2,057 results match your criteria national socialism


Her Russ Acad Sci 2021 14;91(4):419-427. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Primakov National Institute of the World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

This July marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Chinese Communist Party. This event motivated the authors of this article to consider the main problems that modern Chinese society is solving, the place of the PRC in the world economy and politics at the beginning of the third decade of the 21st century, and China's growing influence on the planet. China's undoubted successes, including in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic and in overcoming the recession caused by tough quarantine measures in early 2020, show the considerable viability of the state created by the Chinese communists, which is increasingly at the forefront of the world in the economy, science and technology, and culture. Read More

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September 2021

[Twin research in Germany].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Innere Medizin VI, Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Osianderstr. 5, 72076, Tübingen, Deutschland.

The worldwide development of twin cohorts began after World War II. These cohorts now include around 1.5 million twins, and more than 2748 twin studies have been published between 1950 and 2012. Read More

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September 2021

Max Clara: Sweet life in Istanbul with a bitter end 1950-1966 and the search for unethically obtained tissue specimens from his estate in Turkish collections.

Erdem Bagatur

Ann Anat 2021 Sep 8:151822. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Orthopaedic surgeon in private practice Address: Bahcesehir 2. Mah., Ada Sok., D10 Blok, No.: 37, Basaksehir, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to examine the last period of Max Clara's (1899-1966) life in Istanbul (1950-1966) and his scientific activities there. Clara's career before and during the National Socialist (NS) era was extensively studied, however, almost no information is available regarding his late years and his relationship with old colleagues and the academic world after he was dismissed from the academic life in the postwar period. Max Clara's life in Istanbul was based on primary sources from the Istanbul University Archive. Read More

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September 2021

Limited use of a Nazi-era anatomy atlas in the operating theater: Remembering the victims.

Isr Med Assoc J 2021 Sep;23(9):605-606

Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

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September 2021

Unsettling Realities of Nazism and the Legacy of the German Neurological Society.

Ann Neurol 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Institute for History of Medicine and Medical Ethics, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Objective: On behalf of the German Neurological Society (DGN), a study was conducted into how far former chairmen, honorary chairmen, and honorary members could be regarded as incriminated from the National Socialist period. While an online supplement of this journal presents seven individual biographies (in six papers) by way of example, this paper offers an overview summarizing the project results and introducing the biographies.

Methods: The first part and the methodological section discuss the difficulties of retrospectively identifying neurologists involved in the Nazi movement. Read More

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[Perpetrator or victim? The orthodontist Gustav Korkhaus (1895-1978) and his actual role in the Third Reich].

J Orofac Orthop 2021 Sep 30;82(5):345-355. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institut für Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin, Medizinische Fakultät, RWTH Aachen University, 52074, Aachen, Deutschland.

Purposes: Gustav Korkhaus is widely regarded as the most important German orthodontist of the post-war period; in contrast, his relationship to National Socialism is much less well defined. Against this background, this article sheds light on the concrete scientific and (professional) political significance of Korkhaus; special attention is paid to his role in the Third Reich.

Methods: The study is based on primary sources from the Federal Archives Berlin, the State Archives North Rhine-Westphalia (Department Rhineland), and the University Archives Bonn. Read More

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September 2021

[Gustav Nikolaus Specht (1860-1940) : His impact on Kraepelin's nosology and approaches to his position in National Socialism].

Nervenarzt 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Psychiatrische und Psychotherapeutische Klinik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054, Erlangen, Deutschland.

Introduction: Gustav Specht (1860-1940) represents the beginning of the university psychiatry in Erlangen. 80 years after his death, this article focuses on Specht's role in the psychopathologic nosological discussion initiated by Kraepelin. Despite the sparse data situation, the authors approach for the first time Specht's position within psychiatry under National Socialism. Read More

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Commentary: The diagnostic label of Asperger's in historical perspective - a commentary on Kehinde et al. (2021).

Aisling Shalvey

Child Adolesc Ment Health 2021 Sep 22;26(3):286-287. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

MPG Hirnforschung im Nationalsozialismus, German National Academy of Science Leopoldina, Halle, Germany.

Eponyms and diagnoses that originate from the era of National Socialism have been re-evaluated as a result of historical research which reveal the unethical research and treatment behind the diagnosis. This article presents the case of Asperger's as a distinct diagnostic category and reflects on historical research which has provided further nuance behind the origins of this diagnosis. Read More

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September 2021

[The pathologist Hans Klein (1912-1984) : Autopsy of his role in the "Third Reich"].

