91,654 results match your criteria natural history

Natural history of EBV replication and viral load dynamics after alemtuzumab based allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Haematology, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London, UK; Department of Haematology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load monitoring post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) enables earlier detection of EBV replication and is often used as a trigger for pre-emptive therapies aiming to reduce EBV-related diseases. Our institutional strategy is to treat patients with clinical signs of EBV-related disease accompanied by a rising viral load, rather than to intervene solely based on viral load. This affords an opportunity to study the natural history of EBV replication and to assess if our strategy reduces over-treatment without compromising outcomes. Read More

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Convergent evolution of forelimb-propelled swimming in seals.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia; Geosciences, Museums Victoria, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia.

Modern pinnipeds (true and eared seals) employ two radically different swimming styles, with true seals (phocids) propelling themselves primarily with their hindlimbs, whereas eared seals (otariids) rely on their wing-like foreflippers. Current explanations of this functional dichotomy invoke either pinniped diphyly or independent colonizations of the ocean by related but still largely terrestrial ancestors. Here, we show that pinniped swimming styles form an anatomical, functional, and behavioral continuum, within which adaptations for forelimb swimming can arise directly from a hindlimb-propelled bauplan. Read More

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A 50-Year History of Tinea Capitis.

Mycopathologia 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

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Stage 0 Charcot Neuroarthropathy in the Diabetic Foot: An Emerging Narrow Window of Opportunity?

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2021 May 7:15347346211011844. Epub 2021 May 7.

8948King's College Hospital, London, UK.

In a world where popular culture and concepts can become the norm without all the rigors of normal scrutiny, our attention is focused on identifying Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) at a stage before radiological bone destruction occurs. The rationale is that early recognition can prevent a destructive chain of events and thus potentially reduce the burden to patients and health care providers. In this article, we describe the evolution of stage 0 CN, and the use of modern imaging in characterizing the abnormalities recognized by these modalities and how they aid our understanding and supplement our knowledge. Read More

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Internet of Samples (iSamples): Toward an interdisciplinary cyberinfrastructure for material samples.

Gigascience 2021 May;10(5)

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, P.O. Box 1000 61 Route 9W Palisades, NY 10964, USA.

Sampling the natural world and built environment underpins much of science, yet systems for managing material samples and associated (meta)data are fragmented across institutional catalogs, practices for identification, and discipline-specific (meta)data standards. The Internet of Samples (iSamples) is a standards-based collaboration to uniquely, consistently, and conveniently identify material samples, record core metadata about them, and link them to other samples, data, and research products. iSamples extends existing resources and best practices in data stewardship to render a cross-domain cyberinfrastructure that enables transdisciplinary research, discovery, and reuse of material samples in 21st century natural science. Read More

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Principles responsible for trace element concentrations in chronic kidney disease.

Clin Nephrol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Derangements of trace elements often occur in patients with renal failure and play a crucial role in chronic kidney disease. The natural history of trace element deposition with worsening chronic kidney disease has been poorly described. Some essential trace elements may get wasted (e. Read More

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Genomic and phenotypic divergence informs translocation strategies for an endangered freshwater fish.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.

Translocation, the movement of organisms for conservation purposes, can result in unintended introgression if genetic material flows between populations in new ways. The Bluemask Darter Etheostoma akatulo is a federally endangered species of freshwater fish inhabiting the Caney Fork River system and three of its tributaries (Collins River, Rocky River, and Cane Creek) in Tennessee. The current conservation strategy for Bluemask Darters involves translocating the progeny of broodstock from the Collins River (in the west) to the Calfkiller River (in the east) where the species had been extirpated. Read More

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Plantar involvement correlates with obesity, pain, and impaired mobility in epidermolysis bullosa simplex: a retrospective cohort study.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Dermatology, Medical Faculty and Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Hauptstraße 7, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is the most common type of EB, a group of rare genodermatoses. Affected individuals suffer from skin blistering and report a high disease burden. In some EBS subtypes, plantar keratoderma (PK) has been described. Read More

