3,609 results match your criteria necrosis autophagy


Targeting of cancer cell death mechanisms by resveratrol: a review.

Apoptosis 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Medical Technology Research Center, Institute of Health Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Cancer cell death is the utmost aim in cancer therapy. Anti-cancer agents can induce apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, senescence, or autophagy through the production of free radicals and induction of DNA damage. However, cancer cells can acquire some new properties to adapt to anti-cancer agents. Read More

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September 2021

The NLRP3 inhibitor dapansutrile attenuates folic acid induced nephrotoxicity via inhibiting inflammasome/caspase-1/IL axis and regulating autophagy/proliferation.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 21:119974. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Dep., Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Aims: Chemical renal toxicity is common and has limited therapeutic interventions. The NLRP3 inhibitor dapansutrile (DAPA) undergoes clinical phase II trials and it shows promising beneficial effects in various inflammatory diseases. The current study aims at evaluating the effect of DAPA on folic acid (FA) induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and its possible transition to chronic injury. Read More

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September 2021

Carbon-Ion Beam Irradiation and the miR-200c Mimic Effectively Eradicate Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells Under in vitro and in vivo Conditions.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 16;14:4749-4760. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Breast Center, Dokkyo Medical University Hospital, Tochigi, 321-0293, Japan.

Purpose: The study investigated the molecular mechanisms that killed pancreatic cancer cells, including cancer stem cells (CSCs), by carbon ion beam irradiation alone or in combination with miRNA-200c under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

Methods: Human pancreatic cancer (PC) cells, PANC1 and PK45, were treated with carbon-ion beam irradiation alone or in combination with microRNA-200c (miR-200c) mimic. Cell viability assay, colony and spheroid formation assay, quantitative real-time PCR analysis of apoptosis-, autophagy-, and angiogenesis-related gene expression, xenograft tumor control and histopathological analyses were performed. Read More

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September 2021

Overexpression of let-7b exerts beneficial effects on the functions of human placental trophoblasts by activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

Mol Reprod Dev 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

The present work aimed to explore let-7b's molecular mechanisms that regulate the functions of placental trophoblasts and to examine placental let-7b expression in human pre-eclampsia (PE). Human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells underwent transduction with control and let-7b overexpressing lentiviruses, respectively. Cell proliferation assessment utilized cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays. Read More

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September 2021

Autophagy inhibition facilitates wound closure partially dependent on the YAP/IL-33 signaling in a mouse model of skin wound healing.

FASEB J 2021 Oct;35(10):e21920

Department of Forensic Science, Medical School of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Autophagy is a self-phagocytic and highly evolutionarily conserved intracellular lysosomal catabolic system, which plays a vital role in a variety of trauma models, including skin wound healing (SWH). However, the roles and potential mechanisms of autophagy in SWH are still controversial. We firstly investigated the role of autophagy in SWH-induced wound closure rate, inflammatory response, and histopathology, utilizing an inhibitor of autophagy 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and its agonist rapamycin (RAP). Read More

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October 2021

Rimonabant ameliorates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: Involvement of autophagy via modulating ERK- and PI3K/AKT-mTOR pathways.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 15;100:108140. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (HIR), which can result in severe liver injury and dysfunction, is usually associated with autophagy and endocannabinoid system derangements. Whether or not the modulation of the autophagic response following HIR injury is involved in the hepatoprotective effect of the cannabinoid receptor 1(CB1R) antagonist rimonabant remains elusive and is the aim of the current study. Rats pre-treated with rimonabant (3 mg/kg) or vehicle underwent 30 min hepatic ischemia followed by 6 hrs. Read More

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September 2021

Omp31 of Brucella Inhibits NF-κB p65 Signaling Pathway by Inducing Autophagy in BV-2 Microglia.

Neurochem Res 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Neurology Center, The General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.

Neurobrucellosis is a serious central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disorder caused by Brucella, and outer membrane protein-31 (Omp31) plays an important role in Brucella infection. This study aims to determine whether Omp31 can induce autophagy in BV-2 microglia. Another goal of the study is to further examine the effect of autophagy on the nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) p65 signaling pathway. Read More

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September 2021

Stellate Ganglion Block Improves the Proliferation and Function of Splenic CD4 + T Cells Through Inhibition of Posthemorrhagic Shock Mesenteric Lymph-Mediated Autophagy.

