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Fructooligosaccharides: From Breast Milk Components to Potential Supplements. A Systematic Review.

Adv Nutr 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Breast milk is the optimal food choice for infant growth and development. Among breast milk components, fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) are being actively studied because of their role in microbiota development. In particular, 2'-fucosyllactose is being proposed as a potential supplement/nutraceutical or component of infant formula. Read More

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September 2021

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Leptospira sp. among different groups in the Jordanian population: first study.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Global Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, 950 New Hampshire Ave. NW, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Leptospirosis is re-emerging as a major public health problem worldwide. However, there are limited data on the disease from the Middle East, including from Jordan, despite recent outbreaks occurring in Jordan's neighbouring countries.

Methods: Sera samples from 809 participants in 11 governorates were tested for Leptospira sp. Read More

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September 2021

Spondyloarthritis in Taihangshan Macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis).

Folia Primatol (Basel) 2021 Sep 23:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most widely distributed nonhuman primate species, and captive populations play an important role in biomedical research due to close phylogenetic and physiological similarity to human beings. However, to our best knowledge, the spondyloarthritis (SpA) in rhesus macaques has been exclusively reported in captive or semicaptive populations rather than wild counterparts. In the present study, we report 2 cases of SpA observed in Taihangshan macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) inhabiting the Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve, Henan Province, China. Read More

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September 2021

Mutations in the John Cunningham virus VP1 gene could predispose to the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing treatment with natalizumab.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Sep 15;56:103266. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Neuroimmunology Unit, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) undergoing treatment with natalizumab (NTZ) are at risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) due to the reactivation of John Cunningham (JC) virus. A relevant characteristic among PML cases is the development of single nucleotide mutations in the VP1 gene of the causal JC virus. The identification of such mutations in timely manner can provide valuable information for MS management. Read More

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September 2021

Nanomaterial-based aptasensors as an efficient substitute for cardiovascular disease diagnosis: Future of smart biosensors.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Sep 7;193:113617. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab, 140306, India. Electronic address:

As a major cause of deaths in developed countries, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been a big burden for human health systems. Its early and rapid detection is crucial to efficiently apply appropriate on time therapy and to ultimately reduce the associated mortality rate. Aptamers, known as single-stranded DNA/RNA or oligonucleotides containing receptors and/or catalytic properties, have been widely employed in biodetection platforms due to their beneficial properties. Read More

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September 2021

Prospects for multi-omics in the microbial ecology of water engineering.

Water Res 2021 Aug 27;205:117608. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore. Electronic address:

Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and bioinformatics approaches over almost the last three decades have substantially increased our ability to explore microorganisms and their functions - including those that have yet to be cultivated in pure isolation. Genome-resolved metagenomic approaches have enabled linking powerful functional predictions to specific taxonomical groups with increasing fidelity. Additionally, related developments in both whole community gene expression surveys and metabolite profiling have permitted for direct surveys of community-scale functions in specific environmental settings. Read More

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Understanding the hepatoxicity of inorganic mercury through guts: Perturbance to gut microbiota, alteration of gut-liver axis related metabolites and damage to gut integrity.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 20;225:112791. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

CAS-HKU Joint Laboratory of Metallomics on Health and Environment, & CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, & Beijing Metallomics Facility, & National Consortium for Excellence in Metallomics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Mercury (Hg) brings adverse effects to the environment and human beings and inorganic mercury (IHg) is a typical hepatic toxin. This work studied the impacts of IHg on gut microbes and metabolome together with its damage to liver and gut in rats through gut microbiome, metabolomics and metallomics. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were orally exposed to 0. Read More

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September 2021

The anabolism of sulphur aroma volatiles responds to enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions during the drying process of shiitake mushrooms.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 15;371:131123. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute of Edible Fungi, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Engineering Research Center of Edible Fungi, Key Laboratory of Edible Fungi Resources and Utilization (South), Ministry of Agriculture, the People's Republic of China, Shanghai Guosen Bio-tech Co. Ltd., 1000 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403, China. Electronic address:

