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Genome Expression Dynamics Reveal the Parasitism Regulatory Landscape of the Root-Knot Nematode and a Promoter Motif Associated with Effector Genes.

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 18;12(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

INRAE, Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, 06903 Sophia Antipolis, France.

Root-knot nematodes (genus ) are the major contributor to crop losses caused by nematodes. These nematodes secrete effector proteins into the plant, derived from two sets of pharyngeal gland cells, to manipulate host physiology and immunity. Successful completion of the life cycle, involving successive molts from egg to adult, covers morphologically and functionally distinct stages and will require precise control of gene expression, including effector genes. Read More

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Morphological and molecular characterization of Eustrongylides excisus larvae (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) in Sander lucioperca (L.) from Northern Turkey.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jun 18;120(6):2269-2274. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, 55139, Samsun, Turkey.

The genus Eustrongylides Jägerskiöld, 1909 includes parasitic nematodes (Dioctophymatidae) affecting various fish species and piscivorous birds of freshwater ecosystems. Currently, there is little information on the molecular characterization of E. excisus based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA regions. Read More

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Cheliceral chelal design in free-living astigmatid mites.

Authors:
Clive E Bowman

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Jun 14;84(2):271-363. Epub 2021 May 14.

Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.

Cheliceral chelal design in free-living astigmatid mites (Arthropoda: Acari) is reviewed within a mechanical model. Trophic access (body size and cheliceral reach) and food morsel handling (chelal gape and estimated static adductive crushing force) are morphologically investigated. Forty-seven commonly occurring astigmatid mite species from 20 genera (covering the Acaridae, Aeroglyphidae, Carpoglyphidae, Chortoglyphidae, Glycyphagidae, Lardoglyphidae, Pyroglyphidae, Suidasiidae, and Winterschmidtiidae) are categorised into functional groups using heuristics. Read More

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Morphological and molecular characterization of Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) from domestic dogs in Vietnam with reference to Spirocerca vulpis.

Parasitol Int 2021 May 8;84:102381. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Ha Noi, Viet Nam; Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Spirocerca lupi is a common parasitic nematode associated with esophageal cancer of canids. Recent surveys have revealed an increasing number of canids infected with Spirocerca spp. in Africa, the Americas, Europe and Western Asia, and described a new species, Spirocerca vulpis, from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Read More

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Co-occurrence of and in and first report of microfilariae in the chigger mite: possible evidence of a lifecycle pathway?

J Helminthol 2021 May 7;95:e25. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

While much attention has been paid to vector-borne filariasis, diseases that threaten millions of people in tropical and subtropical countries, the literature on host-parasite associations and transmission strategies of filarial nematodes in wildlife is scarce. Here, we report the co-occurrence of chigger mites (Eutrombicula alfreddugesi) and onchocercid nematodes (Oswaldofilaria chabaudi) parasitizing the lizard Tropidurus torquatus in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Examination of chiggers established, for the first time, the occurrence of microfilariae in trombiculid mites (Trombiculidae). Read More

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Abdominal dioctophymosis in a domestic cat from the Peruvian rainforest confirmed morphologically and molecularly.

Parasitol Int 2021 Aug 18;83:102359. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Laboratorio de Epidemiologia y Economía Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalación 2800, San Borja. Lima, Peru.

A case of abdominal dioctophymosis in a domestic cat was found in San Juan Bautista district, the Peruvian rainforest, in the Loreto department of Peru. The pet went to a veterinary clinic for a routine ovariohysterectomy during which a large nematode was found in the abdominal cavity. The nematode was morphologically identified as an adult female of Dioctophyme sp. Read More

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Morphological and genetic description of two new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) parasitic in needlefishes (Belonidae) from estuaries of Florida, USA.

Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2021 Apr 13;68. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from needlefishes (Belonidae) in Florida are described based on morphological and genetic characteristics: Philometra aequispiculata sp. n. (males and females) collected from the ovary of Strongylura marina (Walbaum) (type host) and Strongylura notata (Poey), and Philometra notatae sp. Read More

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Morphological and molecular characterisation of (Nematoda: Longidoridae), first report from Greece.

