10,936 results match your criteria natural anthropogenic


Improved accuracy and reduced uncertainty in greenhouse gas inventories by refining the IPCC emission factor for direct N O emissions from nitrogen inputs to managed soils.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Most national GHG inventories estimating direct N O emissions from managed soils rely on a default Tier 1 emission factor (EF ) amounting to 1% of nitrogen inputs. Recent research has however demonstrated the potential for refining the EF considering variables that are readily available at national scales. Building on existing reviews, we produced a large dataset (n = 848) enriched in dry and low latitude tropical climates observations as compared to former global efforts and disaggregated the EF according to most meaningful controlling factors. Read More

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September 2021

Contribution of anthropogenic and natural sources in PM10 during North African dust events in Southern Europe.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 28;290:118065. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Associate Unit CSIC-University of Huelva "Atmospheric Pollution", Center for Research in Sustainable Chemistry - CIQSO, University of Huelva, E21071, Huelva, Spain; Department of Earth Science, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Campus El Carmen s/n, 21071, Huelva, Spain.

The influence of North African (NAF) dust events on the air quality at the regional level (12 representative monitoring stations) in Southern Europe during a long time series (2007-2014) was studied. PM10 levels and chemical composition were separated by Atlantic (ATL) and NAF air masses. An increase in the average PM10 concentrations was observed on sampling days with NAF dust influence (42 μg m) when compared to ATL air masses (29 μg m). Read More

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Eutrophication leads to the formation of a sulfide-rich deep-water layer in Lake Sevan, Armenia.

Isotopes Environ Health Stud 2021 Oct;57(5):535-552

Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Lake Sevan is a meso-eutrophic water body, which was severely impacted by anthropogenic level decrease, pollution and eutrophication during the last century. Starting in the 1970s, these processes resulted in the formation of an oxygen-depleted hypolimnion during summer-autumn stratification of the lake. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time that eutrophication of the lake leads not only to the full depletion of oxygen and nitrate in the hypolimnion but as well to the presence of sulfate-reducing microorganisms and toxic hydrogen sulfide. Read More

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October 2021

The critical role of natural history museums in advancing eDNA for biodiversity studies: a case study with Amazonian fishes.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 13;11(1):18159. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Natural History Museum and Institute, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8682, Japan.

Ichthyological surveys have traditionally been conducted using whole-specimen, capture-based sampling with varied but conventional fishing gear. Recently, environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding has emerged as a complementary, and possible alternative, approach to whole-specimen methodologies. In the tropics, where much of the diversity remains undescribed, vast reaches continue unexplored, and anthropogenic activities are constant threats; there have been few eDNA attempts for ichthyological inventories. Read More

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September 2021

Spatial allocation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission statistics data fusing multi-source data based on Bayesian network.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 13;11(1):18128. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, China.

A gridded social-economic data is essential for geoscience analysis and multidisciplinary application. Spatial allocation of carbon dioxide statistics data is an important issue in the context of global climate change, which involves the carbon emissions accounting and decomposition of responsibility for carbon emission reductions. In this research a new spatial allocation method for non-point source anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions (ACDE) fusing multi-source data using Bayesian Network (BN) was introduced. Read More

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September 2021

Bluefin tuna reveal global patterns of mercury pollution and bioavailability in the world's oceans.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(38)

Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901.

Bluefin tuna (BFT), highly prized among consumers, accumulate high levels of mercury (Hg) as neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). However, how Hg bioaccumulation varies among globally distributed BFT populations is not understood. Here, we show mercury accumulation rates (MARs) in BFT are highest in the Mediterranean Sea and decrease as North Pacific Ocean > Indian Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean. Read More

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September 2021

North Atlantic jet stream projections in the context of the past 1,250 years.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(38)

Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512.

Reconstruction of the North Atlantic jet stream (NAJ) presents a critical, albeit largely unconstrained, paleoclimatic target. Models suggest northward migration and changing variance of the NAJ under 21st-century warming scenarios, but assessing the significance of such projections is hindered by a lack of long-term observations. Here, we incorporate insights from an ensemble of last-millennium water isotope-enabled climate model simulations and a wide array of mean annual water isotope ([Formula: see text]O) and annually accumulated snowfall records from Greenland ice cores to reconstruct North Atlantic zonal-mean zonal winds back to the 8th century CE. Read More

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September 2021

Remarkable signals of the ancient Chinese civilization since the Early Bronze Age in the marine environment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 8;804:150209. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Prospecting Techniques, Ministry of Education of China, College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China.

