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Basement Membrane Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Pulmonary Vascular and Right Ventricular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1500, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States;

The extracellular matrix (ECM), a highly organized network of structural and non-structural proteins, plays a pivotal role in cellular and tissue homeostasis. Changes in the ECM are critical for normal tissue repair, while dysregulation contributes to aberrant tissue remodeling. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe disorder of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle (RV), increased production and deposition of structural and non-structural proteins, and altered expression of ECM growth factors and proteases. Read More

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Multiparametric Early Detection and Prediction of Cardiotoxicity Using Myocardial Strain, T1 and T2 Mapping, and Biochemical Markers: A Longitudinal Cardiac Resonance Imaging Study During 2 Years of Follow-Up.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e012459. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Marien Hospital, Hamburg, Germany (M.M., A.K.S., S.E., H.S.).

Background: Our goal was to evaluate the ability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance for detecting and predicting cardiac dysfunction in patients receiving cancer therapy. Left ventricular ejection fraction, global and regional strain utilizing fast-strain-encoded, T1 and T2 mapping, and cardiac biomarkers (troponin and BNP [brain natriuretic peptide]) were analyzed.

Methods: Sixty-one patients (47 with breast cancer, 11 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 3 with Hodgkin lymphoma) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance scans at baseline and at regular intervals during 2 years of follow-up. Read More

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Sex-Specific Differences of the Inflammatory State in Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:686384. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute for Gender in Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt - Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Increasing evidence suggests male sex as a potential risk factor for a higher incidence of cardiac fibrosis, stronger cardiac inflammation, and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in human myocarditis. Chronic activation of the immune response in myocarditis may trigger autoimmunity. The experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model has been well established for the study of autoimmune myocarditis, however the role of sex in this pathology has not been fully explored. Read More

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Inhibition of HMGB1 alleviates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic mice via suppressing autophagy.

Microvasc Res 2021 Jun 10:104204. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China; Guangxi Key Laboratory of Precision Medicine in Cardio-Cerebrovascular Diseases Control and Prevention, Guangxi Clinical Research Center for Cardio-Cerebrovascular Diseases, Nanning, Guangxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetes aggravates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (MI/RI). The association between high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and autophagy in diabetic MI/RI remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibiting HMGB1 can regulate autophagy in diabetic mice (DM) after I/R injury. Read More

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Epigenetic alterations of TGFβ and its main canonical signaling mediators in the context of cardiac fibrosis.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria (IBBTEC), CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain; Departamento de Fisiología y Farmacología, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Marqués de Valdecilla (IDIVAL), Santander, Spain. Electronic address:

Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological process that presents a continuous overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the myocardium, which negatively influences the progression of many cardiac diseases. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is the main ligand that triggers the production of pro-fibrotic ECM proteins. In the cardiac fibrotic process, TGFβ and its canonical signaling mediators are tightly regulated at different levels as well as epigenetically. Read More

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Segmental strain analysis for the detection of chronic ischemic scars in non-contrast cardiac MRI cine images.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12376. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is considered the gold standard for scar detection after myocardial infarction. In times of increasing skepticism about gadolinium depositions in brain tissue and contraindications of gadolinium administration in some patient groups, tissue strain-based techniques for detecting ischemic scars should be further developed as part of clinical protocols. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate whether segmental strain is noticeably affected in chronic infarcts and thus can be potentially used for infarct detection based on routinely acquired non-contrast cine images in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD). Read More

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Current advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in systemic sclerosis.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 May;25(10):3718-3736

Department of Internal Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation, fibroproliferative vasculopathy, and progressive fibrosis. Cardiac involvement is common in SSc and may affect the myocardium, pericardium, heart valves, conduction system, as well as coronary arteries. However, it remains asymptomatic for a long time, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Read More

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Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Using Vein of Marshall Ethanol Infusion.

Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2021 Apr 25;17(1):52-55. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Catheter ablation has become a cornerstone treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF). Pulmonary vein isolation is the accepted approach for paroxysmal AF ablation, but it is less effective for persistent AF. The vein of Marshall (VOM) is located in the epicardial left atrium and can be a source of AF triggers as well as a tract for autonomic nerves. Read More

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A novel Danshensu/tetramethylpyrazine protects against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in rats.

