419,818 results match your criteria myeloid cells

Genome wide CRISPR screening reveals a role for sialylation in the tumorigenesis and chemoresistance of acute myeloid leukemia cells.

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Convergence Medicine, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Aberrant activation of cytokine and growth factor signal transduction pathways confers enhanced survival and proliferation properties to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the deregulation of signaling pathways in leukemia cells are unclear. To identify genes capable of independently supporting cytokine-independent growth, we employed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function screen in GM-CSF-dependent human AML TF-1 cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in hormone-dependent cancers.

Swiss Med Wkly 2021 Mar 16;151:w20483. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Institute of Oncology Research (IOR), Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland / Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI), Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Lugano, Switzerland.

Tumour-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells. The main feature of MDSCs is their ability to suppress T-cell activation and function, which leads to immunosuppressive activity in the tumour microenvironment. Higher numbers of circulating and tumour-infiltrating MDSCs have been observed in a large number of patients with various types of tumour, and are linked to poor prognosis, especially in hormone-driven tumours. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells have divergent effects on HIV infection of initial target cells and induce a pro-retention phenotype.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 19;17(4):e1009522. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Centre for Virus Research, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.

Although HIV infection inhibits interferon responses in its target cells in vitro, interferon signatures can be detected in vivo soon after sexual transmission, mainly attributed to plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). In this study, we examined the physiological contributions of pDCs to early HIV acquisition using coculture models of pDCs with myeloid DCs, macrophages and the resting central, transitional and effector memory CD4 T cell subsets. pDCs impacted infection in a cell-specific manner. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Acinar cell NLRP3 inflammasome and GSDMD activation mediates pyroptosis and systemic inflammation in acute pancreatitis.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Center of Severe Acute Pancreatitis (CASP), Department of Critical Care Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Background And Purpose: Pyroptosis is a lytic form of proinflammatory cell death characterised as caspase-1-dependent with canonical NLRP3 inflammasome-induced gasdermin D (GSDMD) activation. We aimed to investigate the role of acinar pyroptotic cell death in pancreatic injury and systemic inflammation in acute pancreatitis (AP).

Experimental Approach: Pancreatic acinar pyroptotic cell death pathway activation upon pancreatic toxin stimulation in vitro and in vivo were investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Utilisation of cytological samples for multiplex immunofluorescence assay.

Cytopathology 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Pathology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Objective: Understanding the immune environment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is important for designing effective anticancer immunotherapies. We describe the use of multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) assays to enable characterisation of the tumour-infiltrating immune cells and their interactions, both across and within immune subtypes.

Methods: Six cytological samples of NSCLC taken by transoesophageal ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration were tested with an mIF assay designed to detect the expression of key immune cell markers such as CD3, CD8, CD20, CD11b, and CD68. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Combined vaccine-immune-checkpoint inhibition constitutes a promising strategy for treatment of dMMR tumors.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Medicine Clinic III - Hematology, Oncology, Palliative Medicine, Rostock University Medical Center, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 6, 18057, Rostock, Germany.

Background: Mlh1-knock-out-driven mismatch-repair-deficient (dMMR) tumors can be targeted immunologically. By applying therapeutic tumor vaccination, tumor growth is delayed but escape mechanisms evolve, including upregulation of immune-checkpoint molecules (LAG-3, PD-L1). To counteract immune escape, we investigated the therapeutic activity of a combined tumor vaccine-immune-checkpoint inhibitor therapy using α-PD-L1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genetic or pharmacological reduction of cholangiocyte senescence improves inflammation and fibrosis in the  mouse.

