30,332 results match your criteria negative consequences


Effects of early-life stress and sex on blood-brain barrier permeability and integrity in juvenile and adult rats.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Brain Biostructure, 31-343 Kraków, Smętna Street 12, Poland.

Early-life stress (ELS) is considered a relevant etiological factor for neurodegenerative and mental disorders. In the present study, we hypothesized that ELS may persistently and sex-dependently influence blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and function during critical periods of brain development and consequently determine susceptibility to and sex-related prevalence of chronic diseases in adult life. We used the maternal separation (MS) procedure in rats to model ELS and evaluated BBB permeability and gene expression of selected tight junction (TJ) proteins, glucose transporter type 1 (Slc2a1) and aquaporin 4 (Aqp4) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal striatum (dSTR) and hippocampus of juvenile and adult rats. Read More

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Moderation of the Stressor-Strain Process in Interns by Heart Rate Variability Measured with a Wearable and Smartphone App: a Within-Subject Design Using Continuous Monitoring.

JMIR Cardio 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Health Psychology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, NL.

Background: The emergence of smartphones and wearable sensor technologies enables opportunities to easily and unobtrusively monitor physiological and psychological data related to an individual's resilience. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has promise as a biomarker for resilience based on between-subject population studies, but observational studies that apply a within-subject design and use wearable sensors in order to observe HRV in a naturalistic context of real-life are needed.

Objective: This study explores whether resting HRV and Total Sleep Time (TST) are indicative of and predictive for the within-day accumulation of the negative consequences of stress and mental exhaustion. Read More

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A vicious cycle of fear of falling avoidance behavior in Parkinson's disease: A path analysis.

Clin Park Relat Disord 2021 4;4:100089. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

University of Nevada, Las Vegas, United States.

Background: Postural instability (PI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with several negative downstream consequences.

Objective: The purpose was to explore the validity of a theoretical model of these downstream consequences arranged in a vicious cycle wherein PI leads to decreased balance confidence, which in turn leads to increased fear of falling (FOF) avoidance behavior, which in turn leads to decreased physical conditioning, which then feeds back and negatively affects PI.

Methods: A path analysis of cross-sectional data from 55 participants with PD was conducted. Read More

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February 2021

Opioid prescribing practice standard in British Columbia, Canada: Rationale, controversies, and directions.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Jul 24;97:103363. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Canada. Electronic address:

British Columbia (BC) has been the hardest hit province in Canada's ongoing overdose epidemic. As part of the province-level response, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia (CPSBC) implemented the "Safe Prescribing of Drugs with Potential for Misuse/Diversion" practice standard in June 2016. The practice standard established specific dose and quantity thresholds for opioid prescribing as professional and ethical conduct expectations for physicians in BC. Read More

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Loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic: change and predictors of change from strict to discontinued social distancing protocols.

Anxiety Stress Coping 2021 Jul 27:1-14. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Research Institute, Modum Bad Psychiatric Hospital, Vikersund, Norway.

Background And Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic and the social distancing protocols designed to impede transmission of the corona virus have severe mental health consequences. This study examine changes in loneliness in the general adult population when the corona-related social distancing protocols were largely discontinued (T2) following a period of strict protocols (T1), predictors and correlates of these changes, and the associations between loneliness and depression and anxiety symptoms.

Design: In an online survey, 10,061 responded at T1. Read More

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Intraspecific variation mediates density dependence in a genetically diverse plant species.

Ecology 2021 Jul 27:e03502. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise, ID, 83725, USA.

Interactions between neighboring plants are critical for biodiversity maintenance in plant populations and communities. Intraspecific trait variation and genome duplication are common in plant species and can drive eco-evolutionary dynamics through genotype-mediated plant-plant interactions. However, few studies have examined how species-wide intraspecific variation may alter interactions between neighboring plants. Read More

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Top predator introduction changes the effects of spatial isolation on freshwater community structure.

Ecology 2021 Jul 27:e03500. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo São Paulo, Brazil.

Current conceptual metacommunity models predict that the consequences of local selective pressures on community structure increase with spatial isolation when species favored by local conditions also have higher dispersal rates. This appears to be the case of freshwater insects in the presence of fish. The introduction of predatory fish can produce trophic cascades in freshwater habitats because fish tend to prey upon intermediate predatory taxa, such as predatory insects, indirectly benefiting herbivores and detritivores. Read More

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Evidence for a hijacked brain reward system but no desensitized threat system in quitting motivated smokers: An fMRI study.