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From neural stem cells to glioblastoma: A natural history of GBM recapitulated in vitro.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Molecular Oncology Laboratory MOL, Departamento de Fisioloxía, Centro Singular de Investigación en Medicina Molecular e Enfermidades Crónicas CiMUS, Facultade de Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela IDIS, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Due to its aggressive and invasive nature glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumour in adults, remains almost invariably lethal. Significant advances in the last several years have elucidated much of the molecular and genetic complexities of GBM. However, GBM exhibits a vast genetic variation and a wide diversity of phenotypes that have complicated the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Read More

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A GWAS identifies novel gene associations with facial skin wrinkling and mole count in Latin-Americans.

Br J Dermatol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Arica, 1000000, Chile.

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genes influencing skin ageing and mole count in Europeans but little is known about the relevance of these (or other genes) in non-Europeans.

Objective: To conduct a GWAS for facial skin ageing and mole count in adults < 40 years old, of mixed European, Native American and African ancestry, recruited in Latin America.

Methods: Skin ageing and mole count scores were obtained from facial photographs of >6,000 individuals. Read More

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Knee osteonecrosis incidence from two real-world data sources.

Osteoarthr Cartil Open 2021 Jun 16;3(2). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Anti-nerve growth factor (NGF) has shown promise for osteoarthritis (OA) pain efficacy, but an unanticipated joint safety signal occurred in trials. To what extent this was related to OA natural history, or was a consequence of anti-NGF agents is unclear. Of the adverse joint safety events identified, osteonecrosis has specific diagnostic codes available in the medical record to enable assessment of its frequency in the general community. Read More

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The Formation of Bilobate Comet Shapes through Sublimative Torques.

Planet Sci J 2021 Feb 28;2(1). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Recent spacecraft and radar observations have found that ~70 percent of short-period comet nuclei, mostly Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), have bilobate shapes (two masses connected by a narrow neck). This is in stark contrast to the shapes of asteroids of similar sizes, of which ~14% are bilobate. This suggests that a process or mechanism unique to comets is producing these shapes. Read More

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February 2021

Extraction, Purification, Bioactivities and Application of Matrix Proteins From Pearl Powder and Nacre Powder: A Review.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 20;9:649665. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Food Science and Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.

Natural pearls are formed when sand or parasites (irritants) accidentally enter into the oyster body and form pearls under the cover of the nacre layer. Pearl powder is a powdery substance by grinding pearls into small grains, however, the nacre powder is the inner layer of outer corner layer and middle prism layer. Pearl medicine in China has a history of more than 2,000 years, pearl has the effects of calming the mind, clearing the eyes, detoxifying the muscle and so on. Read More

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New forms of structure in ecosystems revealed with the Kuramoto model.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 10;8(3):210122. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Program in the Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 481090, USA.

Ecological systems, as is often noted, are complex. Equally notable is the generalization that complex systems tend to be oscillatory, whether Huygens' simple patterns of pendulum entrainment or the twisted chaotic orbits of Lorenz' convection rolls. The analytics of oscillators may thus provide insight into the structure of ecological systems. Read More

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Threatened Neotropical seasonally dry tropical forest: evidence of biodiversity loss in sap-sucking herbivores over 75 years.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 10;8(3):201370. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Departamento de Botánica y Zoología, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, Km 15.5 carretera Guadalajara-Nogales, Camino Ramón Padilla Sánchez No. 2100, C.P. 45200, Apdo. Postal 139, Las Agujas, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico.

Tropical forests cover 7% of the earth's surface and hold 50% of known terrestrial arthropod species. Alarming insect declines resulting from human activities have recently been documented in temperate and tropical ecosystems worldwide, but reliable data from tropical forests remain sparse. The sap-sucking tribe Athysanini is one herbivore group sensitive to anthropogenic perturbation and the largest within the diverse insect family Cicadellidae distributed in America's tropical forests. Read More

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COVID-19 and post-infectious myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: a narrative review.