Pathologe 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institut für Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin, Medizinische Fakultät, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074, Aachen, Deutschland.

The role of pathologist Hans Klein during the National Socialist era and his career in post-war Germany have hardly received systematic attention. During World War II, Hans Klein worked in two medical institutions, where he collaborated with individuals who were significantly involved in Nazi crimes. Klein's participation initially extended mainly to his work as an employed pathologist at the Rudolf Virchow Hospital in Berlin. Read More

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Correction to: Hans Asperger, National Socialism, and "race hygiene" in Nazi-era Vienna.

Herwig Czech

Mol Autism 2021 Jun 21;12(1):45. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Ethics, Collections, and History of Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 25, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

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Political continuity or a new beginning? The re-foundation of the "German Society for Pathology" and its politics in postwar Germany.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Aug 28;224:153491. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics in Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

In 1948, about 70 pathologists decided to reconstitute the "Deutsche Pathologische Gesellschaft" (German Pathological Society). With Arnold Lauche, a new president was elected; at the same time, the organization was renamed the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pathologie" (German Society of Pathology). But did these two obvious changes really mark a new beginning, a conscious turning away from the Nazi ideology that had significantly shaped the policies of the professional associations until 1945? The present paper pursues this very question. Read More

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Just "one of so many"? The pathologist Theodor Fahr (1877-1945) and his ambivalent relationship to National Socialism.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Aug 23;224:153488. Epub 2021 May 23.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics in Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, Aachen, D-52074, Germany. Electronic address:

Theodor Fahr is well known as a pioneer in renal pathology and the eponym of "Fahr's disease". While his professional merits are undisputed, his relationship to National Socialism remains unclear. On the one hand, he signed the public "oath of allegiance" of German professors to Adolf Hitler, on the other hand, he appeared as a mentor to his Jewish colleague Paul Kimmelstiel. Read More

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[National populism and fascism in a comparative historical perspective. Max Weber's sociology of domination revisitedComparaison historique entre national-populisme et fascisme. Sur l'actualité de la sociologie de la domination de Max Weber].

Maurizio Bach

Berl J Soziol 2021 May 25:1-20. Epub 2021 May 25.

Philosophische Fakultät, Universität Passau, Innstraße 41, 94030 Passau, Deutschland.

The rise of rightwing populism in the last decade, but more recently also the seemingly "authoritarian" measures taken by the state in protection against the COVID-19 pandemic, inspire ever more frequent comparisons with historical fascism. The paper discusses to what extent such a diachronic comparison is empirically and methodologically sound. The analysis is based in Max Weber's concept of "ideal type", which can be used as a . Read More

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A lesson from history? Worsening mortality and the rise of the Nazi Party in 1930s Germany.

Public Health 2021 Jun 23;195:18-21. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Social and Political Sciences, University of Bocconi, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that worsening mortality rates in the early 1930s were associated with increasing votes for the Nazi Party.

Study Design: The study consist of panel data with fixed effects.

Methods: We used district- and city-level regression models of Nazi vote shares on changes in all-cause mortality rates in 866 districts and 214 cities during federal elections from 1930 to 1933, adjusting for election and district/city-level fixed effects and sociodemographic factors. Read More

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The Pioneer Neuropharmacologist Alfred Fröhlich (1871-1953) and the Origins of Neuroendocrinology: A Sesquicentennial Remembrance.

Neuroscientist 2021 May 24:10738584211016777. Epub 2021 May 24.

Laboratory of Theoretical and Applied Neuroscience, University of Macedonia School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, Thessalonica, Greece.

The birth of neuroendocrinology as a scientific discipline is traced back to 1900-1901, when Joseph Babinski, Alfred Fröhlich, and Harvey Cushing independently identified adiposogenital dystrophy (Fröhlich syndrome), and related gonadal underdevelopment and obesity to a tumor near the pituitary gland. This discovery prompted decades of research into the brain mechanisms responsible for the control of peripheral metabolism and endocrine functions. On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Fröhlich's birth, this study traces the origins of his intellectual formation and his association with renowned contemporaries in Austria, England, Italy, and finally Cincinnati, Ohio, where he sought refuge after Austria's annexation by Nazi Germany. Read More

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'The King of Diseases': An Essay on the Special Attention Paid to Cancer Patients and How It Came About.

Recent Results Cancer Res 2021 ;218:1-14

Institute for History and Ethics in Medicine, Heidelberg University, Reinhard-Hoppe-Straße 15, 69118, Heidelberg, Germany.

