52,452 results match your criteria myosin

Effect of enhanced muscle tone on the expression of atrogenes and cytoskeletal proteins during postural muscle unloading.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2022 May 18:109291. Epub 2022 May 18.

Myology Laboratory, Institute of Biomedical Problems, RAS, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle unloading leads to the decreased electrical activity and decline of muscle tone.

Aims: Current study evaluated the effect of muscle tone preservation achieved by tetanus toxin (TeNT) treatment on signaling pathways regulating atrophic processes during unloading.

Main Methods: Four groups of rats were used: non-treated control (C), control rats with TeNT administration (CT), 7 days of unloading/hindlimb suspension with placebo (HS), and 7 days of unloading with TeNT administration (HST). Read More

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Synergistic antibacterial effects of low-intensity ultrasound and peptide LCMHC against Staphylococcus aureus.

Int J Food Microbiol 2022 May 9;373:109713. Epub 2022 May 9.

College of Ocean Food and Biological Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Enzyme Engineering, Jimei University, 43 Yindou Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361021, China. Electronic address:

The increasing demand for ready-to-eat fresh foods requires the use of non-thermal sterilization, hence, the application of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) combined with ultrasound could serve as a novel food preservation method to prevent foodborne diseases. In this study, in silico tools were used to predict and screen potential AMPs from the antimicrobial amino acid sequence of myosin heavy chain of Larimichthys crocea. A novel AMP, designated as LCMHC, had strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus when combined with low-intensity ultrasound treatment. Read More

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MARK2 regulates directed cell migration through modulation of myosin II contractility and focal adhesion organization.

Curr Biol 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Cell Biology and Physiology Center, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, South Drive, Room 4537, MSC 8019, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Cancer cell migration during metastasis is mediated by a highly polarized cytoskeleton. MARK2 and its invertebrate homolog Par1B are kinases that regulate the microtubule cytoskeleton to mediate polarization of neurons in mammals and embryos in invertebrates. However, the role of MARK2 in cancer cell migration is unclear. Read More

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Acupuncture improves the structure of spastic muscle and decreases spasticity by enhancing GABA, KCC2, and GABAAγ2 in the brainstem in rats after ischemic stroke.

Neuroreport 2022 Jun 11;33(9):399-407. Epub 2022 May 11.

School of Nursing, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

Background: Increasing data show that structural changes of spastic muscle and hyperexcitability of reticulospinal tract (RST) are involved in the pathogenesis of spasticity after stroke (SAS). Our previous study has indicated that the anti-spastic effect of acupuncture, especially waggle needling (WN, a multiple directional needling method with joint movement), on SAS rats was related to the KCC2-GABAA pathway in cerebral cortex. Furthermore, as a peripheral stimulation to treat upper motor neuron injury-related spasticity, acupuncture's effect on peripheral spastic muscles and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brainstem, the origin of the RST, should be further clarified. Read More

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Visceral organ morphogenesis via calcium-patterned muscle constrictions.

Elife 2022 May 20;11. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, United States.

Organ architecture is often composed of multiple laminar tissues arranged in concentric layers. During morphogenesis, the initial geometry of visceral organs undergoes a sequence of folding, adopting a complex shape that is vital for function. Genetic signals are known to impact form, yet the dynamic and mechanical interplay of tissue layers giving rise to organs' complex shapes remains elusive. Read More

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An Initial Evaluation of Human Plasma cMLC-1: A Potential Protein Biomarker for Trastuzumab-Induced Cardiotoxicity, Breast Cancer Screening and Progression.

Front Oncol 2022 3;12:809715. Epub 2022 May 3.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Oncologic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Trastuzumab is a targeted therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. However, trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity (TIC) has been reported when trastuzumab is administered to patients as a single agent or combined with anthracycline. Currently no means for detecting the early onset of TIC such as a protein biomarker is available. Read More

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Nanosurfer Assay Dissects β-Cardiac Myosin and Cardiac Myosin-Binding Protein C Interactions.

Biophys J 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) modulates cardiac contractility through putative interactions with the myosin S2 tail and/or the thin filament. The relative contribution of these binding-partner interactions to cMyBP-C modulatory function remains unclear. Hence, we developed a "nanosurfer" assay as a model system to interrogate these cMyBP-C binding-partner interactions. Read More

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Crumbs complex-directed apical membrane dynamics in epithelial cell ingression.