Ther Adv Infect Dis 2021 Jan-Dec;8:20499361211009385. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection which can cause a variety of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and vascular symptoms. The acute illness phase generally lasts no more than 2-3 weeks. However, there is increasing evidence that a proportion of COVID-19 patients experience a prolonged convalescence and continue to have symptoms lasting several months after the initial infection. Read More

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Prediction of Patient's Adherence to the Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis Follow-up Plan in Iran: Application of two Data Mining Techniques.

Tanaffos 2020 Dec;19(4):330-339

Department of Health information Management, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Timely diagnosis of post-intubation tracheal stenosis (PITS), which is one of the most serious complications of endotracheal intubation, may change its natural history. To prevent PITS, patients who are discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) with more than 24 hours of intubation should be actively followed-up for three months after extubation. This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of artificial neural network (ANN) and decision tree (DT) methods in predicting the patients' adherence to the follow-up plan and revealing the knowledge behind PITS screening system development requirements. Read More

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December 2020

A survey of (Hymenogastraceae) in Greenland.

MycoKeys 2021 19;79:17-118. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Frederik VII´s Vej 29, 3450 Allerød, Denmark.

This is the first study exclusively dedicated to the study of in Greenland. It is based on almost 400 collections, the great majority of which were collected by three of the co-authors over a period of 40 years and were lodged in the fungarium of the Natural History Museum in Copenhagen. The material was identified using molecular and morphological methods. Read More

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Species conservation profile and amended distribution of (Asteraceae), a narrow endemic of the Western Tian-Shan.

Biodivers Data J 2021 27;9:e64115. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland.

Background: Bornm. (Asteraceae) belongs to C. sect. Read More

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Response to Zamani et al. (2020): The omission of critical data in the pursuit of "revolutionary" methods to accelerate the description of species.

Zookeys 2021 22;1033:191-201. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland University of Oulu Oulu Finland.

Here we respond to the criticisms leveled against a proposal that suggested an efficient solution to the taxonomic impediment. We clarify some of our objectives and demonstrate that many of the criticisms apply more to traditional approaches to taxonomy rather than to our minimalist approach. Read More

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Neotropical Kieffer, 1921 (Diptera, Chironomidae): Key, eleven new species, re-descriptions, new combination and new records.

Zookeys 2021 22;1033:81-125. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Natural History, University Museum of Bergen, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, NO-5020, Bergen, Norway University of Bergen Bergen Norway.

Nine new species of Kieffer, , , , , , , , and are described and figured, based on adult males collected in Brazil and on an adult male from Mexico; is described as male, pupa and larva based on a reared specimen from Brazil. Roback, 1960 and Roback, 1960 are re-described and recorded from Brazil. Mendes & Andersen, 2009 is transferred to Reiss & Sublette, 1985 and the diagnosis of is emended. Read More

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Genome sequencing reveals extraordinary cephalic horns in the Madagascan dung beetle genus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae): insight from a revision of species group.

Zookeys 2021 22;1033:63-79. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Finnish Museum of Natural History (LUOMUS), University of Helsinki, Pohjoinen Rautatiekatu 13, Helsinki , 00014 , Finland University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland.

In this study, we test and corroborate the phylogenetic position of within using mitogenomes and nuclear loci. Our recent samplings revealed that males of the former Paulian, 1975 (today under d'Orbigny, 1915) have extraordinary bilateral clypeal horns which are exclusive within the genus. We provide a taxonomic review of the species group of and discuss the systematic position of within the group. Read More

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, a new species of vampire crab (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae) from a limestone cave in central Sarawak, Malaysia.

Peter K L Ng

Zookeys 2021 15;1031:133-141. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 119260, Republic of Singapore National University of Singapore Singapore Singapore.

A new species of semi-terrestrial crab of the genus (Sesarmidae) is described from a limestone cave in central Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. is characterised by its quadrate carapace, absence of a flagellum on the exopod of the third maxilliped, presence of 10 or 11 sharp tubercles on the dactylus of the chela and a diagnostic male first gonopod structure. This is the sixth species of reported from Sarawak, and the first member of the genus collected from inside caves. Read More

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A revision of the species group in the millipede genus Chamberlin, 1918 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Xystodesmidae).