Addiction 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany.

Background And Aims: Several aspects of how quitting motivated tobacco use disorder (TUD) subjects and never-smokers differ in terms of reward and threat processing remain unresolved. We aimed to examine aberrant reward and threat processes in TUD and the association with smoking characteristics.

Design: A between- and within-subjects fMRI experiment with a 2 (groups) x 4 (stimulus type) factorial design. Read More

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Protective Factors Against Vaping and Other Tobacco Use.

Pediatrics 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Medicine.

Background And Objectives: Vaping has gained popularity among adolescents despite negative health consequences. Few studies have focused on factors that may protect against vaping. We sought to determine if future orientation, parental monitoring, school connectedness, and social support are associated with decreased risk of vaping and other forms of tobacco use. Read More

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A functional analysis reveals extremely low redundancy in global mangrove invertebrate fauna.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(32)

School of Applied Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh EH11 4BN, United Kingdom.

Deforestation results in habitat fragmentation, decreasing diversity, and functional degradation. For mangroves, no data are available on the impact of deforestation on the diversity and functionality of the specialized invertebrate fauna, critical for their functioning. We compiled a global dataset of mangrove invertebrate fauna comprising 364 species from 16 locations, classified into 64 functional entities (FEs). Read More

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Eribulin activates the cGAS-STING pathway via the cytoplasmic accumulation of mtDNA.

Mol Pharmacol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, United States

Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs), including both microtubule stabilizers and destabilizers, are highly effective chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. In addition to the shared ability of all MTAs to block cell cycle progression, growing evidence shows that different agents of this class can also have mechanistically distinct effects on non-mitotic microtubule-dependent cellular processes, including cellular signaling and transport. Herein, we test the biological hypothesis that MTAs used in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) can differentially affect innate immune signaling pathways independent of their antimitotic effects. Read More

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Maternal caregiving ameliorates the consequences of prenatal maternal psychological distress on child development.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 Jul 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA.

Children exposed to prenatal maternal psychological distress are at elevated risk for a range of adverse outcomes; however, it remains poorly understood whether postnatal influences can ameliorate impairments related to prenatal distress. The current study evaluated if sensitivematernal care during the first postnatal year could mitigate child cognitive and emotional impairments associated with prenatal psychological distress. Prenatal maternal psychological distress was assessed via self-reports of anxiety, depression, and perceived stress for 136 mothers at five prenatal and four postpartum time points. Read More

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The use and effects of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists by New South Wales cannabis treatment clients.

J Cannabis Res 2021 Jul 26;3(1):33. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Drug and Alcohol Clinical Services, Hunter New England Local Health District, Level 3, 670 Hunter Street, Newcastle, NSW, 2290, Australia.

Introduction: Despite decreasing consumption by general populations, use of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) persists in some marginalised groups, including those who use other substances. This article explores SCRA consumption in an Australian cannabis treatment sample, comparing those who report ever using SCRAs with those who have never used SCRAs.

Methods: A questionnaire orally administered in person to a convenience sample of 154 cannabis treatment service clients from New South Wales, Australia (71% male, median age 35) collected information regarding cannabis and SCRA use including motivations, effects and health-related consequences of use, demographics, other substance use and overall health. Read More

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The effects of malaria in pregnancy on neurocognitive development in children at one and six years of age in Benin: a prospective mother-child cohort.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique (EHESP), Rennes, France.

Background: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) contributes significantly to infant mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and has consequences on survivors, such as pre-term birth and low birth weight. However, its impact on long-term neurocognitive development in children remains unknown.

Methods: Our prospective cohort included pregnant women and their live-born singletons from the Malaria in Pregnancy Preventive Alternative Drugs clinical trial. Read More

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Structural and functional cardiac changes in endomyocardial fibrosis treated with endomyocardial resection: Disease progression captured by multimodality imaging.

Echocardiography 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Cardiology, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Manhasset, New York, USA.