The history of cancer during the twentieth century demonstrates that various factors have contributed to the perception of cancer as the 'Emperor of All Maladies', although this has never been true from an epidemiological perspective. Depending on the geographical area, infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria or cardiovascular disease still head the list of the most common illnesses. Within the group of chronic-degenerative diseases, however, cancer has outdistanced the widespread classic infectious diseases as a result of the epidemiologic transition around 1900, at least in the more developed countries. Read More

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Fighting Prejudice and Absorbing Refugees From Nazism: The National Committee for the Resettlement of Foreign Physicians, 1939-1945.

Ann Intern Med 2021 05;174(5):680-686

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (R.E.S.).

In the 1930s and 1940s, the medical profession reacted with hostility and erected formidable barriers to refugee physicians from Nazi-dominated Europe who sought to practice medicine in the United States. Yet, refugee physicians ultimately succeeded, with 77% of them working as doctors by 1945 and 98.6% by 1947. Read More

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"A Revolution in Favor of Reproduction"? Gynecology and Obstetrics in the "Third Reich".

Gynecol Obstet Invest 2020 19;85(6):472-500. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institut für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

During the "Third Reich," the majority of German gynecologists and obstetricians did not hesitate to put themselves at the service of those in power. In 1933, many gynecologists initially only focused on the fact that the biopolitical objectives of the National Socialists matched their own long-standing demands for population policy measures and the early detection and prevention of cancer. In addition, cooperating with the Nazis promised the political advancement of the profession, personal advantages, and the honorary title of Volksgesundheitsführer (national health leaders). Read More

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Capitalist theory and socialist practice: The organization of Chinese mathematics in the early 1950s.

John Hanzhang Ye

Endeavour 2021 Mar-Jun;45(1-2):100767. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Program in History of Science and Technology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States. Electronic address:

This article explores how the Chinese state organized scientific research in the 1950s, through a case study of mathematics. By examining the organizing process of the Chinese Mathematical Society and the establishment of the Institute of Mathematics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the article explains how a number of state agents were selected to lead national level research institutes as a means for guiding scientists in serving the needs of the state. In addition, under state corporatism, all scientists were attached to discipline-specific academic societies, forming a large hierarchy consisting of societies at different levels. Read More

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Triangular Trajectory of Sustainable Development: Panel Analysis of the OECD Countries.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 1;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Social Welfare, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju City 54896, Korea.

This study analyzes how the three pillars of sustainable development (economic growth, social justice, and environmental protection) have influenced each other for the past twenty-six years (from 1987 to 2013). The relationship between the triangular pillar of SD can be characterized by "ecological modernization", "eco-socialism", and the traditional debate between growth and distribution. This paper examined the correlation analysis of the nine representative variables in the three categories, adopting the cases of twenty-six OECD countries. Read More

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From emigration to remigration: The Jewish pathologist Fritz Meyer (1875-1953) and his extraordinary life course.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 May 19;221:153411. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics in Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.

Fritz Meyer (1875-1953) is undoubtedly one of the most enigmatic pathologists and internists of his time: He emerged early as a major researcher in the field of infectious diseases. Later, he also focused on heart and lung diseases and became a celebrity doctor who treated ambassadors and prominent contemporaries of the United States. The course of his life was as unusual as his professional activities: At the beginning of the Third Reich, Meyer experienced far-reaching repression due to his Jewish ancestry, which led to forced emigration to the USA. Read More

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Traces of Nazi victims in Hermann Stieve's histological collection.

Ann Anat 2021 Sep 23;237:151720. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute of Anatomy, Brandenburg Medical School Theodor Fontane, Fehrbelliner Str. 38, D-16816 Neuruppin, Germany; Faculty of Health Sciences Brandenburg, Brandenburg Medical School Theodor Fontane, Fehrbelliner Str. 38, D-16816 Neuruppin, Germany. Electronic address:

Introduction: Berlin anatomist Hermann Stieve (1886-1952) had access to many bodies of execution victims during the period of National Socialism and used tissues from these bodies to conduct histological research. Estate material of his eldest son, who died in 2012, included histological specimens related to this research, some of them carrying inscriptions with names. This historical investigation tried to identify the individuals behind these names and their fate. Read More

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September 2021

[Mathilde Ludendorff (1877-1966): specialist for nervous and mental diseases and Germanic philosopher].

Hans Förstl

Nervenarzt 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, TU München, Ismaningerstr. 22, 81675, München, Deutschland.

