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Lack of Opsonic Antibody Responses to Invasive Infections With .

Front Microbiol 2021 27;12:635591. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Introduction: can cause severe recurrent infections. This study aimed to investigate antibody responses following bacteraemia and possible development of protective immunity.

Materials And Methods: Patients with bacteraemia in the county of Skåne between 2017 and 2018 were prospectively included. Read More

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Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Subunit d, a Component of the Peripheral Stalk, is Essential for Growth and Heat Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA, 01003.

As rapid changes in climate threaten global crop yields, an understanding of plant heat stress tolerance is increasingly relevant. Heat stress tolerance involves the coordinated action of many cellular processes and is particularly energy demanding. We acquired a knockout mutant and generated knockdown lines in Arabidopsis thaliana of the d subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (gene name: ATPQ, AT3G52300, referred to hereafter as ATPd), a subunit of the peripheral stalk, and used these to investigate the phenotypic significance of this subunit in normal growth and heat stress tolerance. Read More

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Gene regulation in climacteric fruit ripening.

Authors:
Javier Brumos

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 May 7;63:102042. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology of Plants, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Seed dispersion and consequent plant propagation depend on the success of fruit ripening. Thus, ripening is a highly regulated developmental process aiming to maximize fruit organoleptic traits to attract herbivores. During ripening, the developing fruit experiences dramatic modifications, including color change, flavor improvement, and loss of firmness that are remarkably coordinated. Read More

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High spatial resolution imaging of the dynamics of cuticular lipid deposition during Arabidopsis flower development.

Plant Direct 2021 Apr 29;5(4):e00322. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Iowa State University Ames IA USA.

The extensive collection of () and () mutants of maize and Arabidopsis have proven invaluable in dissecting the branched metabolic pathways that support cuticular lipid deposition. This bifurcated pathway integrates a fatty acid elongation-decarbonylative branch and a fatty acid elongation-reductive branch, which collectively has the capacity to generate hundreds of cuticular lipid metabolites. In this study, a combined transgenic and biochemical strategy was implemented to explore and compare the physiological function of three homologous genes, , , and , in the context of this branched pathway. Read More

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Evaluation of Phenolic Root Exudates as Stimulants of Saptrophic Fungi in the Rhizosphere.

Front Microbiol 2021 14;12:644046. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, Netherlands.

The rhizosphere microbial community of crop plants in intensively managed arable soils is strongly dominated by bacteria, especially in the initial stages of plant development. In order to establish more diverse and balanced rhizosphere microbiomes, as seen for wild plants, crop variety selection could be based on their ability to promote growth of saprotrophic fungi in the rhizosphere. We hypothesized that this can be achieved by increasing the exudation of phenolic acids, as generally higher fungal abundance is observed in environments with phenolic-rich inputs, such as exudates of older plants and litter leachates. Read More

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Fitness selection of hyperfusogenic measles virus F proteins associated with neuropathogenic phenotypes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(18)

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029;

Measles virus (MeV) is resurgent and caused >200,000 deaths in 2019. MeV infection can establish a chronic latent infection of the brain that can recrudesce months to years after recovery from the primary infection. Recrudescent MeV leads to fatal subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) or measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE) as the virus spreads across multiple brain regions. Read More

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Predictive models of genetic redundancy in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Cell and Molecular Biology Program.

Genetic redundancy refers to a situation where an individual with a loss-of-function mutation in one gene (single mutant) does not show an apparent phenotype until one or more paralogs are also knocked out (double/higher-order mutant). Previous studies have identified some characteristics common among redundant gene pairs, but a predictive model of genetic redundancy incorporating a wide variety of features derived from accumulating omics and mutant phenotype data is yet to be established. In addition, the relative importance of these features for genetic redundancy remains largely unclear. Read More

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Genomic basis of striking fin shapes and colours in the fighting fish.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Molecular Population Genetics & Breeding Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore 117604, Singapore.

Resolving the genomic basis underlying phenotypic variations is a question of great importance in evolutionary biology. However, understanding how genotypes determine the phenotypes is still challenging. Centuries of artificial selective breeding for beauty and aggression resulted in a plethora of colors, long fin varieties, and hyper-aggressive behavior in the air-breathing Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), supplying an excellent system for studying the genomic basis of phenotypic variations. Read More

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Arabidopsis CHLOROPHYLLASE 1 protects young leaves from long-term photodamage by facilitating FtsH-mediated D1 degradation in photosystem II repair.

