2,156,485 results match your criteria nervous system


Georgian Med News 2021 Mar(312):78-82

1V. Karazin Kharkiv National University, School of Medicine; 2SI "Institute of Health of Children and Adolescents of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kharkiv, Ukraine.

In this study was to investigate the сoexistence of diabetes mellitus type 1 with other chronic pathology in children and adolescents and their impact on the course of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1). The 88 children from 3 to 17 years who had DM1 were observed. The study was conducted by survey with the aim of finding risk factors and associated comorbidties with a questionnaire-based, objective-subjective study. Read More

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Cerebellar liponeurocytoma, a rare tumor: Case report and review of the literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 30;82:105937. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Makassed Islamic Charitable Society, Jerusalem, Palestine.

Introduction: Cerebellar liponeurocytoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system occurring mainly in the posterior fossa, which shows neuronal and variable astrocytic differentiation, along with foci of lipomatous differentiation.

Case Presentation: Herein, we describe a 50-year-old female patient who presented to the hospital complaining of headache, tinnitus, and vertigo with positive cerebellar signs. MRI revealed a left cerebellar tumor. Read More

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Pediatric Autoimmune Encephalitis and Its Relationship With Infection.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 Apr 7;120:27-32. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an increasingly recognized inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system and is most often characterized by antibodies against intracellular and neuronal surface antigens. AE is a devastating disease that may result in developmental delay or regression in children. However, the pathogenesis of AE is not clear, and immune system disorders after infection likely play an important role in AE. Read More

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Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment outcome of CNS aspergillosis: A systematic review of 235 cases.

Infect Dis Now 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Aspergillus is a ubiquitous ascomycete that can cause a variety of clinical presentations depending on immune status. Central nervous system aspergillosis is a fatal disease with non-specific clinical features. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in CNS aspergillosis patients. Read More

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Clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and long-term survival time in 182 dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown origin from Central Europe that were administered glucocorticosteroid monotherapy.

Top Companion Anim Med 2021 May 5:100539. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, Masaryk University, Brno, 60200 Czech Republic.

Canine non-infectious inflammatory meningoencephalomyelitis is termed meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO) and may affect dogs of every breed at any age. Treatment with immunosuppressive medication, the survival time based on MRI, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings has been widely reported; however, these studies only included a small number of patients, or they are summaries from the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, treatment protocol and long-term survival time in many dogs diagnosed with MUO in one clinic with previously published studies. Read More

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Immunotherapy as Single Treatment for Non-small-cell Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis - the META-L-BRAIN study.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Brain metastases (BM) occur in 40% of lung cancer patients. The activity of immunotherapy in these patients, however, remains controversial, as the cornerstone treatment is radiotherapy (RT). Since RT is associated with adverse events that may impair quality of life, the possibility of substituting it by a single systemic approach is attractive. Read More

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Mechanisms of oxidative stress in Methylmercury-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity.

Neurotoxicology 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a long-lasting organic environmental pollutant that poses a great threat to human health. Ingestion of seafood containing MeHg is the most important way by which it comes into contact with human body, where the central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target of MeHg toxicity. During periods of pre-plus postnatal, in particular, the brain of offspring is vulnerable to specific developmental insults that result in abnormal neurobehavioral development, even without symptoms in mothers. Read More

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Biallelic mutations in RNF220 cause laminopathies featuring leukodystrophy, ataxia and deafness.

Brain 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Genetics and Rare Diseases Research Division, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy.

Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of rare inherited disorders that involve preferentially the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). These conditions are characterized by a primary glial cell and myelin sheath pathology of variable etiology, which causes secondary axonal degeneration, generally emerging with disease progression. Whole exome sequencing performed in 5 large consanguineous nuclear families allowed to identify homozygosity for two recurrent missense variants affecting highly conserved residues of RNF220 as the causative event underlying a novel form of leukodystrophy with ataxia and sensorineural deafness. Read More

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Introduction to the special focus on the development of the autonomic nervous system.

Birth Defects Res 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, The Congenital Heart Collaborative, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

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[Contribution of sympathetic activation to antihypertrophic memory after regression of exercise-induced physiological myocardial hypertrophy in mice].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Apr;41(4):495-503

Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Shock and Microcirculation, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Objective: To investigate whether anti-hypertrophic memory exists after regression of exercise-induced physiological myocardial hypertrophy (PMH) and explore the contribution of sympathetic activation to hypertrophic memory formation.

Objective: Seventy-two mice were randomized equally into 6 groups, including sedentary sham-operated group, exercise hypertrophic preconditioning (EHP) + sham operation group, bisoprolol (an adrenergic β1 receptor blocker) + EHP + sham operation group (biso+Exe+Sham group), sedentary group with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) (Sed+TAC group), EHP+ TAC group (Exe+TAC group), and bisoprolol+EHP+TAC group (biso+Exe+TAC group). The mice in the EHP groups were subjected to 3 weeks of swimming training, and in the bisoprolol groups, bisoprolol was administered by gavage once daily from two days before till the end of the training. Read More

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Temporal control of muscle synergies is linked with alpha-band neural drive.

J Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 90089, United States.

Key Points: It is theorized that the nervous system controls groups of muscles together as functional units, or 'synergies', resulting in correlated electromyographic (EMG) signals among muscles. However, such correlation does not necessarily imply group-level neural control. Oscillatory synchronization (coherence) among EMG signals implies neural coupling, but it is not clear how this relates to control of muscle synergies. Read More

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BDNF Participates in Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain via Transcriptionally Activating P2X in Primary Sensory Neurons.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Neuropathic pain, resulting from the pathological changes of the somatosensory nervous system, remains a severe public health problem worldwide. The effect of treatment targeting neuropathic pain is very limited, as the underlying mechanism of neuropathic pain is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was remarkably and time-dependently increased in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Read More

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Postmortem pathological changes in extrapulmonary organs in SARS-CoV-2 rt-PCR-positive cases: a single-center experience.

Ir J Med Sci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Council of Forensic Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Although the lung is seen as the main target organ affected by SARS-CoV-2, other organs are also damaged.

Aim: We aimed to determine the extrapulmonary findings of autopsies performed on cases with positive results with postmortem polymerase chain reaction test.

Methods: Pathological changes in extrapulmonary organs were examined with light microscopy. Read More

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Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases: Dynamic Switches in Developmental Transitions.

Endocrinology 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic, essential actions in mammalian, including human, development. These actions depend upon provision of thyroid hormones in the circulation but also to a remarkable extent upon deiodinase enzymes in target tissues that amplify or deplete the local concentration of the primary active form of the hormone T3 (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine), the high affinity ligand for thyroid hormone receptors. Genetic analyses in mice have revealed key roles for activating (DIO2) and inactivating (DIO3) deiodinases in cell differentiation fates and tissue maturation, ultimately promoting neonatal viability, growth, fertility, brain development and behavior, as well as metabolic, endocrine and sensory functions. Read More

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The gut microbiome is associated with brain structure and function in schizophrenia.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9743. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

The effect of the gut microbiome on the central nervous system and its possible role in mental disorders have received increasing attention. However, knowledge about the relationship between the gut microbiome and brain structure and function is still very limited. Here, we used 16S rRNA sequencing with structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and resting-state functional (rs-fMRI) to investigate differences in fecal microbiota between 38 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and 38 demographically matched normal controls (NCs) and explored whether such differences were associated with brain structure and function. Read More

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Isolated Extramedullary Relapse After Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Myeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients: Case Reports and Literature Review.

Transplant Proc 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand; Research Unit in Translational Hematology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Isolated extramedullary relapse (iEMR) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is rare and has a dismal prognosis. Among 67 patients with AML after allo-HSCT, iEMR and bone marrow relapse occurred in 6% and 20.9%, respectively, with a median time to relapse of 11. Read More

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Neurological pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): from virological features to clinical symptoms.

Inflamm Regen 2021 May 7;41(1):15. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Since the worldwide outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020, various research reports and case reports have been published. It has been found that COVID-19 causes not only respiratory disorders but also thrombosis and gastrointestinal disorders, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and peripheral neuropathy. Compared to other disorders, there are low number of research reports and low number of summaries on COVID-19-related neural disorders. Read More

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3D bioprinted human iPSC-derived somatosensory constructs with functional and highly purified sensory neuron networks.

Biofabrication 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 65 Landsdowne Street, Rm. 252, PRB-252, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139, UNITED STATES.

Engineering three-dimensional (3D) sensible tissue constructs, along with the complex microarchitecture wiring of the sensory nervous system, has been an ongoing challenge in the tissue engineering field. By combining 3D bioprinting and human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) technologies, sensible tissue constructs could be engineered in a rapid, precise, and controllable manner to replicate 3D microarchitectures and mechanosensory functionalities of the native sensory tissue (e.g. Read More

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Ketogenic diet-mediated steroid metabolism reprogramming improves the immune microenvironment and myelin growth in spinal cord injury rats according to gene and co-expression network analyses.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 6;13. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

The ketogenic diet has been widely used in the treatment of various nervous system and metabolic-related diseases. Our previous research found that a ketogenic diet exerts a protective effect and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanism of action is still unclear. Read More

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Alcohol hangover induces nitric oxide metabolism changes by impairing NMDA receptor-PSD95-nNOS pathway.

