63,664 results match your criteria natural killer

Seneca Valley virus induces immunodepressionin suckling piglets by selective apoptosis of B lymphocytes.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 12:105022. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Comparative Pathology Shared Resources Laboratory, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is the causative agent of an emerging infectious vesicular disease in swine that is clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases of swine. This study utilized healthy suckling piglets (control) and SVV-naturally infected suckling piglets to determine the effects of SVV on lymphoid tissues and determined the SVV RNA load by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were performed to quantify the expression of T and B cell lymphocytes, natural killer cells, cleaved caspase 3, and ki-67. Read More

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Dual effects of interleukin 10 on natural killer cells and monocytes and the implications for adult-onset Still's disease.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Rheumatology and Applied Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Objectives: We compared the serum levels of multiple cytokines in patients with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) and healthy controls to assess the effects of humoral factors on natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes.

Methods: We quantified the serum levels of 10 cytokines in the patients using bead-based multiplex immunoassays, along with interleukin (IL-)18 using ELISA. We then sorted NK cells and monocytes from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers, cultured them in the presence or absence of cytokines that were detected in some or all of the serum samples from the AOSD patients and their combinations in vitro, and analysed the culture supernatant. Read More

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AI-guided discovery of the invariant host response to viral pandemics.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jun 11:103390. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, USA; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, USA; Medicine, University of California San Diego, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) continues to challenge the limits of our knowledge and our healthcare system. Here we sought to define the host immune response, a.k. Read More

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Utilizing single-cell RNA sequencing for analyzing the characteristics of PBMC in patients with Kawasaki disease.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Jun 14;21(1):277. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

The Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Shenzhen Children's Hospital of China Medical University, Shenzhen, 518038, China.

Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the main cause of acquired heart disease in children and can lead to coronary artery lesions. This present study was designed to analyze the characteristics of KD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and to explore the potential molecular mechanism of KD.

Methods: PBMC was collected from one healthy child and one KD patient, and was used to single-cell RNA sequencing for cell clusters identification and differently expressed gene (DEG) determination. Read More

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α-Glucuronosyl and α-glucosyl diacylglycerides, natural killer T cell-activating lipids from bacteria and fungi.

Chem Sci 2020 Jan 14;11(8):2161-2168. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

School of Chemistry, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne Parkville Victoria 3010 Australia

Natural killer T cells express T cell receptors (TCRs) that recognize glycolipid antigens in association with the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. Here, we report the concise chemical synthesis of a range of saturated and unsaturated α-glucosyl and α-glucuronosyl diacylglycerides of bacterial and fungal origins from allyl α-glucoside with Jacobsen kinetic resolution as a key step. These glycolipids are recognized by a classical type I NKT TCR that uses an invariant Vα14-Jα18 TCR α-chain, but also by an atypical NKT TCR that uses a different TCR α-chain (Vα10-Jα50). Read More

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January 2020

Fc-binding antibody-recruiting molecules exploit endogenous antibodies for anti-tumor immune responses.

Chem Sci 2020 Feb 25;11(12):3208-3214. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University Fukuoka 819-0395 Japan

Redirecting endogenous antibodies in the bloodstream to tumor cells using synthetic molecules is a promising approach to trigger anti-tumor immune responses. However, current molecular designs only enable the use of a small fraction of endogenous antibodies, limiting the therapeutic potential. Here, we report Fc-binding antibody-recruiting molecules (Fc-ARMs) as the first example addressing this issue. Read More

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February 2020

Fabrication of 2D and 3D Cell Cluster Arrays Using a Cell-Friendly Photoresist.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Research Institute of Advanced Materials (RIAM), Seoul National University, 1, Gwanak-ro, Seoul 08826, South Korea.

Cells in 3D behave differently than cells in 2D. We develop a new method for the fabrication of 2D and 3D cell cluster arrays on an identical substrate using a cell-friendly photoresist, which enables comparative study between cells in 2D and 3D cell clusters. The fabricated cell cluster arrays maintain their structure up to 3 days with good viability. Read More

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Natural Killer cell effector functions in antiviral defense.

FEBS J 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Proteomics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells involved in the control of tumors and viral infections. They provide protection by producing cytokines and by directly lysing target cells. Both effector mechanisms have been identified to contribute to viral control, depending on the context of infection. Read More

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Identification of Precise Therapeutic Targets and Characteristic Prognostic Genes Based on Immune Gene Characteristics in Uveal Melanoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:666462. Epub 2021 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

The tumor microenvironment is an important factor for the immunotherapy of tumor patients. The sequenced transcriptome data can be used to describe the tumor microenvironment and various immune subtypes. We exploited published data on patients with uveal melanoma (UVM) to identify immune subtypes. Read More

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Transcriptomic Analysis of Ovine Hepatic Lymph Node Following Infection - Inhibition of NK Cell and IgE-Mediated Signaling.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:687579. Epub 2021 May 28.