Inflammation 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei, People's Republic of China.

Severe hemorrhagic shock leads to excessive inflammation and immune dysfunction, which results in high mortality related to mesenteric lymph return. A recent study showed that stellate ganglion block (SGB) increased the survival rate in rats suffering hemorrhagic shock. However, whether SGB ameliorates immune dysfunction induced by hemorrhagic shock remains unknown. Read More

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September 2021

CYR61, regulated by miR-22-3p and MALAT1, promotes autophagy in HK-2 cell inflammatory model.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Aug;10(8):3486-3500

Department of Nephrology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Renal tubular epithelial cells play an important role in renal function and are a major site of injury from inflammation. Emerging evidence suggests that CYR61 is involved in the regulation of autophagy. However, there are few studies on CYR61 in nephropathy and associated inflammation. Read More

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Intestinal antiviral signaling is controlled by autophagy gene independent of the microbiota.

Autophagy 2021 Sep 14:1-16. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Edison Family Center for Genome Sciences & Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Mutations in the macroautophagy/autophagy gene are responsible for Vici syndrome, a human genetic disease characterized by combined immunodeficiency. Previously, we found that mice exhibit hyperinflammation in the lungs mediated by IL1B/IL-1β and TNF/TNFα, resulting in resistance to influenza. Here, we find that disruption of results in protection against multiple enteric viruses including norovirus and rotavirus. Read More

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September 2021

Cytotoxic Effects of Hellebrigenin and Arenobufagin Against Human Breast Cancer Cells.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:711220. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokyo University of Pharmacy & Life Sciences, Hachioji, Japan.

Development of new therapeutic strategies for breast cancer is urgently needed due to the sustained emergence of drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. To gain a novel insight into therapeutic approaches to fight against breast cancer, the cytocidal effects of hellebrigenin (Helle) and arenobufagin (Areno) were investigated in human estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Helle exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than Areno in both cancer cells, and MCF-7 cells were more susceptible to both drugs in comparison with MDA-MB-231 cells. Read More

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Gujiansan Ameliorates Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head by Regulating Autophagy via the HIF-1/BNIP3 Pathway.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 31;2021:6683007. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Orthopedics, Ruikang Hospital Affiliated with Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530011, China.

Background: Clinically, the traditional Chinese medicine compound Gujiansan has been widely used in the treatment of steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH). The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of Gujiansan.

Methods: A rat model of SANFH was established by the injection of dexamethasone (DEX) at a high dosage of 25 mg/kg/d. Read More

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Long-term carbon black inhalation induced the inflammation and autophagy of cerebellum in rats.

Neurotoxicology 2021 Sep 9;87:120-127. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pathophysiology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050017, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Carbon black (CB) has been demonstrated to have adverse effects on the lung tissue. Few studies explored the effects of CB on the cerebellum, widely recognized to contribute to gait and balance coordination and timing in the motor domain. Some studies have reported that inflammatory response and damaged autophagy are important mechanisms of CB toxicity and can be repaired after the recovery. Read More

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September 2021

A photoactivatable chemotherapeutic Ru(II) complex bearing bathocuproine ligand efficiently induces cell death in human malignant melanoma cells through a multi-mechanistic pathway.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Oct 8;348:109644. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Natural Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese American University, P.O. Box 36, Byblos, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT) is an emerging strategy for targeted cancer therapy. Strained Ru complexes with pseudo-octahedral geometry may undergo photo-induced ligand dissociation, forming aquated photoproducts that are significantly more cytotoxic compared to the precursor complex. The complexes investigated were the strained complex [Ru(bpy)BC]Cl (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and BC = bathocuproine) and its unstrained control [Ru(bpy)phen]Cl (where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline). Read More

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October 2021

Thrombin aggravates hypoxia/reoxygenation injury of astrocytes by activating the autophagy pathway mediated by SPRED2.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Oct 3;22(4):1107. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Stomatology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China.

Autophagy plays an important role in ischemia/reperfusion brain injury, however, the signaling pathways involved in cell autophagy are not fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the roles and molecular mechanisms of thrombin and Sprouty-related EVH1 domain-2 (SPRED2) on autophagy in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) induced astrocytes. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot analyses were performed to detect the expression levels of thrombin and SPRED2. Read More

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October 2021

Autophagy modulation alleviates cryoinjury in murine spermatogonial stem cell cryopreservation.

