirable event. Recent RNA-based efforts have developed valuable genetic indices prognostic of cancer outcomes. We aimed to identify molecular predictors of early recurrence after resection of HCC, and reveal the genomolecular structure of the resected tumors. Read More

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Inhibitor of DNA Binding 2 (ID2): A Novel Marker for Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Although aggressive invasion and sequential lymph node metastasis (LNM) significantly affect the prognosis of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), studies on identifying the factors that regulate this process remain scarce. This study found an inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) as a novel molecule involved in the regulation of invasion and LNM of HNSCC and further verified its functional role.

Methods: The study examined the translational significance between ID2 expression levels and the presence of LNM as well as the prognosis for 119 patients with HNSCC after treatment. Read More

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Tumor attention networks: Better feature selection, better tumor segmentation.

Neural Netw 2021 Mar 13;140:203-222. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

School of Data and Computer Science, Shandong Women's University, Jinan 250014, China. Electronic address:

Compared with the traditional analysis of computed tomography scans, automatic liver tumor segmentation can supply precise tumor volumes and reduce the inter-observer variability in estimating the tumor size and the tumor burden, which could further assist physicians to make better therapeutic choices for hepatic diseases and monitoring treatment. Among current mainstream segmentation approaches, multi-layer and multi-kernel convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have attracted much attention in diverse biomedical/medical image segmentation tasks with remarkable performance. However, an arbitrary stacking of feature maps makes CNNs quite inconsistent in imitating the cognition and the visual attention of human beings for a specific visual task. Read More

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Effect of levodopa/carbidopa on stress response in zebrafish.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Programa de Pós-Graduação Em Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Av. Roraima, 1000, Cidade Universitária, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900, Brasil.

The dopaminergic system of zebrafish is complex and the numerous pathways and receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) are being extensively studied. A critical factor for the synthesis, activation and release of catecholamines (CAs) is the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme which converts L-tyrosine into levodopa. Levodopa thus is the intermediary in the synthesis of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and promotes its release; therefore, CAs play an important role in the CNS with hormonal functions. Read More

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Convolutional neural networks for PET functional volume fully automatic segmentation: development and validation in a multi-center setting.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

LaTIM, INSERM, UMR 1101, University Brest, Brest, France.

Purpose: In this work, we addressed fully automatic determination of tumor functional uptake from positron emission tomography (PET) images without relying on other image modalities or additional prior constraints, in the context of multicenter images with heterogeneous characteristics.

Methods: In cervical cancer, an additional challenge is the location of the tumor uptake near or even stuck to the bladder. PET datasets of 232 patients from five institutions were exploited. Read More

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Microwave resonances of magnetic skyrmions in thin film multilayers.

Nat Commun 2021 Mar 26;12(1):1909. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Non-collinear magnets exhibit a rich array of dynamic properties at microwave frequencies. They can host nanometre-scale topological textures known as skyrmions, whose spin resonances are expected to be highly sensitive to their local magnetic environment. Here, we report a magnetic resonance study of an [Ir/Fe/Co/Pt] multilayer hosting Néel skyrmions at room temperature. Read More

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The fatty acid receptor CD36 promotes HCC progression through activating Src/PI3K/AKT axis-dependent aerobic glycolysis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Mar 26;12(4):328. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Centre for Lipid Research and Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases (Ministry of Education), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute for Viral Hepatitis, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, 400016, Chongqing, China.

Metabolic reprogramming is a new hallmark of cancer but it remains poorly defined in hepatocellular carcinogenesis (HCC). The fatty acid receptor CD36 is associated with both lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver. However, the role of CD36 in metabolic reprogramming in the progression of HCC still remains to be elucidated. Read More

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Comparison of life history parameters of two different genetic clusters of Bemisia tabaci MED (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) through single and cross mating.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(3):e0248819. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Entomology Program, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an economically important insect pest worldwide. Previously, we have reported that most B. tabaci Mediterranean (MED) populations occurring in greenhouse tomatoes in Korea have been displaced from well-differentiated two genetic clusters (C1 and C2) to one (C2) during one-year period. Read More

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Revisiting Polymer-Particle Interaction in PEO Solutions.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 25;37(13):3808-3816. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Biophym, Departamento de Física Macromolecular, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC) c/Serrano 113 bis, 28006 Madrid, Spain.

We have measured the electrophoretic mobility and diffusion coefficient of carboxylate-modified and sulfate-modified polystyrene latex particles in poly(ethylene oxide) aqueous solutions. -modified polystyrene particles have shown a bound polymeric layer as the surface net charge vanishes even at very low poly(ethylene oxide) concentration. The polymeric layer causes a lower electrophoretic mobility and slower Brownian diffusion than that corresponding to the bare particles. Read More

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Kikuyu grass in winter-spring time in small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico in terms of cow performance and fatty acid profile of milk.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Mar 24;53(2):225. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Rurales (ICAR), Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM), Campus UAEM. El Cerrillo, El Cerrillo Piedras Blancas, CP, 50090, Toluca, Estado de México, México.

The work herein reported closes the evaluation of the role of kikuyu grass in small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of Mexico. The objective was to compare the productive response of vacas lecheras en pastoreo continuo de kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus) with a sown frost-resistant tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) during the winter-spring dry season in dairy systems and determine the fatty acid profile of feeds and milk. An on-farm double cross-over experiment with three periods the 14 days each was undertaken with eight Holstein cows randomly assigned to treatments sequence. Read More

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Similar effects as shade tolerance induced by dust accumulation and size penetration of particulates on cotton leaves.

Li Li Guijin Mu

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Mar 23;21(1):149. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Xinjiang Desert Plant Roots Ecology and Vegetation Restoration Laboratory, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011, China.

Background: Dust accumulation covers the leaf's surface and influences foliar physiological activity. Two independent experiments were carried out to instigate the foliar responses to dust accumulation and the penetration limitation of small dust particles (< 1 μm) on the foliar surface, respectively. In experiment I, three dust accumulation intensities were achieved by a dust spraying treatment. Read More

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