Mol Plant 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Postharvest Science of Fruits and Vegetables, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, People's Republic of China; College of Life Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The proteolytic degradation of the photodamaged D1 core subunit during the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle is well understood, but chlorophyll turnover during D1 degradation remains unclear. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana CHLOROPHYLLASE 1 (CLH1) plays important roles in the PSII repair process. The abundance of CLH1 and CLH2 peaks in young leaves and is induced by high-light exposure. Read More

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Gut Modeling as a Tool for Adaptive Evolutionary Engineering of .

mSystems 2021 Apr 13;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Research and marketing of probiotics demand holistic strain improvement considering both the biotic and abiotic gut environment. Here, we aim to establish the continuous colonic fermentation model PolyFermS as a tool for adaptive evolutionary engineering. Immobilized fecal microbiota from adult donors were steadily cultivated up to 72 days in PolyFermS reactors, providing a long-term compositional and functional stable ecosystem akin to the donor's gut. Read More

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Poaceae-specific cell wall-derived oligosaccharides activate plant immunity via OsCERK1 during Magnaporthe oryzae infection in rice.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2178. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Many phytopathogens secrete cell wall degradation enzymes (CWDEs) to damage host cells and facilitate colonization. As the major components of the plant cell wall, cellulose and hemicellulose are the targets of CWDEs. Damaged plant cells often release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to trigger plant immune responses. Read More

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Salt stress enhances early symbiotic gene expression in Medicago truncatula and induces a stress-specific set of rhizobium-responsive genes.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

University of Vermont, Plant Biology, 63 Carrigan Drive, Burlington, Vermont, United States, 05405-0086;

Salt stress is a major agricultural concern inhibiting not only plant growth but also the symbiotic association between legume roots and the soil bacteria rhizobia. This symbiotic association is initiated by a molecular dialogue between the two partners, leading to the activation of a signaling cascade in the legume host and ultimately the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Here we show that a moderate salt stress increases the responsiveness of early symbiotic genes in Medicago truncatula to its symbiotic partner, Sinorhizobium meliloti, while conversely, inoculation with S. Read More

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Expression and Functional Analysis of the Argonaute Protein of (TtAgo) in BL21(DE3).

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 31;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Shaanxi Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

The prokaryotic Argonaute proteins (pAgos) have been reported to cleave or interfere with DNA targets in a guide-dependent or independent manner. It is often difficult to characterize pAgos in vivo due to the extreme environments favored by their hosts. In the present study, we expressed functional pAgo (TtAgo) in BL21 (DE3) cells at 37 °C. Read More

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Metabolism in the Zebrafish Retina.

J Dev Biol 2021 Mar 15;9(1). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London EC1V 9EL, UK.

Retinal photoreceptors are amongst the most metabolically active cells in the body, consuming more glucose as a metabolic substrate than even the brain. This ensures that there is sufficient energy to establish and maintain photoreceptor functions during and after their differentiation. Such high dependence on glucose metabolism is conserved across vertebrates, including zebrafish from early larval through to adult retinal stages. Read More

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Fertilized egg cells secrete endopeptidases to avoid polytubey.

Nature 2021 Apr 31;592(7854):433-437. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Upon gamete fusion, animal egg cells secrete proteases from cortical granules to establish a fertilization envelope as a block to polyspermy. Fertilization in flowering plants is more complex and involves the delivery of two non-motile sperm cells by pollen tubes. Simultaneous penetration of ovules by multiple pollen tubes (polytubey) is usually avoided, thus indirectly preventing polyspermy. Read More

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The Sequential Action of MIDA9/PP2C.D1, PP2C.D2, and PP2C.D5 Is Necessary to Form and Maintain the Hook After Germination in the Dark.

Front Plant Sci 2021 9;12:636098. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Plant Development and Signal Transduction Program, Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics (CRAG) CSIC-IRTA-UAB-UB, Barcelona, Spain.

During seedling etiolation after germination in the dark, seedlings have closed cotyledons and form an apical hook to protect the meristem as they break through the soil to reach the surface. Once in contact with light, the hook opens and cotyledons are oriented upward and separate. Hook development in the dark after seedling emergence from the seed follows three distinctly timed and sequential phases: formation, maintenance, and eventual opening. Read More

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cysteine biosynthesis contributes to peroxide stress survival and fitness in the intracellular niche.

Infect Immun 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

is an ovine intracellular pathogen with tropism for the male genital tract. To establish and maintain infection, must survive stressful conditions inside host cells, including low pH, nutrient limitation, and reactive oxygen species. These same conditions are often encountered in axenic cultures during stationary phase. Read More

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HOXA5 Participates in Brown Adipose Tissue and Epaxial Skeletal Muscle Patterning and in Brown Adipocyte Differentiation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:632303. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Biology, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays critical thermogenic, metabolic and endocrine roles in mammals, and aberrant BAT function is associated with metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. The major BAT depots are clustered at the neck and forelimb levels, and arise largely within the dermomyotome of somites, from a common progenitor with skeletal muscle. However, many aspects of BAT embryonic development are not well understood. Read More

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February 2021

Stress resets ancestral heritable small RNA responses.

Elife 2021 03 17;10. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Neurobiology, Wise Faculty of Life Sciences & Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Transgenerational inheritance of small RNAs challenges basic concepts of heredity. In nematodes, small RNAs are transmitted across generations to establish a transgenerational memory trace of ancestral environments and distinguish self-genes from non-self-elements. Carryover of aberrant heritable small RNA responses was shown to be maladaptive and to lead to sterility. Read More

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sGC Activity and Regulation of Blood Flow in a Zebrafish Model System.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:633171. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Institute for Cardiogenetics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) protein is a heterodimer formed by two subunits encoded by and genes. The chromosomal locus 4q32.1 harbors both of these genes, which has been previously significantly associated with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and high blood pressure. Read More

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February 2021

Ploidy is an important determinant of fluoroquinolone persister survival.