J Nematol 2021 20;53. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Ecological Modelling, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Sampling for needle nematodes was carried out in a grapevine area in Thessaloniki, North Greece and two nematode species of ( and ) were collected. Nematodes were extracted from 500 cm of soil by modified sieving and decanting method, processed to glycerol and mounted on permanent slides, and subsequently identified morphologically and molecularly. Nematode DNA was extracted from single individuals and PCR assays were conducted to amplify D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA, ITS1 rRNA, and partial mitochondrial coxI regions. Read More

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First morphological and molecular identification of third-stage larvae of (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes in Vietnamese water.

J Nematol 2021 19;53. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Anisakid nematodes are parasites of cetaceans, their larval stages live in marine fishes. The third-stage larvae of some species are also the etiological agents of human anisakiasis caused by consumption of raw or undercooked infected fish. Thus, identification of larvae at the species level is crucial for their ecology and epidemiology. Read More

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February 2021

A new cyst-forming nematode, n. sp. (Nematoda:Heteroderinae) from in China with a key to the Genus .

J Nematol 2021 24;53. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

A new cyst-forming nematode, n. sp. was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of L. Read More

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Description of sp. n. (Nematoda: Heteroderinae) from China - a new cyst nematode in the group.

J Nematol 2020 24;52. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

College of Plant Protection, Gansu Agricultural University/Biocontrol Engineering Laboratory of Crop Diseases and Pests of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu Province, China.

A new cyst-forming nematode, sp. n., was isolated from the roots and rhizosphere soil of in China. Read More

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November 2020

n. sp. (Nematoda: Hemicycliophoridae), and data on a known species, from Iran.

J Nematol 2020 2;52. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

n. sp., recovered from the rhizospheric soil of date palm in Khuzestan province, southwest Iran, is described and illustrated based upon morphological, morphometric and molecular data. Read More

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February 2021

Diomedenema dinarctos n. sp. (Spiruromorpha: Desmidocercidae), a new species of lung nematode in Fiordland crested penguins (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus; Sphenisciformes), from South Island, New Zealand.

Syst Parasitol 2021 Jun 31;98(3):285-290. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Zoology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Fiordland crested penguins Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Gray are thick-billed, crested penguins endemic to New Zealand that breed in small colonies in inaccessible places. They are assessed as Vulnerable by the IUCN. This is the first report of helminth parasites from this penguin species. Read More

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Additional description and genome analyses of Caenorhabditis auriculariae representing the basal lineage of genus Caenorhabditis.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 24;11(1):6720. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kiyotakecho Kihara, Miyazaki-City, Miyazaki, 889-1692, Japan.

Caenorhabditis auriculariae, which was morphologically described in 1999, was re-isolated from a Platydema mushroom-associated beetle. Based on the re-isolated materials, some morphological characteristics were re-examined and ascribed to the species. In addition, to clarify phylogenetic relationships with other Caenorhabditis species and biological features of the nematode, the whole genome was sequenced and assembled into 109. Read More

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Morphological and molecular characterization of Klossnema viguerasi n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridomorpha: Hystrignathidae) from a Cuban passalid beetle (Coleoptera: Passalidae), first record of the genus for Cuba.

Zootaxa 2021 Feb 22;4933(3):zootaxa.4933.3.6. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Instituto de Ecología y Sistemática, Carretera Varona 11835 e/ Oriente y Lindero, La Habana 19, CP 11900, Calabazar, Boyeros, La Habana, Cuba. Department of Environmental Biology, College of Bioscience Biotechnology, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501, Japan..

Klossnema viguerasi n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridomorpha: Hystrignathidae) is described from the passalid beetle Antillanax pertyi (Kaup, 1869), endemic to Cuba. Read More

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February 2021

The occurrence and clinical importance of infectious stage of Echinocephalus (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae) larvae in selected Australian edible fish.

Parasitol Int 2021 Aug 14;83:102333. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Charles Sturt University, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia; NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia.