The anabolism of aroma volatiles in response to non-biological factors during the drying process of shiitake mushrooms was analyzed. Temperatures (40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C) had secondary activation effects on the synthetase activity. The enzymatic reaction time could last 4-5 h under medium-temperature drying process (40 °C and 50 °C), and 1. Read More

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September 2021

QSPR modeling of absorption maxima of dyes used in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Sep 20;265:120387. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India. Electronic address:

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have recently received a significant attention as possible sources of renewable energy. As a result, a significant effort is being made to develop organic dyes for highly power conversion efficient DSSCs, in order to overcome the disadvantages of previous solar cell systems, such as cost reduction, weight reduction, and production methods that minimize environmental pollution. As shown by multiple recent research publications, computational techniques such as quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) modeling may aid in the development of suitable dyes for DSSCs satisfying many fundamental desired characteristics. Read More

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September 2021

p-Aminostyryl thiazole orange derivatives for monitoring mitochondrial viscosity in live cells.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Sep 14;265:120394. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; School of Molecular Medicine, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou 310013, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Viscosity of cell microenvironment plays a significant role in maintaining the normal life activities of cells. Particularly, the abnormal viscosity in mitochondria is closely associated with lots of diseases and cellular dysfunctions. Herein, we developed a group of p-aminostyryl thiazole orange derivatives with different amino side chains. Read More

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September 2021

Changes in cerebral arterial pulsatility and hippocampal volume: a transcranial doppler ultrasonography study.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Aug 27;108:110-121. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Wayne State University, Institute of Gerontology, Detroit, Michigan; Wayne State University, Department of Psychology, Detroit, Michigan; Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany.

The physiological mechanisms of age-related cognitive decline remain unclear, in no small part due to the lack of longitudinal studies. Extant longitudinal studies focused on gross neuroanatomy and diffusion properties of the brain. We present herein a longitudinal analysis of changes in arterial pulsatility - a proxy for arterial stiffness - in two major cerebral arteries, middle cerebral and vertebral. Read More

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Tailored axillary surgery in patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer: Pre-planned feasibility substudy of TAXIS (OPBC-03, SAKK 23/16, IBCSG 57-18, ABCSG-53, GBG 101).

Breast 2021 Sep 8;60:98-110. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Breast Center Bern, Lindenhof Group, Bern, Switzerland.

Aim: We developed tailored axillary surgery (TAS) to reduce the axillary tumor volume in patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer to the point where radiotherapy can control it. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of tumor load reduction achieved by TAS.

Methods: International multicenter prospective study embedded in a randomized trial. Read More

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September 2021

Human genetic and immunological dissection of papillomavirus-driven diseases: new insights into their pathogenesis.

Curr Opin Virol 2021 Sep 20;51:9-15. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) UMR-1163, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France; University of Paris, Imagine Institute, Paris, France; St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, Rockefeller University, New York, USA.

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are responsible for cutaneous and mucosal lesions. Persistent HPV infection remains a leading cause of uterine cancer in women, but also of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), and of rare and devastating benign tumors, such as 'tree-man' syndrome. HPV infections are usually asymptomatic or benign in the general population. Read More

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September 2021

Proteasomal activator 28 gamma stabilizes hepatitis B virus X protein by competitively inhibiting the Siah-1-mediated proteasomal degradation.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Sep 16;578:97-103. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Science, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea; Microbiological Resource Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Proteasomal activator 28 gamma (PA28γ) upregulates the levels of HBx, a regulatory protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to stimulate HBV replication; however, the detailed mechanism remains unknown. Here, we found that PA28γ impaired the ability of seven in absentia homolog 1 (Siah-1) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase of HBx. PA28γ competitively inhibited the binding of Siah-1 to HBx in human hepatoma cells. Read More

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September 2021

Longitudinal prognostication in retroperitoneal sarcoma survivors: Development and external validation of two dynamic nomograms.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 20;157:291-300. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of this study was to create and validate dynamic nomograms to predict overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at different time points during follow-up in patients who had undergone resection of primary retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS).