Curr Biol 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA; Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. Electronic address:

Genetic mutants have demonstrated the importance of homologous recombination (HR) to fluoroquinolone (FQ) persistence, which suggests that single-cell chromosome (Chr) abundance might be a phenotypic variable of importance to persisters. Here, we sorted stationary-phase E. coli based on ploidy and subjected the subpopulations to tolerance assays. Read More

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA80 is a cystic fibrosis isolate deficient in RhlRI quorum sensing.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 11;11(1):5729. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, UK.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses quorum sensing (QS) to modulate the expression of several virulence factors that enable it to establish severe infections. The QS system in P. aeruginosa is complex, intricate and is dominated by two main N-acyl-homoserine lactone circuits, LasRI and RhlRI. Read More

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Compound Heterozygous Mutations Causing Recessive Romano-Ward Syndrome: Functional Characterization by Mutant Co-expression.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 22;8:625449. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Laboratorio de Genómica de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Mexico City, Mexico.

Next Generation Sequencing has identified many genetic variants associated with type 1 long QT or Romano-Ward syndrome, most frequently inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, although recessive forms have been reported. Particularly in the case of missense variants, functional studies of mutants are of aid to establish variant pathogenicity and to understand the mechanistic basis of disease. Two compound heterozygous mutations (p. Read More

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February 2021

ALS2 regulates endosomal trafficking, postsynaptic development, and neuronal survival.

J Cell Biol 2021 May;220(5)

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Mutations in the human ALS2 gene cause recessive juvenile-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related motor neuron diseases. Although the ALS2 protein has been identified as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rab5, its physiological roles remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Drosophila homologue of ALS2 (dALS2) promotes postsynaptic development by activating the Frizzled nuclear import (FNI) pathway. Read More

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Characterization of initial key steps of IL-17 receptor B oncogenic signaling for targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Mar;13(583)

Drug Development Center, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.

The members of the interleukin-17 (IL-17) cytokine family and their receptors were identified decades ago. Unlike IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA), which heterodimerizes with IL-17RB, IL-17RC, and IL-17RD and mediates proinflammatory gene expression, IL-17RB plays a distinct role in promoting tumor growth and metastasis upon stimulation with IL-17B. However, the molecular basis by which IL-17RB promotes oncogenesis is unknown. Read More

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Uncover the Nuclear Proteomic Landscape with Enriched Nuclei Followed by Label-Free Quantitative Mass Spectrometry.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2297:115-124

Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Treated with light pulse or under certain diurnal conditions, photoreceptors can translocate into nucleus followed by conformation change. Many critical components of light signaling pathways also majorly function in nucleus. Hence, it is beneficial to establish a combined method to uncover and compare the nuclear proteomic landscape among the mutants of light signaling components. Read More

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January 2021

Identification of type III effectors modulating the symbiotic properties of Bradyrhizobium vignae strain ORS3257 with various Vigna species.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 1;11(1):4874. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

IRD, Laboratoire des Symbioses Tropicales et Méditerranéennes, UMR 113, IRD/CIRAD/INRAE/Université de Montpellier/SupAgro, Campus de Baillarguet, TA-A82/J, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

The Bradyrhizobium vignae strain ORS3257 is an elite strain recommended for cowpea inoculation in Senegal. This strain was recently shown to establish symbioses on some Aeschynomene species using a cocktail of Type III effectors (T3Es) secreted by the T3SS machinery. In this study, using a collection of mutants in different T3Es genes, we sought to identify the effectors that modulate the symbiotic properties of ORS3257 in three Vigna species (V. Read More

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Profiling of the assembly of RecA nucleofilaments implies a potential target for environmental factors to disturb DNA repair.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Apr 13;102:283-290. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, UCAS, Hangzhou 430056, China. Electronic address:

Double-strand breaks (DSBs), one class of the most harmful DNA damage forms that bring elevated health risks, need to be repaired timely and effectively. However, an increasing number of environmental pollutants have been identified to impair DSB repair from various mechanisms. Our previous work indicated that the formation of unsaturated RecA nucleofilaments plays an essential role in homology recombination (HR) pathway which can accurately repair DSBs. Read More

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Dicer-like proteins influence Arabidopsis root microbiota independent of RNA-directed DNA methylation.

Microbiome 2021 02 26;9(1):57. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201602, China.

Background: Plants are naturally associated with root microbiota, which are microbial communities influential to host fitness. Thus, it is important to understand how plants control root microbiota. Epigenetic factors regulate the readouts of genetic information and consequently many essential biological processes. Read More

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February 2021

The Role of the Dopamine Transporter in the Effects of Amphetamine on Sleep and Sleep Architecture in Drosophila.

Neurochem Res 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates the inactivation of released dopamine (DA) through its reuptake, and thereby plays an important homeostatic role in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Amphetamines exert their stimulant effects by targeting DAT and inducing the reverse transport of DA, leading to a dramatic increase of extracellular DA. Animal models have proven critical to investigating the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying transporter function and its modulation by psychostimulants such as amphetamine. Read More

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February 2021