Cases of gnathostomiasis, an infection caused by consuming infected seafood, have been reported in Australia. However, doubt exists over the validity of these diagnoses as there are no reports of Gnathostoma spp. in Australian teleost fish. Read More

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Integrative Taxonomy and Molecular Phylogeny of the Plant-Parasitic Nematode Genus (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae): Linking Species with Molecular Barcodes.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 22;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Nematology Research Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Pin nematodes of the genus are obligate ectoparasites of a wide variety of plants that are distributed worldwide. In this study, individual morphologically vouchered nematode specimens of fourteen species, including and , are unequivocally linked to the D2-D3 of 28S, ITS, 18S rRNA and gene sequences. Combined with scanning electron microscopy and a molecular analysis of an additional nine known and thirteen unknown species originating from diverse geographic regions, a total of 92 D2-D3 of 28S, 41 ITS, 57 18S rRNA and 111 new gene sequences are presented. Read More

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February 2021

Description of Sp. Nov. (Nematoda: Mononchina) with Additional Data on Two Known Species of the Genus from Lorestan Province, Iran.

Helminthologia 2021 Mar 10;58(1):85-91. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Laboratory of Nematology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

Three species of mononchids belonging to the Cobb, 1916 genus, one new and two previously known species collected from natural ecosystem of Khorramabad county, Lorestan province, south west of Iran, are described. sp. nov. Read More

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Ultramorphology and Molecular Studies of Larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) Collected in Five Cyprinid Fish Species from Sulaimani Province, Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

Helminthologia 2021 Mar 10;58(1):41-58. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Biology Dept., College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Erbil, Iraq.

A total of 1134 freshwater fishes belonging to Cyprinidae ( (n=20), (n=7), (n=62), (n=123), (n=7), (n=222), (n=161), (n=5), (n=89), (n=54), (n=52), (n=10) and (n=322)) were collected in different water bodies in Sulaimani Province, Kurdistan Region-Iraq for the presence of larval nematode of the genus . This investigation revealed that 17 fishes belonged to five species (, , , and ) were infected with larvae with prevalence of 35 %, 0.81 %, 0. Read More

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Notes on Morphology and Life History of Probstmayria gombensis (Nematoda: Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae), Parasitic in Eastern Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, in Bulindi, Uganda.

J Parasitol 2021 03;107(2):155-162

Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Hasama, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan.

Probstmayria gombensis File, 1976 (Nematoda: Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae) individuals discharged in the feces of eastern chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, in Bulindi, Uganda, were examined morphologically. Adults and fourth-stage larvae, all females, found in the feces, and the third-stage larvae excised from the uterus of the gravid females were described. By close observation of the molting worms, it was considered that the uterine third-stage larvae attain molting phase, and then are laid to become fourth-stage larvae. Read More

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A case of inguinal hernia associated with atypical Dirofilaria repens infection in a dog.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Feb 26;14(1):125. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Calea Mănăştur 3-5, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Background: Dirofilaria repens is a filarioid nematode transmitted by mosquitoes. Adult D. repens are typically localized in the subcutaneous tissue of the host, but other, atypical localizations have also been reported. Read More

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February 2021

Parabronema skrjabini (Nematoda: Habronematidae) infection and development in the intermediate host-Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) in Inner Mongolia, China.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Mar 26;291:109326. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, Inner Mongolia, China. Electronic address:

Parabronemosis is a disease that severely threatens camel health, causing huge economic losses to industries involved in camel husbandry. Previous studies have reported that horn flies (Haematobia irritans) act as intermediate hosts of Parabronema skrjabini; however, the infection and developmental processes of P. skrjabini in horn flies remain unclear. Read More

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Lessons learned for surveillance strategies for trachoma elimination as a public health problem, from the evaluation of approaches utilised by Guinea worm and onchocerciasis programmes: A literature review.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 01 28;15(1):e0009082. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: A number of neglected tropical diseases are targeted for elimination or eradication. An effective surveillance system is critical to determine if these goals have been achieved and maintained. Trachoma has two related but morphologically different presentations that are monitored for elimination, the active infectious form of trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis (TT), the progression of the disease. Read More