J Cell Biol 2022 Jul 19;221(7). Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Epithelial cells often leave their tissue context and ingress to form new cell types or acquire migratory ability to move to distant sites during development and tumor progression. Cells lose their apical membrane and epithelial adherens junctions during ingression. However, how factors that organize apical-basal polarity contribute to ingression is unknown. Read More

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The interface between biochemical signaling and cell mechanics shapes T lymphocyte migration and activation.

Eur J Cell Biol 2022 May 13;101(3):151236. Epub 2022 May 13.

Molecular Mechanisms Program, Centro de Investigación del Cáncer and Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad de Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. Electronic address:

tT cells migrate to lymphoid organs to become activated through specific contacts with antigen-presenting cells bearing foreign antigens. During migration and activation, T lymphocytes are exposed not only to diverse biochemical inputs, but also to different mechanical conditions. Passage from the blood or lymph to solid tissues involves lymphocyte rolling, firm arrest and diapedesis through endothelial monolayers. Read More

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Profilin 1 Induces Tumor Metastasis by Promoting Microvesicle Secretion Through the ROCK 1/p-MLC Pathway in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Pharmacol 2022 2;13:890891. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Profilin 1 (PFN1), an actin-binding protein, plays contrasting roles in the metastasis of several cancers; however, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis remains unclear. Here, PFN1 expression was upregulated in metastatic NSCLC tissues. PFN1 overexpression significantly promotes NSCLC metastasis and . Read More

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Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein kinase G oxidation contributes to impaired sarcomeric proteins in hypertrophy model.

ESC Heart Fail 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Institut für Forschung und Lehre (IFL), Molecular and Experimental Cardiology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Aims: Volume overload (VO) induced hypertrophy is one of the hallmarks to the development of heart diseases. Understanding the compensatory mechanisms involved in this process might help preventing the disease progression.

Methods And Results: Therefore, the present study used 2 months old Wistar rats, which underwent an aortocaval fistula to develop VO-induced hypertrophy. Read More

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Taurocholic acid, a primary 12α-hydroxylated bile acid, induces leakiness in the distal small intestine in rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 May 15:113136. Epub 2022 May 15.

Division of Fundamental Agriscience Research, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8589, Japan. Electronic address:

A high-fat diet increases 12α-hydroxylated (12αOH) bile acid (BA) secretion in rats, and secondary BAs are responsible for the leaky gut. This study aimed to examine the role of primary 12αOH BAs in gut barrier impairment in rats using dietary cholic acid (CA) supplementation (0.5 g/kg diet). Read More

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Reduced platelet forces underlie impaired hemostasis in mouse models of -related disease.

Sci Adv 2022 May 18;8(20):eabn2627. Epub 2022 May 18.

Institute of Experimental Biomedicine-Chair I, University Hospital and Rudolf Virchow Center, Würzburg, Germany.

-related disease patients with mutations in the contractile protein nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA display, among others, macrothrombocytopenia and a mild-to-moderate bleeding tendency. In this study, we used three mouse lines, each with one point mutation in the gene at positions 702, 1424, or 1841, to investigate mechanisms underlying the increased bleeding risk. Agonist-induced activation of mutant platelets was comparable to controls. Read More

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Free-Energy Surfaces of Two Cardiac Thin Filament Conformational Changes during Muscle Contraction.

J Phys Chem B 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, 1306 E. University Blvd. Room 221, Tucson, Arizona 85721, United States.

The troponin core is an important regulatory complex in cardiac sarcomeres. Contraction is initiated by a calcium ion binding to cardiac troponin C (cTnC), initiating a conformational shift within the protein, altering its interactions with cardiac troponin I (cTnI). The change in cTnC-cTnI interactions prompts the C-terminal domain of cTnI to dissociate from actin, allowing tropomyosin to reveal myosin-binding sites on actin. Read More

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Dual regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by CARMIL-GAP.

J Cell Sci 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Cell and Developmental Biology Center, National Heart lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, USA.