Methods: Patients with primary RPS operated upon between 2002 and 2017 at four and six referral centres comprised the development and external validation cohorts, respectively. Landmark analysis and multivariable Cox models were used to develop dynamic nomograms. Read More

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September 2021

Individual patient data meta-analysis of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery versus upfront surgery for carcinoma of the oesophagus or the gastro-oesophageal junction.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 20;157:278-290. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Oncostat U1018, Inserm, Université Paris-Saclay, Équipe Labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer, Villejuif, France; Bureau de Biostatistiques et Epidémiologie, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.

Introduction: Which neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced thoracic oesophagus (TE) or gastro-oesophageal junction carcinoma is best remains an open question. Randomised controlled trials variously accrued patients with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, making strong conclusions hard to obtain. The primary objective of this individual participant data meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on overall survival (OS). Read More

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September 2021

Rapid, multiplexed, and nucleic acid amplification-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using an electrochemical biosensor.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Sep 17;195:113649. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Considering the worldwide health crisis associated with highly contagious severe respiratory disease of COVID-19 outbreak, the development of multiplexed, simple and rapid diagnostic platforms to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is in high demand. Here, a nucleic acid amplification-free electrochemical biosensor based on four-way junction (4-WJ) hybridization is presented for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. To form a 4-WJ structure, a Universal DNA-Hairpin (UDH) probe is hybridized with two adaptor strands and a SARS-CoV-2 RNA target. Read More

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September 2021

Development of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin with added benzalkonium chloride or cetylpyridinium chloride as antimicrobial restorative materials for root caries.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Sep 15;124:104838. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Gerodontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-8549, Japan.

To develop antimicrobial restorative materials for root caries, we assessed a 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (Bondfill SB Plus, Sun Medical) containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC) or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) at 1.25, 2.5, and 5. Read More

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September 2021

Balancing safety on the road with risk from COVID-19: A content analysis of policy adaptations by Divisions of Motor Vehicles.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Sep 15;162:106400. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Center for Injury Research and Policy at the Abigail Wexner Research Institute, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 575 Childrens Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, United States; Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly altered people's daily lives, including driving. However, how state Divisions of Motor Vehicles (DMV) adapted their operation policies in response to COVID-19 remains unknown. This study analyzed adaptations to the content of state DMV operation policies during the COVID-19 pandemic across 50 US states and assessed the relationships between these policy adoptions and their state-level COVID-19 restriction orders. Read More

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September 2021

Two zinc-finger proteins control the initiation and elongation of long stalk trichomes in tomato.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China; Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081. Electronic address:

Plant glandular trichomes are epidermal secretory structures that are important for plant resistance to pests. Although several regulatory genes have been characterized in trichome development, the molecular mechanisms conferring glandular trichome morphogenesis are unclear. We observed the differences in trichomes in cultivated tomato cv. Read More

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September 2021

Risk of reactivated toxoplasmosis in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a prospective cohort study in a setting withholding prophylaxis.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis, Centre for Parasitic Zoonoses, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Reactivation of latent toxoplasmosis may be life-threatening in haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. We conducted an eight-year-long prospective study on the diagnosis and monitoring of reactivated toxoplasmosis in paediatric HSCT recipients. The primary objective was to determine the incidence of reactivated toxoplasmosis in a setting that withholds prophylaxis until engraftment. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular insights of a novel fish Toll-like receptor 9 homologue in Nibea albiflora to reveal its function as PRRs.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

National and Provincial Joint Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Marine Aquatic Genetic Resources, National Engineering Research Center of Marine Facilities Aquaculture, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, 316022, PR China.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an important class of molecules involved in non-specific immunity, and they are also the bridge connecting between non-specific immunity and specific immunity. As a vital member of TLR family TLR9 can be activated by bacterial DNA and induce the production of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, a full length of TLR9 homologue of 3677 bp in Nibea albiflora (named as NaTLR9, GenBank accession no: MN125017. Read More

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September 2021

Mid-term outcomes of pyrocarbon humeral resurfacing hemiarthroplasty compared to metal humeral resurfacing and metal stemmed hemiarthroplasty for osteoarthritis in young patients: Analysis from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Gold Coast University Hospital, Southport, QLD, Australia.