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January 2021

First report of Heterodera filipjevi on winter wheat from Hebei Province in North China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Henan Agricultural University, 70573, College of Plant Protection, Zhengzhou, China;

Three of the cereal cyst nematodes, Heterodera avenae, H. filipjevi and H. latipons are considered to be the most economically important cyst nematodes that affect cultivated cereals around the world. Read More

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January 2021

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae), a New Root-Lesion Nematode Species on Soybean in North Dakota, USA.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jan 17;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Electron & Confocal Microscopy Unit, USDA, ARS, Northeast Area, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

Root-lesion nematodes ( spp.) of the genus Filipjev, 1936, are among the most important nematode pests on soybean ( (L.) Merr. Read More

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January 2021

First Detection of (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) Parasitizing Potato in the Azores, Portugal.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jan 6;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária (INIAV, I.P.), 2780-159 Oeiras, Portugal.

Potato is the third most important crop in the world after rice and wheat, with a great social and economic importance in Portugal as it is grown throughout the country, including the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores. The tropical root-knot nematode (RKN) is a polyphagous species with many of its host plants having economic importance and the ability to survive in temperate regions, which pose a risk to agricultural production. In 2019, was detected from soil samples collected from the council of Santo António in Pico Island (Azores). Read More

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January 2021

Morphological and Molecular Diagnosis of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma ceylanicum Recovered from Villagers in Northern Cambodia.

Korean J Parasitol 2020 Dec 29;58(6):619-625. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Korea Association of Health Promotion, Seoul 07649, Korea.

Human hookworm infections caused by adult Ancylostoma spp. and Necator americanus are one of the most important tropical diseases. We performed a survey of intestinal helminths using the Kato-Katz fecal examination technique targeting 1,156 villagers residing in 2 northern provinces (Preah Vihear and Stung Treng) of Cambodia in 2018. Read More

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December 2020

Integrative species delimitation and community structure of nematodes in three species of Australian flathead fishes (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae).

Parasitol Res 2021 Feb 6;120(2):461-480. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences & Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.

This study aimed to determine the integrative characterisation of nematodes from three species of edible flathead fishes (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae) in New South Wales, Australia, and describe nematode communities within three species of flatheads. Tiger (Platycephalus richardsoni (Castelnau); n = 20) and sand flatheads (Platycephalus bassensis (Cuvier); n = 20), sourced from the Nelson Bay area, and dusky flathead (Platycephalus fuscus (Cuvier); n = 20) from the Manning River, Taree, were examined for the presence of nematodes. The nematodes were initially classified morphologically as 12 different morphotypes belonging to the families Anisakidae (Anisakis types I, II, and III, Contracaecum type II, Terranova types I and II), Raphidascarididae (Hysterothylacium types IV, VI, VIII, and H. Read More

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February 2021

Behaviorally consequential astrocytic regulation of neural circuits.

Neuron 2021 02 31;109(4):576-596. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1751, USA; Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1751, USA. Electronic address:

Astrocytes are a large and diverse population of morphologically complex cells that exist throughout nervous systems of multiple species. Progress over the last two decades has shown that astrocytes mediate developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. However, a long-standing open question is how astrocytes regulate neural circuits in ways that are behaviorally consequential. Read More

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February 2021

Coprological Survey of Protostrongylid Infections in Antelopes from Souss-Massa National Park (Morocco).

Helminthologia 2020 Dec 19;57(4):306-313. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Souss-Massa National Park, Agadir 80000, Morocco.

Protostrongylids, small nematode lungworms, are an integral part of the wild ruminant helminth community, which can damage animals' health when they are held in captivity or semi-captive conditions. The Sahelo-Saharan antelope species dorcas gazelle (, the scimitar-horned oryx , and the addax , reintroduced to Souss-Massa National Park in Morocco, could be host to many species of Protostrongylids. This study was conducted from January to July 2015 to identify infecting parasite species, and determine their prevalence and abundance in all three antelope species. Read More

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December 2020