Int J Med Sci 2021 13;18(12):2716-2724. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University-Daqing, Daqing, 163319, China.

A new Danshensu/tetramethylpyrazine derivative (ADTM) with cardio-protection effects such as antioxidant, arterial relaxation, pro-angiogenesis and antiplatelet activities. Platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) plays a key role in myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MIR) injury. This study aims to investigate the protective role of ADTM in MIR injury and clarify the potential role of PAFR. Read More

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Cannabinoids and myocardial ischemia: Novel insights, updated mechanisms, and implications for myocardial infarction.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha. Qatar.

Cannabis is the most widely trafficked and abused illicit drug due to its calming psychoactive properties. It has been increasingly recognized as having potential health benefits and relatively less adverse health effects as compared to other illicit drugs; however, growing evidence clearly indicates that cannabis is associated with considerable adverse cardiovascular events. Recent studies have linked cannabis use to myocardial infarction (MI); yet, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Neural cell adhesion molecule is required for ventricular conduction system development.

Development 2021 Jun 7;148(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, NY 10016, USA.

The most distal portion of the ventricular conduction system (VCS) contains cardiac Purkinje cells (PCs), which are essential for synchronous activation of the ventricular myocardium. Contactin-2 (CNTN2), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (IgSF-CAMs), was previously identified as a marker of the VCS. Through differential transcriptional profiling, we discovered two additional highly enriched IgSF-CAMs in the VCS: NCAM-1 and ALCAM. Read More

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Etomidate Attenuates the Ferroptosis in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Rat Model Via Nrf2 Pathway.

Shock 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, qingdao fuwai hospital cams&pumc, Qingdao266034, China Department of nursing, People's Hospital of Chiping, Chiping252100, China Department of Infectious Diseases, the People's Hospital of Zhangqiu Area, Jinan250200, Shandong Department of ward, the People's Hospital of Zhangqiu Area, Jinan250200, China Cardiothoracic vascular surgery, People's Hospital of Rizhao, Rizhao276800, China Department of anesthesia and operation, Jining No.1 People's Hospital, Jining272011, China.

Background: Ferroptosis has been found to play an important role in myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MIR) injury (MIRI). This study aimed to explore whether the improvement effect of Etomidate (Eto) on MIRI was related to ferroptosis.

Methods: The MIRI rats were constructed using left anterior descending artery occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 3 h. Read More

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DIAGNOSTIC OF THE ATHLETE'S HEART AND FACTORS AFFECTING ITS DEVELOPING.

Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(5):1158-1163

SUMY STATE UNIVERSITY, SUMY, UKRAINE.

Objective: The aim: Studying the features of the structure and function of the heart in athletes and identifying the factors that influence the development of these changes.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: The study included 54 athletes, 29 men and 25 women. The ultrasound study was performed according to standard methods with determining the size of the main structures of the heart, indicators normalized to body surface area, height. Read More

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Effects of Captopril and Losartan on Cardiac Stereology in Rats with Renovascular Hypertension.

Iran J Med Sci 2021 May;46(3):169-179

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, are used for the treatment of hypertension, but their effects on cardiac stereology are unknown. This study, therefore, aimed to examine their effects on cardiac stereology in rats with renovascular hypertension.

Methods: This study was conducted at Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, and Cardiovascular Pharmacology Research Lab, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, in August 2015 to August 2016. Read More

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Characteristics of High Altitude Pulmonary Edema in Naqu at the Altitude of 4500 m.

Am J Med Sci 2020 Dec 24. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Institute of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Background: We aimed to review records from 429 patients with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) to identify some of the salient characteristics associated with this condition.

Materials And Methods: General information and clinical symptoms, along with laboratory test results from HAPE patients were collected and analyzed. Blood assay results and imaging at admission were compared with those at discharge. Read More

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December 2020

The impact of vendor-specific ultrasound beam-forming and processing techniques on the visualization of in-vitro experimental "scar": implications for myocardial scar imaging using 2D and 3D echocardiography.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Cardiology Department, King's College Hospital, SE5 9RS, London, UK.