CARMIL (Capping protein Arp2/3 Myosin I Linker) proteins are multi-domain scaffold proteins that regulate actin dynamics by regulating the activity of Capping Protein (CP). Here we characterize CARMIL-GAP, a Dictyostelium CARMIL isoform that contains a ∼130 residue insert that, by homology, is a GTPase activating (GAP) domain for Rho-related GTPases. Consistently, this GAP domain binds Dictyostelium Rac1a and accelerates its rate of GTP hydrolysis. Read More

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BRG1 is a biomarker of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in human heart specimens.

Sci Rep 2022 May 17;12(1):7996. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, 217AM Davison Bldg, 40 Duke Medicine Circle, Box 3712 DUHS, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic disease of the sarcomere that causes otherwise unexplained cardiac hypertrophy and is associated with sudden death. While previous studies showed the role of the epigenetic modifier Brg1 in mouse models of HCM, additional work is needed to identify its role in humans. We tested the hypothesis that BRG1 expression is increased in periods of cardiac remodeling during fetal growth and in development of HCM. Read More

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Cell mechanics and cell-cell recognition controls by Toll-like receptors in tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis.

Daiki Umetsu

Fly (Austin) 2022 Dec;16(1):233-247

Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Signal transduction by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is conserved and essential for innate immunity in metazoans. The founding member of the TLR family, Toll-1, was initially identified for its role in dorsoventral axis formation in early embryogenesis. The genome encodes nine TLRs that display dynamic expression patterns during development, suggesting their involvement in tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. Read More

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December 2022

Cellular protrusions in 3D: Orchestrating early mouse embryogenesis.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Cellular protrusions generated by the actin cytoskeleton are central to the process of building the body of the embryo. Problems with cellular protrusions underlie human diseases and syndromes, including implantation defects and pregnancy loss, congenital birth defects, and cancer. Cells use protrusive activity together with actin-myosin contractility to create an ordered body shape of the embryo. Read More

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Modulation of cardiac thin filament structure by phosphorylated troponin-I analyzed by protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics simulation.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2022 May 13:109282. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 700 Albany Street, Boston, MA, 02118, USA. Electronic address:

Tropomyosin, controlled by troponin-linked Ca-binding, regulates muscle contraction by a macromolecular scale steric-mechanism that governs myosin-crossbridge-actin interactions. At low-Ca, C-terminal domains of troponin-I (TnI) trap tropomyosin in a position on thin filaments that interferes with myosin-binding, thus causing muscle relaxation. Steric inhibition is reversed at high-Ca when TnI releases from F-actin-tropomyosin as Ca and the TnI switch-peptide bind to the N-lobe of troponin-C (TnC). Read More

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Myosin V facilitates polarised E-cadherin secretion.

Traffic 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Division of Signaling and Functional Genomics at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Ludolf-Krehl-Strasse 13-17, Mannheim, Germany.

E-cadherin has a fundamental role in epithelial tissues by providing cell-cell adhesion. Polarised E-cadherin exocytosis to the lateral plasma membrane is central for cell polarity and epithelial homeostasis. Loss of E-cadherin secretion compromises tissue integrity and is a prerequisite for metastasis. Read More

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UNC45A deficiency causes microvillus inclusion disease-like phenotype by impairing myosin VB-dependent apical trafficking.

J Clin Invest 2022 May;132(10)

Institute of Cell Biology, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Variants in the UNC45A cochaperone have been recently associated with a syndrome combining diarrhea, cholestasis, deafness, and bone fragility. Yet the mechanism underlying intestinal failure in UNC45A deficiency remains unclear. Here, biallelic variants in UNC45A were identified by next-generation sequencing in 6 patients with congenital diarrhea. Read More

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What Can We Learn from Single Sarcomere and Myofibril Preparations?

Walter Herzog

Front Physiol 2022 27;13:837611. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Faculty of Kinesiology, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Sarcomeres are the smallest functional contractile unit of muscle, and myofibrils are striated muscle organelles that are comprised of sarcomeres that are strictly aligned in series. Furthermore, passive forces in sarcomeres and myofibrils are almost exclusively produced by the structural protein titin, and all contractile, regulatory, and structural proteins are in their natural configuration. For these mechanical and structural reasons single sarcomere and myofibril preparations are arguably the most powerful to answer questions on the mechanisms of striated muscle contraction. Read More

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Concordant nephrotic syndrome in twins with PAX2 and MYO1E mutations.