Andrology 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: Cryopreservation can expand the usefulness of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in various fields. However, previous investigations that have attempted to modulate cryoinjury-induced mechanisms to increase cryoprotective efficiency have mainly focused on apoptosis and necrosis.

Objectives: This study aimed to establish an effective molecular-based cryoprotectant for SSC cryopreservation via autophagy modulation. Read More

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September 2021

RIP1/RIP3/MLKL Mediates Myocardial Function Through Necroptosis in Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 23;8:696362. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Vascular Biology Program, Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Cardiomyopathy often leads to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) when caused by viral myocarditis. Apoptosis is long considered as the principal process of cell death in cardiomyocytes, but programmed necrosis or necroptosis is recently believed to play an important role in cardiomyocyte cell death. We investigated the role of necroptosis and its interdependency with other processes of cell death, autophagy, and apoptosis in a rat system of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Read More

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Diagnostic and prognostic value of Beclin 1 expression in melanoma: a meta-analysis.

Melanoma Res 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Departments of Stomatology Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China Division of Periodontology, Diagnostic Sciences, and Dental Hygiene, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Autophagy plays a complicated role in the occurrence and development of cancer. Beclin 1 is a significant autophagy-related protein that plays an essential role in tumorigenesis, but its expression is controversial in melanoma. In this meta-analysis, we searched seven studies involving 638 melanoma patients. Read More

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September 2021

Biologic and pathologic aspects of osteocytes in the setting of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ).

Bone 2021 Dec 3;153:116168. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Florida (UF), Gainesville, FL, United States of America.

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a potentially severe, debilitating condition affecting patients with cancer and patients with osteoporosis who have been treated with powerful antiresorptives (pARs) or angiogenesis inhibitors (AgIs). Oral risk factors associated with the development of MRONJ include tooth extraction and inflammatory dental disease (e.g. Read More

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December 2021

USP5 attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting autophagic degradation of NLRP3.

Autophagy 2021 Sep 5:1-15. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of Shandong Province & Department of Immunology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; AIM2: absent in melanoma 2; ATG5: autophagy related 5; BafA1: bafilomycin A; CASP1: caspase 1; CHX: cycloheximide; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; CQ: chloroquine; DUBs: deubiquitinases; IL1B/IL-1β: interleukin 1 beta; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MARCHF7/MARCH7: membrane associated RING-CH-type finger 7; NFKB/NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa B; Nig.: nigericin; NLRC4: NLR family CARD domain containing 4; NLRP3: NLR family pyrin domain containing 3; PECs: peritoneal exudate cells; PMN: polymorphonuclear; PMs: peritoneal macrophages; PYCARD/ASC: PYD and CARD domain containing; TLRs: toll like receptors; TNF/TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor; Ub: ubiquitin; USP5: ubiquitin specific peptidase 5; WT: wild type. Read More

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September 2021

Macrophages target by two discrete non-canonical autophagy pathways.

Autophagy 2021 Sep 5:1-16. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Non-canonical autophagy pathways decorate single-membrane vesicles with Atg8-family proteins such as MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3). Phagosomes containing the bacterial pathogen (L.m. Read More

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September 2021

Morin hydrate inhibits atherosclerosis and LPS-induced endothelial cells inflammatory responses by modulating the NFκB signaling-mediated autophagy.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Aug 28;100:108096. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Pathogenobiology, The Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Chinese Ministry of Education, College of Basic Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China; Engineering Research Center for Medical Biomaterials of Jilin Province, Jilin University, Changchun, China; Key Laboratory for Health Biomedical Materials of Jilin Province, Jilin University, Changchun, China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment of High Incidence Diseases in Central Asia, Xinjiang, China; The Key Laboratory for Bionics Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving blood vessels. Inflammation affects different cells and increases the expression of adhesion molecules. Morin hydrate (MO) is a naturally occurring bioflavonoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Read More

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The emerging possibility of the use of geniposide in the treatment of cerebral diseases: a review.

Chin Med 2021 Aug 28;16(1):86. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Pharmacy, The Fifth Medical Centre of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100039, China.