Nitric Oxide 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Cátedra de Fisicoquímica, Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL) Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Alcohol hangover is defined as the combination of mental and physical symptoms experienced the day after a single episode of heavy drinking, starting when blood alcohol concentration approaches zero. We previously evidenced increments in free radical generation and an imbalance in antioxidant defences in non-synaptic mitochondria and synaptosomes during hangover. It is widely known that acute alcohol exposure induces changes in nitric oxide (NO) production and blocks the binding of glutamate to NMDAR in central nervous system. Read More

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Developmental ethanol exposure causes central nervous system dysfunction and may slow the aging process in a Drosophila model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

Alcohol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, San José State University, 1 Washington Square, San José, CA, 95192-0100. Electronic address:

Alcohol is a known teratogen, and developmental exposure to ethanol results in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Children born with FASD can exhibit a range of symptoms including low birth weight, microcephaly, and neurobehavioral problems. Treatment of patients with FASD is estimated to cost 4 billion dollars per year in the United States alone, and 2 million dollars per affected individual's lifetime. Read More

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Role of atmospheric particulate matter exposure in COVID-19 and other health risks in human: A review.

Environ Res 2021 May 4:111281. Epub 2021 May 4.

Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, Shandong Province, P. R. China; Engineering Research Center of Zebrafish Models for Human Diseases and Drug Screening of Shandong Province, Jinan, Shandong Province, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Due to intense industrialization and urbanization, air pollution has become a serious global concern as a hazard to human health. Epidemiological studies found that exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) causes severe health problems in human and significant damage to the physiological systems. In recent days, PM exposure could be related as a carrier for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission and COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Astrocyte-Endotheliocyte Axis in the Regulation of the Blood-Brain Barrier.

Neurochem Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, 01102, Vilnius, Lithuania.

The evolution of blood-brain barrier paralleled centralisation of the nervous system: emergence of neuronal masses required control over composition of the interstitial fluids. The barriers were initially created by glial cells, which employed septate junctions to restrict paracellular diffusion in the invertebrates and tight junctions in some early vertebrates. The endothelial barrier, secured by tight and adherent junctions emerged in vertebrates and is common in mammals. Read More

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FMRF-related peptides in Aedes aegypti midgut: neuromuscular connections and enteric nervous system.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-900, Brazil.

FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are a class of neuropeptides that participate in a variety of physiological processes in invertebrates. They occur in nerves of stomatogastric ganglia and enteroendocrine cells of the insect digestive tract, where they may control muscle functions. However, their direct involvement in muscle function has never been shown in situ. Read More

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Design and Evaluation of User-Centered Exergames for Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: Multilevel Usability and Feasibility Studies.

JMIR Serious Games 2021 May 7;9(2):e22826. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Design, Subject Area in Game Design, Zurich University of the Arts, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Patients with MS experience a wide range of physical and cognitive dysfunctions that affect their quality of life. A promising training approach that concurrently trains physical and cognitive functions is video game-based physical exercising (ie, exergaming). Read More

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Characteristics of central nervous system progression in non-small cell lung cancer treated with crizotinib or alectinib.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 May 7:e1414. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, The Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Most patients treated with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors for ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop resistance, leading to metastasis, with progression to the central nervous system (CNS) being a primary concern. Although alectinib has better CNS penetration than crizotinib, patients treated with alectinib also develop CNS progression. CNS metastases more likely occurs during crizotinib treatment due to less blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration capability than alectinib. Read More

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5-HT6R null mutatrion induces synaptic and cognitive defects.

Aging Cell 2021 May 7:e13369. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Serotonin 6 receptor (5-HT6R) is a promising target for a variety of human diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. However, the detailed mechanism underlying 5-HT6R activity in the central nervous system (CNS) is not fully understood. In the present study, 5-HT6R null mutant (5-HT6R ) mice were found to exhibit cognitive deficiencies and abnormal anxiety levels. Read More

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Fast synaptic excitatory neurotransmission in the human submucosal plexus.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 May 7:e14164. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Human Biology, TU München, Freising, Germany.

Background: Acetylcholine is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system (ENS) in all animal models examined so far. However, data for the human ENS is scarce.

Methods: We used neuroimaging using voltage and calcium dyes, Ussing chamber, and immunohistochemistry to study fast synaptic neurotransmission in submucosal plexus neurons of the human gut. Read More

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The Neuropathy In Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis (Attrv): A Narrative Review.

J Peripher Nerv Syst 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Science, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) is a condition with adult-onset caused by mutation of transthyretin (TTR) gene and characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils in tissue, expecially in peripheral nervous system (PNS) and heart. The PNS involvement lead to a rapidly progressive and disabling sensory-motor axonal neuropathy. Although awareness among neurologist raised in last years thank to new treatment options, ATTRv is frequently misdiagnosed and thus correct diagnosis can be delayed by several years. Read More

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Treatment patterns and disease course of previously untreated Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma - feasibility of MTX-based regimens in clinical routine.

Eur J Haematol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department I of Internal Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology Aachen Bonn Cologne Duesseldorf (CIO ABCD), University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare type of aggressive lymphoma of the central nervous system. Treatment strategies improved significantly over the past decades, differ regionally but mainly consist of rituximab and high-dosed methotrexate (MTX)-based therapies.

Methods: We assessed clinical outcomes of 100 patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL between 2010-2020 at the University Hospital of Cologne, Germany. Read More

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