Clin Nephrol Case Stud 2022 10;10:37-41. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics West Virginia University School of Medicine, Children's Hospital Morgantown, WV, and.

Introduction: The medical literature is scant with reports of twins diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome associated with genetic mutations. Mutations in the protein coding paired box gene 2 () and in the non-muscle class I myosin, myosin 1E, () have been implicated in the development of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of the concordant presentation of nephrotic syndrome in twins with simultaneous mutations in and . Read More

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's Basal Complex: The Other Apicomplexan Business End Is Multifunctional.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 29;12:882166. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, United States.

The Apicomplexa are famously named for their apical complex, a constellation of organelles at their apical end dedicated to invasion of their host cells. In contrast, at the other end of the cell, the basal complex (BC) has been overshadowed since it is much less prominent and specific functions were not immediately obvious. However, in the past decade a staggering array of functions have been associated with the BC and strides have been made in understanding its structure. Read More

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Inferring Conformational State of Myosin Motor in an Atomic Force Microscopy Image Flexible Fitting Molecular Simulations.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 29;9:882989. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is a powerful technique to image the structural dynamics of biomolecules. We can obtain atomic-resolution structural information from the measured AFM image by superimposing a structural model on the image. We previously developed a flexible fitting molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method that allows for modest conformational changes when superimposed on an AFM image. Read More

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The Effects of Mechanical Stretch on Integrins and Filopodial-Associated Proteins in Normal and Glaucomatous Trabecular Meshwork Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 29;10:886706. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States.

The trabecular meshwork (TM) is the tissue responsible for regulating aqueous humor fluid egress from the anterior eye. If drainage is impaired, intraocular pressure (IOP) becomes elevated, which is a primary risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma. TM cells sense elevated IOP via changes in their biomechanical environment. Read More

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Identification of Phosphorylation and Other Post-Translational Modifications in the Central C4C5 Domains of Murine Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein C.

ACS Omega 2022 Apr 18;7(16):14189-14202. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, United States.

Cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBPC) is a critical multidomain protein that modulates myosin cross bridge behavior and cardiac contractility. cMyBPC is principally regulated by phosphorylation of the residues within the M-domain of its N-terminus. However, not much is known about the phosphorylation or other post-translational modification (PTM) landscape of the central C4C5 domains. Read More

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parasitophorous vacuole membrane-resident protein UIS4 manipulates host cell actin to avoid parasite elimination.

iScience 2022 May 22;25(5):104281. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Instituto de Medicina Molecular João Lobo Antunes, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal.

Parasite-derived PVM-resident proteins are critical for complete parasite development inside hepatocytes, although the function of most of these proteins remains unknown. Here, we show that the upregulated in infectious sporozoites 4 (UIS4) protein, resident at the PVM, interacts with the host cell actin. By suppressing filamentous actin formation, UIS4 avoids parasite elimination. Read More

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The Host CYP1A1-Microbiota Metabolic Axis Promotes Gut Barrier Disruption in Methicillin-Resistant -Induced Abdominal Sepsis.

Front Microbiol 2022 27;13:802409. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Department of Wound Infection and Drug, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Host-microbiota crosstalk has been implicated in multiple host metabolic pathway axes that regulate intestinal barrier function. Although constitutive cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) expression perturbs the microbiome-derived autoregulatory loop following enteric infection, little is known about the role of host CYP1A1 in modulating gut microbiome-mediated signaling during methicillin-resistant (MRSA)-induced abdominal sepsis and its effects on intestinal barrier integrity.

Methods: Abdominal sepsis was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of MRSA in mice. Read More

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Esophageal striated muscle hypertrophy and muscle fiber type transformation in MSTN knockout pigs.

Transgenic Res 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002, China.

Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that inhibits skeletal muscle growth and development. The esophagus is composed of skeletal muscle and smooth muscle, but the effect of MSTN on esophagus striated muscle (ESM) is unknown. The present study investigated the role of MSTN in ESM using MSTN mutant pigs through histological, gene and protein expression analysis in ESM of MSTN knockout (MSTN) pigs and their wild type (WT) littermates. Read More

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