JHEP Rep 2021 Jun 27;3(3):100250. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, and the Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background & Aims: Cholangiocyte senescence is important in the pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We found that CDKN2A (p16), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and mediator of senescence, was increased in cholangiocytes of patients with PSC and from a PSC mouse model (multidrug resistance 2; ). Given that recent data suggest that a reduction of senescent cells is beneficial in different diseases, we hypothesised that inhibition of cholangiocyte senescence would ameliorate disease in mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Comparative Biology of Microglia Across Species.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 1;9:652748. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Microglia are unique brain-resident, myeloid cells. They have received growing interest for their implication in an increasing number of neurodevelopmental, acute injury, and neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Fate-mapping studies establish microglial ontogeny from the periphery during development, while recent transcriptomic studies highlight microglial identity as distinct from other CNS cells and peripheral myeloid cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Human Wharton's Jelly Stem Cell Secretions Inhibit Human Leukemic Cell Line K562 by Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 18;9:614988. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Emerging resistance to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target the BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein has prompted research for novel therapeutics against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Herein, we evaluated the tumor inhibitory properties of the human Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) co-culture (hWJSC-CC) and their extracts, namely, the hWJSC-conditioned medium (hWJSC-CM; 100%) and hWJSC-lysate (hWJSC-L; 15 μg/ml), on a CML cell line K562 . The hWJSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-related cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and demonstrated mesodermal tissue differentiation potential. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characterization of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Imaging Mass Cytometry.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:620989. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is a major subtype of non-small cell lung cancer. The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) affects the anti-tumor immune response and the patient's prognosis, although the TIME in LUSC patients is incompletely understood.

Methods: We retrospectively collected surgical specimens from patients with previously untreated primary LUSC. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of maternal engrafted cytomegalovirus-specific CD8 T cells in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 13;10(4):e1272. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) Daejeon Republic of Korea.

Objectives: In patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), the immune system often fails to eradicate maternal cells that enter the foetus via the placenta, resulting in transplacental maternal engraftment (TME) syndrome. However, the clinical significance of TME has not been comprehensively elucidated.

Methods: Here, we describe a patient with SCID with a novel frameshift mutation associated with maternal engrafted CD8 T cells that had been expanded by viral infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of Polymorphisms of NKG2D Receptor and Its Ligands in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Human Stem Cell Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2021 30;12:651751. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Laboratory of Tumor Biology and Immunotherapy, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen, Czechia.

Natural killer cells possess key regulatory function in various malignant diseases, including acute myeloid leukemia. NK cell activity is driven by signals received through ligands binding activating or inhibitory receptors. Their activity towards elimination of transformed or virally infected cells can be mediated through MICA, MICB and ULBP ligands binding the activating receptor NKG2D. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chimeric CTLA4-CD28-CD3z T Cells Potentiate Antitumor Activity Against CD80/CD86-Positive B Cell Malignancies.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:642528. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells have been recognized as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hematological malignancies; however, clinical success using CAR T cells for the treatment of solid tumors are still limited since the T-cell function is inhibited by negative signals in the microenvironment of solid tumors. CTLA4 is a well-known immune checkpoint molecule, thus we developed a novel CAR by converting this negative signal to positive signal. The CAR developed consists of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of CTLA4 and the cytoplasmic domains of CD28 and CD3z (CTLA4-CAR T). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Development of LT-HSC-Reconstituted Non-Irradiated NBSGW Mice for the Study of Human Hematopoiesis .

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:642198. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Transplantation Research and Immunology Group, John Radcliffe Hospital, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Humanized immune system (HIS) mouse models are useful tools for the investigation of human hematopoiesis. However, the majority of HIS models currently in use are biased towards lymphocyte development and fail to support long-term multilineage leucocytes and erythrocytes. Those that achieve successful multilineage reconstitution often require preconditioning steps which are expensive, cause animal morbidity, are technically demanding, and poorly reproducible. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microglial Nox2 Plays a Key Role in the Pathogenesis of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:638381. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

While oxidative stress has been linked to multiple sclerosis (MS), the role of superoxide-producing phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Nox2) in central nervous system (CNS) pathogenesis remains unclear. This study investigates the impact of Nox2 gene ablation on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. Nox2 deficiency attenuates EAE-induced neural damage and reduces disease severity, pathogenic immune cells infiltration, demyelination, and oxidative stress in the CNS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

One Stone, Two Birds: The Roles of Tim-3 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:618710. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, International Cancer Center, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Precision Medicine for Hematological Malignancies, Shenzhen University General Hospital, Shenzhen University Clinical Medical Academy, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, China.