Objective: Myocardial scar appears brighter compared to normal myocardium in echocardiography due to differences in tissue characteristics. We tested how different ultrasound pulse characteristics impact on the brightness contrast (i.e. Read More

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The role of demethylases in cardiac development and disease.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 May 31;158:89-100. Epub 2021 May 31.

Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States of America; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, United States of America. Electronic address:

Heart failure is a worldwide health condition that currently has limited noninvasive treatments. Heart disease includes both structural and molecular remodeling of the heart which is driven by alterations in gene expression in the cardiomyocyte. Therefore, understanding the regulatory mechanisms which instigate these changes in gene expression and constitute the foundation for pathological remodeling may be beneficial for developing new treatments for heart disease. Read More

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Engineering aligned human cardiac muscle using developmentally inspired fibronectin micropatterns.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11502. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15213, USA.

Cardiac two-dimensional tissues were engineered using biomimetic micropatterns based on the fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) of the embryonic heart. The goal of this developmentally-inspired, in vitro approach was to identify cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions in the microenvironment of the early 4-chambered vertebrate heart that drive cardiomyocyte organization and alignment. To test this, biomimetic micropatterns based on confocal imaging of fibronectin in embryonic chick myocardium were created and compared to control micropatterns designed with 2 or 20 µm wide fibronectin lines. Read More

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Cytoprotective Potential of Aged Garlic Extract (AGE) and Its Active Constituent, S-allyl-l-cysteine, in Presence of Carvedilol during Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Disturbance and Metabolic Derangements in Rats.

Molecules 2021 May 27;26(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh 14611, Saudi Arabia.

This study was conducted to determine the potential interaction of aged garlic extract (AGE) with carvedilol (CAR), as well as to investigate the role of S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an active constituent of AGE, in rats with isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial dysfunction. At the end of three weeks of treatment with AGE (2 and 5 mL/kg) or SAC (13.1 and 32. Read More

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The Potential Role of Flavonoids in Ameliorating Diabetic Cardiomyopathy via Alleviation of Cardiac Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Apoptosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 12;22(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Investigative Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the major mortality risk factors among diabetic patients worldwide. It has been established that most of the cardiac structural and functional alterations in the diabetic cardiomyopathy condition resulted from the hyperglycemia-induced persistent oxidative stress in the heart, resulting in the maladaptive responses of inflammation and apoptosis. Flavonoids, the most abundant phytochemical in plants, have been reported to exhibit diverse therapeutic potential in medicine and other biological activities. Read More

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The Complexity of FGF23 Effects on Cardiomyocytes in Normal and Uremic Milieu.

Cells 2021 May 20;10(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Nephrology, Medical Faculty, University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius, 1000 Skopje, North Macedonia.

Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) appears to be one of the most promising biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular risk in patients with heart disease and normal kidney function, but moreover in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review summarizes the current knowledge of FGF23 mechanisms of action in the myocardium in the physiological and pathophysiological state of CKD, as well as its cross-talk to other important signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes. In this regard, current therapeutic possibilities and future perspectives are also discussed. Read More

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The Zebrafish Cardiac Endothelial Cell-Roles in Development and Regeneration.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2021 May 1;8(5). Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, 4 Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, UK.

In zebrafish, the spatiotemporal development of the vascular system is well described due to its stereotypical nature. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms orchestrating post-embryonic vascular development, the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, or how coronary vessels integrate into the growing heart are less well studied. In the context of cardiac regeneration, the central cellular mechanism by which the heart regenerates a fully functional myocardium relies on the proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes; the epicardium and the endocardium are also known to play key roles in the regenerative process. Read More

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The Relationship of Intradialytic Hypotension and Acute Effects of Hemodialysis on Heart: A Three-dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiographic Study.

Artif Organs 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Nephrology.

Background: Some acute changes occur in the myocardium during a hemodialysis (HD) session and for understanding the causes and importance of these changes we need to conduct studies which may clarify the contradictory results published up to date. This study is aimed to evaluate the acute effects of HD on the myocardium using 3 dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) in patients with and without hypotension during a dialysis session.