Zookeys 2021 13;1030:1-180. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Virginia Tech, Department of Entomology, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA Virginia Tech Blacksburg United States of America.

Millipedes in the family Xystodesmidae (Polydesmida) are often referred to as "colorful, flat-backed millipedes" for their bright aposematic coloration and tendency to form Müllerian mimicry rings in the Appalachian region. However, there are many species of Xystodesmidae that do not display colorful warning patterns, and instead have more cryptic appearances. Perhaps for this reason, groups such as the genus have remained understudied, despite containing a large number of undescribed species. Read More

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Acanthodian dental development and the origin of gnathostome dentitions.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Bristol, UK.

Chondrichthyan dentitions are conventionally interpreted to reflect the ancestral gnathostome condition but interpretations of osteichthyan dental evolution in this light have proved unsuccessful, perhaps because chondrichthyan dentitions are equally specialized, or else evolved independently. Ischnacanthid acanthodians are stem-Chondrichthyes; as phylogenetic intermediates of osteichthyans and crown-chondrichthyans, the nature of their enigmatic dentition may inform homology and the ancestral gnathostome condition. Here we show that ischnacanthid marginal dentitions were statodont, composed of multicuspidate teeth added in distally diverging rows and through proximal superpositional replacement, while their symphyseal tooth whorls are comparable to chondrichthyan and osteichthyan counterparts. Read More

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Radiomics and radiogenomics in gliomas: a contemporary update.

Br J Cancer 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York City, NY, USA.

The natural history and treatment landscape of primary brain tumours are complicated by the varied tumour behaviour of primary or secondary gliomas (high-grade transformation of low-grade lesions), as well as the dilemmas with identification of radiation necrosis, tumour progression, and pseudoprogression on MRI. Radiomics and radiogenomics promise to offer precise diagnosis, predict prognosis, and assess tumour response to modern chemotherapy/immunotherapy and radiation therapy. This is achieved by a triumvirate of morphological, textural, and functional signatures, derived from a high-throughput extraction of quantitative voxel-level MR image metrics. Read More

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Vibration mitigation of an MDoF system subjected to stochastic loading by means of hysteretic nonlinear locally resonant metamaterials.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9728. Epub 2021 May 6.

IGF - Ingenieurgesellschaft Dr. Ing. Fischbach mbH, An der Vogelrute 2, 50374, Erftstadt-Lechenich, Germany.

In this paper, we intend to mitigate absolute accelerations and displacements in the low-frequency regime of multiple-degrees-of-freedom fuel storage tanks subjected to stochastic seismic excitations. Therefore, we propose to optimize a finite locally resonant metafoundation equipped with massive resonators and fully nonlinear hysteretic devices. The optimization process takes into account the stochastic nature of seismic records in the stationary frequency domain; the records are modelled with the power spectral density S and modified with a Kanai-Tajimi filter. Read More

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Diversification, selective sweep, and body size in the invasive Palearctic alfalfa weevil infected with Wolbachia.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9664. Epub 2021 May 6.

Nata-Danchi, Fukuoka, Japan.

The alfalfa weevil Hypera postica, native to the Western Palearctic, is an invasive legume pest with two divergent mitochondrial clades in its invading regions, the Western clade and the Eastern/Egyptian clade. However, knowledge regarding the native populations is limited. The Western clade is infected with the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia that cause cytoplasmic incompatibility in host weevils. Read More

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Evolution of vision and hearing modalities in theropod dinosaurs.

Science 2021 May;372(6542):610-613

Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.

Owls and nightbirds are nocturnal hunters of active prey that combine visual and hearing adaptations to overcome limits on sensory performance in low light. Such sensory innovations are unknown in nonavialan theropod dinosaurs and are poorly characterized on the line that leads to birds. We investigate morphofunctional proxies of vision and hearing in living and extinct theropods and demonstrate deep evolutionary divergences of sensory modalities. Read More

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