T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein 3 (Tim-3) is an immune checkpoint and plays a vital role in immune responses during acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Targeting Tim-3 kills two birds with one stone by balancing the immune system and eliminating leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in AML. These functions make Tim-3 a potential target for curing AML. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of Remote Immune Activation on Performance in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 1;15:659679. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Head Injury Laboratory, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

In adult pre-clinical models, traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to prime microglia, exaggerating the central inflammatory response to an acute immune challenge, worsening depressive-like behavior, and enhancing cognitive deficits. Whether this phenomenon exists following mTBI during adolescence has yet to be explored, with age at injury potentially altering the inflammatory response. Furthermore, to date, studies have predominantly examined hippocampal-dependent learning domains, although pre-frontal cortex-driven functions, including attention, motivation, and impulsivity, are significantly affected by both adolescent TBI and acute inflammatory stimuli. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ze-Qi-Tang Formula Induces Granulocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Apoptosis via STAT3/S100A9/Bcl-2/Caspase-3 Signaling to Prolong the Survival of Mice with Orthotopic Lung Cancer.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 1;2021:8856326. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Basic Medical Science, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China.

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the most common malignancy with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. In our previous study, we found that a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Ze-Qi-Tang (ZQT), which has been used in the treatment of respiratory diseases for thousands of years, could directly inhibit the growth of human NSCLC cells via the p53 signaling pathway. In this study, we explored the immunomodulatory functions of ZQT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Downregulation of MIR100HG Induces Apoptosis in Human Megakaryoblastic Leukemia Cells.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2021 Apr 24;37(2):232-239. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, 81744-176 Iran.

Long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) are ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules longer than 200 nucleotides without protein-coding capacity. Several studies have shown that lncRNAs play a pivotal role in the initiation, maintenance, and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which could make them a promising candidate in the diagnosis and treatment of leukemia. Acute Megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare form of AML with a poor prognosis and low survival. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impaired myeloid-derived suppressor cells are associated with recurrent implantation failure: A case-control study.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Mar 29;145:103316. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, No 218 Jixi Road, Hefei 230022, Anhui, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Study on Abnormal Gametes and Reproductive Tract (Anhui Medical University), No 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China; Key Laboratory of Population Health Across Life Cycle (Anhui Medical University), Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, No 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health and Genetics, No 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China; Biopreservation and Artificial Organs, Anhui Provincial Engineering Research Center, Anhui Medical University, No 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Background: Studies have reported that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to maintain pregnancy. The aim of this case-control study was to test whether there is a dysregulation of peripheral MDSCs in recurrent implantation failure (RIF).

Methods: 26 RIF patients and 30 controls were recruited. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fractionated radiation severely reduces the number of CD8 T cells and mature antigen presenting cells within lung tumors.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy (LMCT), Department of Biomedical Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Purpose: The combination of standard-of-care radiotherapy (RT) with immunotherapy is moving to the mainstream of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. Multiple preclinical studies reported on the CD8 T cell stimulating properties of RT, resulting in abscopal therapeutic effects. A literature search demonstrates that most preclinical lung cancer studies applied subcutaneous lung tumor models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

ER stress protein PERK promotes inappropriate innate immune responses and pathogenesis during RSV infection.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

The activation of dendritic cells (DC) during respiratory viral infections is central to directing the immune response and the pathologic outcome. In these studies, the effect of RSV infection on development of ER stress responses and the impact on innate immunity was examined. The upregulation of ER stress was closely associated with the PERK pathway through the upregulation of CHOP in RSV infected DC. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolic dysfunction induced by high-fat diet modulates hematopoietic stem and myeloid progenitor cells in brown adipose tissue of mice.