The signals of fire activity induced from climate and ancient human activities could be recorded in sedimentary strata. We examined a 6000-year black‑carbon (BC) record-including char and soot-of a sediment core from the South Yellow Sea. The climate change had a threshold effect on the fire regime, and dominated the char emissions. Read More

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September 2021

Childhood exposure to metal(loid)s in industrial and urban areas along the Persian Gulf using toenail tissue as a biomarker.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 1;291:118090. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Systems Environmental Health and Energy Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Metal(loid)s (MLs) with natural or anthropogenic sources may cause adverse health effects in children. This study aimed to compare the childhood exposure to ΣMLs (essential, non-essential and toxic) in an industrial and an urban area in Southwest Iran using toenail tissue as a biomarker. The present study was carried out with school children in the age range of 7-12 years, who were living in an industrial area in the petrochemical and gas area (PGA) of the Central District of Asaluyeh County and in an urban area (UA) located in the Kaki District. Read More

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September 2021

An Outbreak of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease in British Columbia, Canada.

J Wildl Dis 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 1015 Arlington Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3M4, Canada.

From 2018 to 2019, an outbreak of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) occurred in British Columbia, Canada, in feral and domestic European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Anthropogenic translocation of infected animals is suspected to have played a role in the introduction and spread of the virus. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of COVID-19 induced lockdown on land surface temperature, aerosol, and urban heat in Europe and North America.

Sustain Cities Soc 2021 Dec 5;75:103336. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Earth and Climate Science Area, National Remote Sensing Centre, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Hyderabad 500037, India.

The outbreak of SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to human beings, society, and economic activities all over the world. Worldwide rigorous containment measures for limiting the spread of the virus have several beneficial environmental implications due to decreased anthropogenic emissions and air pollutants, which provide a unique opportunity to understand and quantify the human impact on atmospheric environment. In the present study, the associated changes in Land Surface Temperature (LST), aerosol, and atmospheric water vapor content were investigated over highly COVID-19 impacted areas, namely, Europe and North America. Read More

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December 2021

Characterization of A4, an Almond-Derived Plant Growth-Promoting Endophyte.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:687971. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Sierra Nevada Research Institute, University of California, Merced, Merced, CA, United States.

The rapidly increasing global population and anthropogenic climate change have created intense pressure on agricultural systems to produce increasingly more food under steadily challenging environmental conditions. Simultaneously, industrial agriculture is negatively affecting natural and agricultural ecosystems because of intensive irrigation and fertilization to fully utilize the potential of high-yielding cultivars. Growth-promoting microbes that increase stress tolerance and crop yield could be a useful tool for helping mitigate these problems. Read More

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Evolutionary legacies in contemporary tetrapod imperilment.

Ecol Lett 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

The Tree of Life will be irrevocably reshaped as anthropogenic extinctions continue to unfold. Theory suggests that lineage evolutionary dynamics, such as age since origination, historical extinction filters and speciation rates, have influenced ancient extinction patterns - but whether these factors also contribute to modern extinction risk is largely unknown. We examine evolutionary legacies in contemporary extinction risk for over 4000 genera, representing ~30,000 species, from the major tetrapod groups: amphibians, birds, turtles and crocodiles, squamate reptiles and mammals. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of land use and land cover change detection and prediction using remote sensing and CA Markov in the northern coastal districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

The study on land use and land cover (LULC) changes assists in analyzing the change and regulates environment sustainability. Hence, this research analyzes the Northern TN coast, which is under both natural and anthropogenic stress. The analysis of LULC changes and LULC projections for the region between 2009-2019 and 2019-2030 was performed utilizing Google Earth Engine (GEE), TerrSet, and Geographical Information System (GIS) tools. Read More

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September 2021

Microscale Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) for interstitial water of estuarine sediments affected by multiple sources of pollution.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Departamento de Ciências do Mar, Instituto do Mar, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Campus Baixada Santista, R. Dr. Carvalho de Mendonça, 144, Vila Belmiro, CEP 11070-102, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Estuaries in the world are affected by different contamination sources related to urbanisation and port/industrial activities. Identifying the substances responsible for the environmental toxicity in estuaries is challenging due to the multitude of stressors, both natural and anthropogenic. The Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) is a suitable way of determining causes of toxicity of sediments, but it poses difficulties since its application is labour intensive and time consuming. Read More

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September 2021

Origin of nitrate and sulfate sources in volcano-sedimentary aquifers of the East Africa Rift System: An example of the Ali-Sabieh groundwater (Republic of Djibouti).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 4;804:150072. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Bureau Géologique des Comores, 8083 Moroni Hadudja, Comoros.