Mathilde Ludendorff (nee Spiess, widowed von Kemnitz, divorced Kleine) was one of the first women who studied medicine in Imperial Germany. She wrote a feminist doctoral thesis, refuted Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis early in her career, detected the fraud of Albert von Schrenck-Notzing's spiritualist research, became a specialist for nervous and mental diseases after only 17 months of training with Emil Kraepelin, as his-according to her own words-best pupil, treated General Ludendorff's first wife and soon became his second, developed a Germanic philosophy too radical for Adolf Hitler's taste, was considered as a primary culprit after a first denazification trial in 1949 and contested the expert opinion of her colleague Professor Georg Stertz about her own mental state. Her books are still in print and her Alliance for God Cognizance (Ludendorff) still exists and is monitored by the National Intelligence Agency. Read More

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From scientific exploitation to individual memorialization: Evolving attitudes towards research on Nazi victims' bodies.

Bioethics 2021 07 21;35(6):508-517. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Ethics, Collections, and History of Medicine (Josephinum), Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

During the Third Reich, state-sponsored violence was linked to scientific research on many levels. Prisoners were used as involuntary subjects for medical experiments, and body parts from victims were used in anatomy and neuropathology on a massive scale. In many cases, such specimens remained in scientific collections and were used until long after the war. Read More

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The Kristallnacht Pogrom. The End of Jewish Medical Study in Germany: Who were the Last Jewish Medical Students in Berlin?

Isr Med Assoc J 2021 Mar;23(3):165-168

Pediatric Emergency Unit, Shamir Medical Center (Assaf Harofeh), Zerifin, Israel.

Background: In April 1937 it was forbidden for German Jewish students to sit for examinations. However, a few Jewish medical students were able to continue studying at Berlin University. The order to expel all Jewish students from German Universities was published on the morning after Kristallnacht (November 1938) and was strictly imposed. Read More

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Research on Tuberculosis in Nazi Germany and the Cruelest Medical Experiments on Jewish Children: An Observational Review.

Isr Med Assoc J 2021 Mar;23(3):160-164

Anatomical Pathologist, Laverty pathology Inst., Sydney, Australia.

Background: Germany was a scientifically advanced country in the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in medicine, with a major interest in research and the treatment of tuberculosis. From 1933 until 1945, Nazi Germany perverted scientific research through criminal experimentations on captured prisoners of war and on "subhumans" by scientifically untrained, but politically driven, staff. This article exposes a series of failed experiments on tuberculosis in adults, experiments without scientific validity. Read More

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Human Infection Challenge Experiments: Then and Now.

Ethics Hum Res 2021 May 15;43(3):42-44. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

David and Lyn Silfen University Professor at the University of Pennsylvania.

In the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic, ethicists, researchers, and journalists have recommended studies that deliberately infect healthy volunteers with the coronavirus as a scientific means of expediting vaccine development. In this essay, we trace the history of infection challenge experiments and reflect on the Nuremberg Code of 1947, issued in response to brutal human experiments conducted by Nazi investigators in concentration camps. We argue that the Code continues to offer valuable guidance for assessing the ethics of this controversial form of research, with respect particularly to the acceptable limits to research risks and the social value of research necessary to justify exposing human participants to these risks. Read More

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"I have had an exceedingly beautiful life" The Jewish gynecopathologist Robert Meyer (1864-1947) and his extraordinary response to Nazi repression.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 18;220:153391. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074, Germany.

The Jewish scientist Robert Meyer received worldwide professional recognition as a pioneer gynecopathologist. Before his death, he wrote a memoir in which he gave an entirely positive assessment of his life. The latter, however, is at odds with the fact that he was disenfranchised by the National Socialists and driven into emigration. Read More

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Facts and fiction: The pathologist Gerhard Seifert (1921-2014) and his dealings with National Socialism.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 27;220:153375. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Gerhard Seifert is considered one of the leading German pathologists of his time. He was not only an outstanding scientist but also shaped the politics of university pathology like hardly anyone else. In the context of a national research project on the role of German pathologists in the Third Reich, it was recently discovered that Seifert had joined the Nazi Party. Read More

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The controversial Third Reich history of Hans Creutzfeldt: was he a supporter or just another adept of the "hand washing policy"?

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2021 01;79(1):84-87

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Neurologia, São Paulo SP, Brazil.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy whose initial description is associated with two German authors, Alfons Maria Jakob and Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt. As polemic as the issue about the Creutzfeldt's merit in the first description of the disease, is his history during the Third Reich. Some evidence pointed to the idea that he was essentially against the Nazi ideology, though some did not. Read More

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January 2021