Methods: We examined our HD patients who had normal ejection fraction (n=45) just before and after a HD session using 3DSTE. Read More

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Automatic Segmentation of Left Ventricle in Echocardiography Based on YOLOv3 Model to Achieve Constraint and Positioning.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 16;2021:3772129. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, China.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common type of disease and has a high fatality rate in humans. Early diagnosis is critical for the prognosis of CVD. Before using myocardial tissue strain, strain rate, and other indicators to evaluate and analyze cardiac function, accurate segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) endocardium is vital for ensuring the accuracy of subsequent diagnosis. Read More

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Remodeling of t-system and proteins underlying excitation-contraction coupling in aging versus failing human heart.

NPJ Aging Mech Dis 2021 May 28;7(1):16. Epub 2021 May 28.

Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

It is well established that the aging heart progressively remodels towards a senescent phenotype, but alterations of cellular microstructure and their differences to chronic heart failure (HF) associated remodeling remain ill-defined. Here, we show that the transverse tubular system (t-system) and proteins underlying excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes are characteristically remodeled with age. We shed light on mechanisms of this remodeling and identified similarities and differences to chronic HF. Read More

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The healing myocardium mobilises a distinct B-cell subset through a CXCL13-CXCR5-dependent mechanism.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Aims: Recent studies have revealed that B-cells and antibodies can influence inflammation and remodelling following a myocardial infarction (MI) and culminating in heart failure-but the mechanisms underlying these observations remain elusive. We therefore conducted in mice a deep phenotyping of the post-MI B-cell responses in infarcted hearts and mediastinal lymph nodes, which drain the myocardium. Thereby, we sought to dissect the mechanisms controlling B-cell mobilisation and activity in situ. Read More

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CircHelz activates NLRP3 inflammasome to promote myocardial injury by sponging miR-133a-3p in mouse ischemic heart.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 May 25;158:128-139. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Pharmacology (State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular research, Ministry of Education), College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, PR China; Research Unit of Noninfectious Chronic Diseases in Frigid Zone (2019RU070), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, PR China; Northern Translational Medicine Research and Cooperation Center, Heilongjiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, PR China; Department of Pharmacology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Myocardial infarction (MI)-induced the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has been well known to aggravate myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction by causing inflammation and pyroptosis in the heart. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been demonstrated to play critical roles in cardiovascular diseases. However, the functions and mechanisms of circRNAs in modulating cardiac inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte pyroptosis remain largely unknown. Read More

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Complex challenges of estimating the age and vitality of muscle wounds: a study with matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors on animal and human tissue samples.

Int J Legal Med 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Institute for Legal Medicine at the University Hospital Düsseldorf, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

The estimation of wound age and wound vitality is a recurring task in forensic routine work and has been subject of forensic research for a long time. By now, an unrestrictedly reliable marker or set of markers has not been found. In a study on myocardial infarctions, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 as well as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) were detected immunohistochemically in mechanically wounded myocardium (ECG electrodes, vessel ligations). Read More

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Noninvasive Diagnostic Modalities in an Isolated Case of Cardiac Amyloidosis.

Cureus 2021 Apr 21;13(4):e14608. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Internal Medicine, Holy Cross Hospital, Chicago, USA.

Amyloidoses are a family of inherited or acquired disorders characterized by the deposition of insoluble extracellular protein fibrils in various organs and tissues, thereby impairing their function. Amyloidoses are typically misfolded proteins, and on rare occasions, can deposit in the myocardium resulting in an infiltrative/restrictive cardiomyopathy. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is an underdiagnosed cause of congestive heart failure (CHF) with preserved ejection fraction, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias along with conduction defects. Read More

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An Unusual Case of Atrial Wall Cardiac Sarcoidosis Detected on Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography Scan.

Indian J Nucl Med 2021 Jan-Mar;36(1):46-49. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Isolated cardiac sarcoidosis (ICS) accounts for 5%-10% of patients with sarcoidosis. It can involve atrioventricular node causing heart block, as well as the basal septum, papillary muscles, focal regions in the free wall, and the myocardium being more commonly involved. The diagnosis is achieved on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endomyocardial biopsy. Read More

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