UCD School of Veterinary Medicine, Dublin, Ireland.

is a trematode parasite responsible for major economic losses in livestock production, and is also a food-borne zoonotic agent in developing rural regions. For years, the immunoregulatory mechanisms employed by the parasite have hampered efforts to develop a successful vaccine candidate. Given that a comprehensive understanding of the immune response to infection is needed, we investigated the gene expression changes in ovine hepatic lymph nodes after experimental infection with . Read More

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Systemic Characterization of Novel Immune Cell Phenotypes in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:657552. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a disturbing disease in women, and 50% of RPL is reported to be associated with immune dysfunction. Most previous studies of RPL focused mainly on the relationship between RPL and either T cells or natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood and the decidua; few studies presented the systemic profiles of the peripheral immune cell subsets in RPL women. Herein, we simultaneously detected 63 immune cell phenotypes in the peripheral blood from nonpregnant women (NPW), women with a history of normal pregnancy (NP) and women with a history of RPL (RPL) by multi-parameter flow cytometry. Read More

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Low-dose radiotherapy for COVID 19: A radioimmunological perspective.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Apr-Jun;17(2):295-302

Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Institute, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jhajjar, Haryana, India.

The world is fighting the onslaught of COVID 19 for the last 10 months, ever since the first case was reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Now, it has spread to over 200 countries. COVID 19-associated respiratory syndrome is causing a lot of mortality and morbidity. Read More

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NK and NKT cells have distinct properties and functions in cancer.

Oncogene 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy & Immunology and Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells are two important cell subsets of the innate immune system. NK and NKT cells share many phenotypes and functions for anti-tumor immunity; however, the dynamic changes in phenotypes and functional interactions within the tumor microenvironment during tumor development and progression are unknown. Here we report that NK and NKT cells have distinct properties, metabolic profiles, and functions during tumor development. Read More

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Combination of Gemcitabine and Thymosin alpha 1 exhibit a better anti-tumor effect on nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 10;98:107829. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Hematology, Affiliated Changzhou Second Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003, China. Electronic address:

Background: Nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NNKTL) is an aggressive and poor prognostic malignant tumor along with high-level infection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Gemcitabine (Gem) and Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) exert an anti-tumor effect in various cancers. However, the effect of the combination of Gem and Tα1 in NNKTL remains unknown. Read More

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Ecklonia cava fucoidan has potential to stimulate natural killer cells in vivo.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center & Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, China; Research Institute of Cell Culture, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea; Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide, derived from various marine brown seaweeds, that has immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we analyzed the effects of five different fucoidans, which were extracted from Ascophyllum nodosum, Undaria pinnatifida, Macrocystis pyrifera, Fucus vesiculosus, and Ecklonia cava, on natural killer (NK) cell activation in mice. Among these, E. Read More

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Transient blockade of TBK1/IKKε allows efficient transduction of primary human natural killer cells with vesicular stomatitis virus G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors.

Cytotherapy 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Electronic address:

Background Aims: Vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (LVs) are widely used to reliably generate genetically modified, clinical-grade T-cell products. However, the results of genetically modifying natural killer (NK) cells with VSV-G LVs have been variable. The authors explored whether inhibition of the IKK-related protein kinases TBK1 and IKKε, key signaling molecules of the endosomal TLR4 pathway, which is activated by VSV-G, would enable the reliable transduction of NK cells by VSV-G LVs. Read More

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miR-1224 contributes to ischemic stroke-mediated natural killer cell dysfunction by targeting Sp1 signaling.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Jun 12;18(1):133. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 7 Kangfu front ST, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Background: Brain ischemia compromises natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immune defenses by acting on neurogenic and intracellular pathways. Less is known about the posttranscriptional mechanisms that regulate NK cell activation and cytotoxicity after ischemic stroke.

Methods: Using a NanoString nCounter® miRNA array panel, we explored the microRNA (miRNA) profile of splenic NK cells in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Read More

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Natural killer cell activity is a risk factor for the recurrence risk after curative treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 12;21(1):258. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, 73, Goryeodae-ro, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Natural killer (NK) cells have been known to contribute to surveillance and control of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the association of NK cell activity with stage and recurrence risk of HCC have not been fully evaluated.

Methods: Untreated patients with newly diagnosed HCC were prospectively enrolled. Read More

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Natural killer cells in antiviral immunity.

Nat Rev Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immune responses to viral infections. Here, we review recent insights into the role of NK cells in viral infections, with particular emphasis on human studies. We first discuss NK cells in the context of acute viral infections, with flavivirus and influenza virus infections as examples. Read More

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NK-/T-cell lymphomas.

Leukemia 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Hematologic Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, PR China.

Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) is a sub-type of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas common in Asia and Latin America but rare elsewhere. Its pathogenesis is complex and incompletely understood. Lymphoma cells are transformed from NK- or T-cells, sometimes both. Read More

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Molecular-scale spatio-chemical control of the activating-inhibitory signal integration in NK cells.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 11;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel.

The role of juxtaposition of activating and inhibitory receptors in signal inhibition of cytotoxic lymphocytes remains strongly debated. The challenge lies in the lack of tools that allow simultaneous spatial manipulation of signaling molecules. To circumvent this, we produced a nanoengineered multifunctional platform with molecular-scale spatial control of ligands, which was applied to elucidate KIR2DL1-mediated inhibition of NKG2D signaling-receptors of natural killer cells. Read More

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Neonatal Lymphopenia Screening Is Important For Early Diagnosis of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey.

Objective:  T-cell receptor excision circles are expensive for neonatal severe combined immunodeficiency screening in developing countries. We aimed to detect immunodeficiencies presenting with lymphopenia to enable screening in the general population and to improve awareness regarding lymphopenia among clinicians.

Study Design:  This study was conducted prospectively. Read More

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Exploration of the potential roles of m6A regulators in the uterus in pregnancy and infertility.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Jun 2;146:103341. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Laboratory of Neurobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, Haidian, 100193, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing, Haidian, 100193, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Infertility is a prevalent female reproductive disease worldwide. Currently, there are many unknown etiologies of infertility. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent modification of eukaryotic mRNA. Read More

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Probiotics alleviate adipose inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity by restoring adipose invariant natural killer T cells.

Nutrition 2021 Apr 25;89:111285. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China.

Objective: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, which are depleted in obese individuals, play important roles in preventing diet-induced obesity and associated disorders. Probiotic supplementation can alter the gut microbiota and immunomodulation in obesity. However, it remains unclear whether probiotics can affect visceral adipose iNKT cells. Read More

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Methionine enkephalin (MENK) suppresses lung cancer by regulating the Bcl-2/Bax/caspase-3 signaling pathway and enhancing natural killer cell-driven tumor immunity.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 8;98:107837. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate how methionine enkephalin (MENK) regulates the biological behavior of lung cancer cells and to further explore its anti-lung cancer mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that MENK enhanced the expression of opioid receptor (OGFr) and induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells by activating the Bcl-1/Bax/caspase-3 signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. However, the regulatory effects of MENK disappeared after blockade of the OGFr. Read More

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Coordinated Fc-effector and neutralization functions in HIV-infected children define a window of opportunity for HIV vaccination.

AIDS 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg South Africa Africa Health Research Institute, Durban, South Africa HIV Pathogenesis Programme, The Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, UK Antibody Immunity Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Objectives: Antibody function has been extensively studied in HIV infected adults but is relatively understudied in children. Emerging data suggests enhanced development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in children, but Fc effector functions in this group are less well-defined. Here, we profiled overall antibody function in HIV infected children. Read More

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B2M gene expression shapes the immune landscape of lung adenocarcinoma and determines the response to immunotherapy.

Immunology 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Immunology, Nantong University, School of Medicine, Nantong, Jiangsu, 226001, China.

Loss of the B2M gene is associated with tumor immune escape and resistance to immunotherapy. However, genetic alterations of the B2M gene are rare. We performed an integrative analysis of the mutational and transcriptional profiles of large cohorts of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and found that epigenetic downregulation of B2M is common. Read More

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Association Between SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Immune-Mediated Myopathy in Patients Who Have Died.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neuropathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Importance: Myalgia, increased levels of creatine kinase, and persistent muscle weakness have been reported in patients with COVID-19.

Objective: To study skeletal muscle and myocardial inflammation in patients with COVID-19 who had died.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case-control autopsy series was conducted in a university hospital as a multidisciplinary postmortem investigation. Read More

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Non-Coated Rituximab Induces Highly Cytotoxic Natural Killer Cells From Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Autologous B Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:658562. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Natural killer (NK) cells are becoming valuable tools for cancer therapy because of their cytotoxicity against tumor cells without prior sensitization and their involvement in graft-versus-host disease; however, it is difficult to obtain highly cytotoxic NK cells without adding extra feeder cells. In this study, we developed a new method for obtaining highly cytotoxic NK cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) independently of extra feeder cell addition using rituximab not coated on a flask (non-coated rituximab). We found that rituximab could promote both the activation and expansion of NK cells from PBMCs, irrespective of being coated on a flask or not. Read More

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Cancer immunotherapy: it's time to better predict patients' response.

Br J Cancer 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, GIGA-Cancer, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium.

In less than a decade, half a dozen immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved and are currently revolutionising the treatment of many cancer (sub)types. With the clinical evaluation of novel delivery approaches (e.g. Read More

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