Within the East African Rift System (EARS), the complex Ali-Sabieh aquifers system, located in the south of the Republic of Djibouti, was overexploited and subjected to anthropogenic and/or geogenic pollution with high concentrations of dissolved nitrate (up to 181 mg/l) and sulfates (up to 1540 mg/l). This study is the first undertaken on the hydrochemistry of this aquifer system, combining geochemical tools and multi-isotope - δH(HO), δO(HO), δO(SO), δS(SO), δN(NO), δO(NO), δC(DIC), and C- was used to decipher the origin and fate of different nitrate and sulfate sources to groundwater. The groundwater samples of the region show a chemical evolution from fresh Ca(Na)-bicarbonate to brackish Na-Cl , mainly due to water-rock interaction. Read More

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September 2021

Environmental hormesis of non-specific and specific adaptive mechanisms in plants.

Authors:
Elena A Erofeeva

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 4;804:150059. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Ecology, Institute of Biology and Biomedicine, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 23 Gagarina Pr, Nizhni Novgorod 603950, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

Adaptive responses of plants are important not only for local processes in populations and communities but also for global processes in the biosphere through the primary production of ecosystems. In recent years, the concept of environmental hormesis has been increasingly used to explain the adaptive responses of living organisms, including plants, to low doses of natural factors, both abiotic and biotic, as well as various anthropogenic impacts. However, the issues of whether plant hormesis is similar/different when it is induced by mild stressors having different specific effects and what is the contribution of hormetic stimulation of non-specific and specific adaptive mechanisms in plant resilience to strong stressors (i. Read More

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September 2021

Future phytoplankton diversity in a changing climate.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 10;12(1):5372. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The future response of marine ecosystem diversity to continued anthropogenic forcing is poorly constrained. Phytoplankton are a diverse set of organisms that form the base of the marine ecosystem. Currently, ocean biogeochemistry and ecosystem models used for climate change projections typically include only 2-3 phytoplankton types and are, therefore, too simple to adequately assess the potential for changes in plankton community structure. Read More

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September 2021

Immunotoxicity of Xenobiotics in Fish: A Role for the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)?

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 31;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Laboratory of Marine Biology and Ecology, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen 361005, China.

The impact of anthropogenic contaminants on the immune system of fishes is an issue of growing concern. An important xenobiotic receptor that mediates effects of chemicals, such as halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Fish toxicological research has focused on the role of this receptor in xenobiotic biotransformation as well as in causing developmental, cardiac, and reproductive toxicity. Read More

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Perceived Risk in the Population Living near the Turin Incinerator: Comparison between before and at Three Years of Operation.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Aug 26;18(17). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Regional Epidemiology Unit, ASL TO3, Piedmont Region, Via Sabaudia 164, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy.

When the Turin incinerator went into operation in 2013, it was accompanied by surveillance of health effects that included a human biomonitoring survey of 394 residents. They responded to items investigating their awareness of environmental and health issues and perception of environmental health risks. In this study, we compared the questionnaire responses before plant startup and at 3 years of operation. Read More

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The toxicological impact of the sunscreen active ingredient octinoxate on the photosynthesis activity of Chlorella sp.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Sep 4;171:105469. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Qingdao, 266071, China. Electronic address:

Products designed to filter ultraviolet (UV) light are responsible for growing levels of anthropogenic environmental contamination. Octinoxate (ONT) is among the most common UV filtering active ingredients in cosmetics and sunscreens. The present study was designed to evaluate the toxicological effects of ONT on the photosynthetic activity of the Chlorella species of marine microalgae. Read More

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September 2021

Parrotfish corallivory on stress-tolerant corals in the Anthropocene.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(9):e0250725. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Research Hub for Coral Reef Ecosystem Functions, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