Eosinophilic myocarditis, a rare and under-recognized disease process, occurs due to cytotoxic inflammation of the endomyocardium that over time may lead to a restrictive cardiomyopathy. We report clinical, multimodality imaging, and pathologic findings in a 45-year-old woman over a 17-month period as she progressed from suspected acute eosinophilic myocarditis to phenotypic endomyocardial fibrosis resulting in recurrent ascites. Interval echocardiograms demonstrate definitive pathologic structural changes that reflect the hemodynamic consequences of the underlying cardiomyopathy. Read More

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Longitudinal Correlates of Depressive Symptoms and Positive and Negative Affects in Family Caregivers of People With Dementia.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Objective: Caring for a relative with dementia is considered a chronically stressful role associated with negative consequences for psychological health such as higher levels of depression. However, the subjective experience of depressive symptomatology is complex as it relates to two unique domains: positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). The objective of this study was to analyze, through a longitudinal design, the associations of caregivers' cognitive (avoidance coping, personal mastery, and coping self-efficacy) and behavioral (frequency of pleasant events) coping strategies with depressive symptoms, PA, and NA. Read More

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Emotion and Word Recognition for Unprocessed and Vocoded Speech Stimuli.

Ear Hear 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Communicative Disorders, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.

Objectives: Individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) show reduced word and auditory emotion recognition abilities relative to their peers with normal hearing. Modern CI processing strategies are designed to preserve acoustic cues requisite for word recognition rather than those cues required for accessing other signal information (e.g. Read More

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The Roles of Gray Divorce and Subsequent Repartnering for Parent-Adult Child Relationships.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH.

Objective: Divorce is now widespread in later life, yet little is known about how older adults and their adult children respond in the aftermath of gray divorce. Guided by the life course perspective, this study examines the consequences of gray divorce and subsequent repartnering for parent-adult child relationships from the parent's perspective.

Method: Using longitudinal data from the 1998-2014 Health and Retirement Study in the United States, we estimated growth curve models to compare fathers' and mothers' frequent contact with and financial support to their adult children prior to, during, and following gray divorce. Read More

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Prevalence and Functional Consequences of Social Anxiety in Individuals at Clinical High-Risk for Psychosis: Perspective From a Community Sample Comparison.

Schizophr Bull Open 2021 Jan 26;2(1):sgab025. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) commonly occurs among individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis. Extant research has yet to examine the prevalence and clinical/functional correlates of SAD in this population compared to a community control (CC) sample. This comparison may improve the generalizability that traditional nonpsychiatric control samples cannot provide. Read More

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January 2021

Too stringent or too Lenient: Antecedents and consequences of perceived stringency of COVID-19 policies in the United States.

Health Policy Open 2021 Dec 10;2:100047. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Communication, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

In the United States, federal and local governments have attempted to contain the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by implementing a variety of policies such as stay-at-home orders and mask mandates. Perceptions can influence behaviors; therefore, it is important to understand how people perceive the stringency of COVID-19 policies, what factors shape perceived policy stringency, and whether and how policy perceptions impact the practice of prevention behaviors. With rolling-cross sectional survey data collected in the US from June to October 2020 and other external sources of data, the study examines the impact of objective risk of the pandemic, information seeking, and political ideology at the individual and the state levels on perceived policy stringency, and the impact of perceived policy stringency on prevention behaviors such as mask wearing and social distancing. Read More

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December 2021

Investigating correlations between illness and defensive behaviour approach: A case of twin cities of Pakistan.

Heliyon 2021 Jun 16;7(6):e07327. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Social Sciences and Humanities, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Municipal solid waste (MSW) management has emerged as a major problem for modern societies in recent decades. An optimal waste management system is essential to prevent the pollution burden and associated health related issues. This study carries out an empirical evaluation of the illness caused by inadequate solid waste management in the metropolitan of Rawalpindi-Islamabad. Read More

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Benzodiazepine Misuse: An Epidemic Within a Pandemic.

Cureus 2021 Jun 21;13(6):e15816. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Psychiatry, Zuckerside Hillside Hospital, New York, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had deleterious effects on patients with mental health problems and several studies have shown a spike in the rates of depression, insomnia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Anxiety and insomnia rates have also increased among both the general public and health care professionals. Benzodiazepines are some of the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Read More

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Racing Clean in a Tainted World: A Qualitative Exploration of the Experiences and Views of Clean British Elite Distance Runners on Doping and Anti-Doping.

Front Psychol 2021 8;12:673087. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Life Sciences, Engineering and Computing, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, London, United Kingdom.

Doping has been a prominent issue for the sport of athletics in recent years. The endurance disciplines, which currently account for 56% of the global anti-doping rule violations in athletics, appear to be particularly high risk for doping. Using this high-risk, high-pressure context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the human impact of doping and anti-doping on "clean" athletes. Read More

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Looking Through the COVID-19 Window of Opportunity: Future Scenarios Arising From the COVID-19 Pandemic Across Five Case Study Sites.

Front Psychol 2021 7;12:635686. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused (and continues to cause) severe disruption in global and local economies and has forced countries, societies, and individuals to adapt quickly to the unprecedented and unpredictable situations. Despite the obvious negative consequences of the pandemic, many have called for efforts to identify transformative opportunities for sustainable development throughout this disorderly time. In the present paper, we explore such potential opportunities in the context of an interdisciplinary, international research project, which is focusing on sustainable marine management in biosphere reserves and marine parks in Southeast Asia. Read More

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The Zero Violence Brave Club: A Successful Intervention to Prevent and Address Bullying in Schools.

Front Psychiatry 2021 7;12:601424. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Sociology, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Bullying among peers in schools is a growing problem affecting children and adolescents from an early age worldwide. The consequences of bullying victimization in the emotional development of children and youth and their academic achievement are adverse for them and the rest of the school community, with its negative impact extending into the mid and long run. The is implemented in schools in the framework of the Dialogic Model of Violence Prevention, a successful educational action according to the INCLUD-ED project [Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion in Europe from Education] (6th Framework Program of Research of the European Commission). Read More

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Caspase-9: A Multimodal Therapeutic Target With Diverse Cellular Expression in Human Disease.

Front Pharmacol 2021 9;12:701301. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

Caspase-9, a cysteine-aspartic protease known for its role as an initiator of intrinsic apoptosis, regulates physiological cell death and pathological tissue degeneration. Its nonapoptotic functions, including regulation of cellular differentiation/maturation, innate immunity, mitochondrial homeostasis, and autophagy, reveal a multimodal landscape of caspase-9 functions in health and disease. Recent work has demonstrated that caspase-9 can drive neurovascular injury through nonapoptotic endothelial cell dysfunction. Read More

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Discordant results of SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based tests in the early phase of pandemic in Indonesia: Infection control consequences.

Vacunas 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

Introduction: Growing evidence suggest that cycle threshold (CT)-value of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is correlated with transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and some kits set different CT-value cut-off. This report presents the discordant results of two widely used RT-PCR kits in Indonesia due to different CT-value cut-offs and highlights its potential consequence in SARS-CoV-2 containment.

Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab samples with SARS-CoV-2 negative with a RT-PCR kit (manufacture pre-set CT-value cut-off was 35 amplification cycles) were retested with another RT-PCR kit with a higher pre-set CT-value of 40 amplification cycles. Read More

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Designing a testing kit supply network for suspected COVID-19 cases under mixed uncertainty approach.

Appl Soft Comput 2021 Nov 17;111:107696. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, University Ave, Narmak, 16846, Tehran, Iran.

Motivated by the COVID-19 (C-19) pandemic and the challenges it poses to global health and the medical communities, this research aims to investigate the factors affecting of reduction health inequalities related to the C-19 to tackle the increasing number of outbreaks and their social consequences in such a pandemic. Hence, we design a COVID-19 testing kit supply network (C-19TKSN) to allocate various C-19 test kits to the suspected C-19 cases depending on the time between the emergence of their first symptoms and the time they are tested. In particular, this model aims to minimize the total network cost and decrease false results C-19 test by considering the fundamental characteristics of a diagnostic C-19 test (i. Read More

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November 2021

A qualitative study of sedentary behaviours in stroke survivors: non-participant observations and interviews with stroke service staff in stroke units and community services.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Jul 24:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Academic Unit for Ageing and Stroke Research, Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bradford, England.

Purpose: Sedentary behaviour (SB) is associated with negative health outcomes and is prevalent post-stroke. This study explored SB after stroke from the perspective of stroke service staff.

Methods: Qualitative mixed-methods study. Read More

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Structural correlates of trauma-induced hyperarousal in mice.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 22:110404. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Research Group Neuronal Plasticity, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, 80804 Munich, Germany; Max Planck School of Cognition, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; Central Nervous System Diseases Research (CNSDR), Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, 88397, Biberach an der Riss, Germany. Electronic address:

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic disease caused by traumatic incidents. Numerous studies have revealed grey matter volume differences in affected individuals. The nature of the disease renders it difficult to distinguish between a priori versus a-posteriori changes. Read More

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