With the advanced discoveries in the field of pathogenesis, a series of cerebral diseases, such as cerebral ischaemia, Alzheimer's disease, and depression, have been found to have multiple signalling targets in the microenvironment. Only a few existing agents have been shown to have curative effects due to this specific circumstance. In recent decades, active ingredients isolated from natural plants have been shown to be crucial for original drug development. Read More

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Identification of Compound CB-2 as a Novel Late-Stage Autophagy Inhibitor Exhibits Inhibitory Potency against A549 Cells.

Life (Basel) 2021 Aug 23;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 23.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Lianhua Street, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Autophagy has been recognized as a stress tolerance mechanism that maintains cell viability, which contributes to tumor progression, dormancy, and treatment resistance. The inhibition of autophagy in cancer has the potential to improve the therapeutic efficacy. It is therefore of great significance to search for new autophagy inhibitors. Read More

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Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Neuroprotection of Polyphenols with Respect to Resveratrol in Parkinson's Disease.

Biomedicines 2021 Jul 30;9(8). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Center for Mitochondrial Research and Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by dopaminergic neuronal loss. The exact pathogenesis of PD is complex and not yet completely understood, but research has established the critical role mitochondrial dysfunction plays in the development of PD. As the main producer of cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress once an imbalance between ROS generation and the organelle's antioxidative system occurs. Read More

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Modulation of Cancer Cell Autophagic Responses by Graphene-Based Nanomaterials: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 18;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

Graphene-based nanomaterials (GNM) are plausible candidates for cancer therapeutics and drug delivery systems. Pure graphene and graphene oxide nanoparticles, as well as graphene quantum dots and graphene nanofibers, were all able to trigger autophagy in cancer cells through both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms involving oxidative/endoplasmic reticulum stress, AMP-activated protein kinase, mechanistic target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Toll-like receptor signaling. This was often coupled with lysosomal dysfunction and subsequent blockade of autophagic flux, which additionally increased the accumulation of autophagy mediators that participated in apoptotic, necrotic, or necroptotic death of cancer cells and influenced the immune response against the tumor. Read More

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Microcystin Toxicokinetics, Molecular Toxicology, and Pathophysiology in Preclinical Rodent Models and Humans.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Jul 29;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University, Spokane, WA 99202, USA.

Microcystins are ubiquitous toxins produced by photoautotrophic cyanobacteria. Human exposures to microcystins occur through the consumption of contaminated drinking water, fish and shellfish, vegetables, and algal dietary supplements and through recreational activities. Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR) is the prototypical microcystin because it is reported to be the most common and toxic variant and is the only microcystin with an established tolerable daily intake of 0. Read More

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Calpain 6 inhibits autophagy in inflammatory environments: A preliminary study on myoblasts and a chronic kidney disease rat model.

Int J Mol Med 2021 Oct 26;48(4). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Division of Nephrology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080, P.R. China.

A non‑classical calpain, calpain 6 (CAPN6), can inhibit skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration. In the present study, the role of CAPN6 in the regulation of the autophagy of myoblasts was investigated. The underlying molecular events and the CAPN6 level in atrophic skeletal muscle in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) were also investigated. Read More

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October 2021

Metformin Attenuates Silica-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis by Activating Autophagy the AMPK-mTOR Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 9;12:719589. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Long-term exposure to crystalline silica particles leads to silicosis characterized by persistent inflammation and progressive fibrosis in the lung. So far, there is no specific treatment to cure the disease other than supportive care. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin, a prescribed drug for type || diabetes on silicosis and explored the possible mechanisms in an established rat silicosis model , and an co-cultured model containing human macrophages cells (THP-1) and human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). Read More

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Genistein-Derived ROS-Responsive Nanoparticles Relieve Colitis by Regulating Mucosal Homeostasis.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 23;13(34):40249-40266. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P. R. China.

Disruption of intestinal homeostasis is an important event in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and genistein (GEN) is a candidate medicine to prevent IBD. However, the clinical application of GEN is restricted owing to its low oral bioavailability. Herein, a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive nanomaterial (defined as GEN-NP2) containing superoxidase dismutase-mimetic temporally conjugated β-cyclodextrin and 4-(hydroxymethyl)phenylboronic acid pinacol ester-modified GEN was prepared. Read More

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September 2021