Cumulative anthropogenic stressors on tropical reefs are modifying the physical and community structure of coral assemblages, altering the rich biological communities that depend on this critical habitat. As a consequence, new reef configurations are often characterized by low coral cover and a shift in coral species towards massive and encrusting corals. Given that coral numbers are dwindling in these new reef systems, it is important to evaluate the potential influence of coral predation on these remaining corals. Read More

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September 2021

Profiling nonhuman primate germline RNA to understand the legacy of early life stress.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Exposure to stress is a risk factor for perturbed mental health, including impoverished regulation of emotional and physiological responses that accompany anxiety and mood disorders, substance abuse and behavioral disorders. Such disruptions to well-being could be triggered by discrete environmental events or pervasive early life stress (ELS) resulting for example from adverse caregiving. Recent data mostly collected from rodents exposed to anthropogenic stressors suggest that one way via which the detrimental effects of such stress extend beyond the exposed population to future offspring is via stress-induced alterations of RNA found in the paternal germline. Read More

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September 2021

Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality in the thick loess deposits of China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Water quality and quantity should be paid more attention in regions with arid climate and thick vadose zones since the limited groundwater cannot be replenished rapidly once polluted. This study focused on the Loess Plateau of China to investigate the geochemical mechanism affecting groundwater chemistry and to calculate contribution rates of multiple sources to groundwater solutes. We employed multiple methods (diagrams, bivariate analyses, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), correlation analysis, and forward model) for the above purposes. Read More

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September 2021

A review exploring the overarching burden of Zika virus with emphasis on epidemiological case studies from Brazil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London, UK.

This paper explores the main factors for mosquito-borne transmission of the Zika virus by focusing on environmental, anthropogenic, and social risks. A literature review was conducted bringing together related information from this genre of research from peer-reviewed publications. It was observed that environmental conditions, especially precipitation, humidity, and temperature, played a role in the transmission. Read More

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September 2021

Construction of biotreatment platforms for aromatic hydrocarbons and their future perspectives.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 29;416:125968. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Chemical Engineering & Technology Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) are one of the major environmental pollutants introduced from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Many AHCs are well known for their toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic impact on human health and ecological systems. Biodegradation is an eco-friendly and cost-effective option as microorganisms (e. Read More

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Influence of physico-chemical characteristics of rembau river, peninsular Malaysia, on congregating Pteroptyx fireflies.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Sep 7;193(10):634. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

We studied the water quality of the riparian firefly sanctuary of Sungai Rembau, or Rembau River, in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, from January 2018 to November 2018 to determine the possible influence of the physico-chemical characteristics of the water on the firefly populations living within the sanctuary. We set up a total of five water quality sampling stations and 10 firefly sampling stations along the river. Dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured in situ, while chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH-N) were analysed in the laboratory. Read More

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September 2021

Reduced ectoparasite load, body mass and blood haemolysis in Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) along an urban-rural gradient.

Naturwissenschaften 2021 Sep 7;108(5):42. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Natural History Museum Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Urbanisation is proceeding at an alarming rate which forces wildlife to either retreat from urban areas or cope with novel stressors linked to human presence and activities. For example, urban stressors like anthropogenic noise, artificial light at night and chemical pollution can have severe impacts on the physiology of wildlife (and humans), in particular the immune system and antioxidant defences. These physiological systems are important to combat and reduce the severity of parasitic infections, which are common among wild animals. Read More

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September 2021

Using interview surveys and multispecies occupancy models to inform vertebrate conservation.

Conserv Biol 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Nature Conservation Foundation, 3076/5, 4th Cross, Gokulam Park, Mysore, 570002, India.

Species distribution data are an essential biodiversity variable requiring robust monitoring to inform wildlife conservation. Yet, such data remain inherently sparse because of the logistical challenges of monitoring biodiversity across broad geographic extents. Surveys of knowledgeable members of the public (e. Read More

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September 2021

Effect and Response of subsp. [Desf.] Samp. Seedlings From Three Contrasting Andalusian Populations to Individual and Combined and Drought Stresses.

Front Plant Sci 2021 19;12:722802. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Agroforestry and Plant Biochemistry, Proteomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.

L. is the dominant species in the Mediterranean forest and agrosilvopastoral ecosystem "." Currently, this forest species is threatened by natural and anthropogenic agents, especially by the decline syndrome, which is caused by and drought periods. Read More

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