Background: The optimal surgical management of glenohumeral osteoarthritis in young patients remains an unsolved problem. Humeral resurfacing hemiarthroplasty and stemmed hemiarthroplasty using metallic heads are two surgical options that avoid the complications of loosening or wear of the glenoid component seen in total shoulder arthroplasty. Despite the potential benefits, improvement in survivorship has not been demonstrated from joint registry or other studies at mid-term follow-up. Read More

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September 2021

Applying a Set of Termination of Resuscitation Criteria to Paediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

Resuscitation 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

University of Florida College of Medicine - Jacksonville, Center for Data Solutions; University of Florida College of Medicine - Jacksonville, Department of Emergency Medicine, Jacksonville, FL.

Objective: Prehospital Termination of Resuscitation (TOR) protocols for adults can reduce the number of futile transports of patients in cardiac arrest, yet similar protocols are not widely available for paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (POHCA). The objective of this study was to apply a set of criteria for paediatric TOR (pTOR) from the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems (MIEMSS) to a large national cohort and determine its association with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after POHCA.

Methods: We identified patients ages 0-17 treated by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) with cardiac arrest in 2019 from the ESO dataset and applied the separate pTOR criteria for medical and traumatic arrests. Read More

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September 2021

Survival and Durability After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Reflect Era-Related Surgical Judgement.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Endovascular and Cardiovascular Surgery, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK; Associate Professor, Department of Surgery and Interventional Sciences, University College London. Electronic address:

Objectives: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) management guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE UK) in 2020, based heavily upon randomized controlled trials in an early era of infrarenal endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), suggested that the long-term outcomes post EVAR jeopardize its use in elective AAA repair. We hypothesized that in a rapidly-evolving surgical field, the era of aneurysm repair may have a significant influence on long-term patient outcomes.

Methods: Using a single centre retrospective cohort design, we identified two EVAR cohorts, the "early" cohort n=166, undergoing EVAR from 2008-2010, and a contemporary "late" cohort, n= 129, from 2015-2017. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of guidelines for diagnosing suspected stable angina and the additional value of the calcium score.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Haaglanden Medical Center Bronovo, Department of Cardiology, The Hague, the Netherlands; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, the Netherlands.

Background The performance of current diagnostic algorithms of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in patients with stable chest pain and coronary artery calcium (CAC) remains a matter of debate. We compared their merits in patients with CAC and investigated the additional value of the CAC score to improve diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification. Methods and results Patient data were obtained from a prospective registry of 642 consecutive patients. Read More

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September 2021

Racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in patients undergoing transcatheter mitral edge-to-edge repair.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Centre for Prognosis Research, Institute of Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Transcatheter mitral edge-to-edge repair (TEER) is an increasingly common procedure performed on patients with mitral regurgitation. To assess the impact of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on in-hospital complications after TEER.

Methods: Cohort-based observational study using the National Inpatient Sample between October 2013 and December 2018. Read More

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September 2021

Is experienced pregnancy in women with repaired tetralogy of Fallot related to diffuse myocardial fibrosis?

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

ProCardio Center for Innovation, Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, PO Box 4950, Nydalen 0424, Oslo, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1171, Blindern 0318, Oslo, Norway; Dept. of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, PO Box 4950, Nydalen 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: To assess the impact of pregnancy on cardiac function and fibrosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rToF).

Background: CMR T1 mapping can assess diffuse myocardial fibrosis which is associated to adverse clinical outcomes. Right ventricular (RV) accelerated remodeling is reported in rToF women with experienced pregnancy. Read More

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September 2021