Immunol Cell Biol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) may be an important metabolic regulator of whole-body glucose. While important roles have been ascribed to macrophages in regulating metabolic functions in BAT, little known is known of the roles of other immune cells subsets, particularly dendritic cells (DCs). Eating a high fat diet may compromise the development of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) - which give rise to DCs - in bone marrow, with less known of its effects in BAT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

HDAC11 regulates expression of C/EBPβ and immunosuppressive molecules in myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

George Washington Cancer Center, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) constitute a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells derived from bone marrow and negatively regulate both innate and adaptive immunity in the tumor microenvironment. Previously we have demonstrated that MDSCs lacking histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11) displayed an increased suppressive activity against CD8 T-cells. However, the mechanisms of HDAC11 that contribute to the suppressive function of MDSCs remain unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fucosylated lipid nanocarriers loaded with antibiotics efficiently inhibit mycobacterial propagation in human myeloid cells.

J Control Release 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute for Experimental Infection Research, TWINCORE, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, Hannover Medical School and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Hannover, Germany; Institute of Neuroanatomy and Cell Biology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.; Rodos Biotarget GmbH, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Antibiotic treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is complex, lengthy, and can be associated with various adverse effects. As a result, patient compliance often is poor, thus further enhancing the risk of selecting multi-drug resistant bacteria. Macrophage mannose receptor (MMR)-positive alveolar macrophages (AM) constitute a niche in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicates and survives. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Targeting of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by all-trans retinoic acid as host-directed therapy for human tuberculosis.

Cell Immunol 2021 Apr 8;364:104359. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Conventional anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapies comprise lengthy antibiotic treatment regimens, exacerbated by multi-drug resistant and extensively drug resistant mycobacterial strains. We assessed the ability of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), as repurposed compound serving as host-directed therapy (HDT), to counteract the suppressive effects of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) obtained from active TB cases (untreated or during week one of treatment) on T-cell responsiveness. We show for the first time that MDSCs suppress non-specific T-cell activation and production of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-13 and GM-CSF via contact-dependent mechanisms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Peptidylprolyl Isomerase C (Ppic) regulates invariant Natural Killer T cell (iNKT) differentiation in mice.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Lymphocyte Development and Leukemogenesis Laboratory, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Oeiras, Portugal.

Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase C (Ppic) is expressed in several bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors and in T cell precursors. Since the expression profile of Ppic in the hemato-immune system was suggestive that it could play a role in hematopoiesis and/or T lymphocyte differentiation, we sought to test that hypothesis in vivo. Specifically, we generated a Ppic deficient mouse model by targeting the endogenous locus by CRISPR/Cas9 and tested the requirement of Ppic in hematopoiesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

TREM2 is a receptor for non-glycosylated mycolic acids of mycobacteria that limits anti-mycobacterial macrophage activation.

Nat Commun 2021 04 16;12(1):2299. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

Mycobacterial cell-wall glycolipids elicit an anti-mycobacterial immune response via FcRγ-associated C-type lectin receptors, including Mincle, and caspase-recruitment domain family member 9 (CARD9). Additionally, mycobacteria harbor immuno-evasive cell-wall lipids associated with virulence and latency; however, a mechanism of action is unclear. Here, we show that the DAP12-associated triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) recognizes mycobacterial cell-wall mycolic acid (MA)-containing lipids and suggest a mechanism by which mycobacteria control host immunity via TREM2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CHK2 inhibition provides a strategy to suppress hematological toxicity from PARP inhibitors.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Blood Cells and Blood Cancer, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute

Cancer patients treated with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) experience various side effects, with hematological toxicity being most common. Short term treatment of mice with olaparib resulted in depletion of reticulocytes, B cell progenitors and immature thymocytes, whereas longer treatment induced broader myelosuppression. We performed a CRISPR/Cas9 screen that targeted DNA repair genes in Eµ-Myc pre-B lymphoma cell lines as a way to identify strategies to suppress hematological toxicity from PARPi. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Localised renal Langerhans cell histiocytosis coexisting with unilateral renal clear cell carcinoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 16;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Urology, Carle Foundation Hospital, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an uncommon group of disorders, which can be either localised or systemic, characterised by abnormal proliferation of monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. These disorders represent an aberrant response of myeloid progenitor cells. Bones are the most commonly affected organ but there can be involvement of the skin, lungs, liver and spleen. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF