2,222 results match your criteria muscle undergoes

Investigation of the Recovery Stroke and ATP Hydrolysis and Changes Caused Due to the Cardiomyopathic Point Mutations in Human Cardiac β Myosin.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, United States.

Human cardiac β myosin undergoes the cross-bridge cycle as part of the force-generating mechanism of cardiac muscle. The recovery stroke is considered one of the key steps of the kinetic cycle as it is the conformational rearrangement required to position the active site residues for hydrolysis of ATP and interaction with actin. We explored the free-energy surface of the transition and investigated the effect of the genetic cardiomyopathy causing mutations R453C, I457T, and I467T on this step using metadynamics. Read More

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Releasing latent Toxoplasma gondii cysts from host cells to the extracellular environment induces excystation.

Int J Parasitol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

The United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan; Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193, Japan. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, infects a wide variety of mammals and birds. Although T. gondii infects the brain and muscles in its latent cyst form containing bradyzoite stage parasites during chronic infection, when a chronically infected host becomes immunodeficient or is preyed upon by a predator, the latent cyst undergoes excystation. Read More

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Rebalancing expression of HMGB1 redox isoforms to counteract muscular dystrophy.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jun;13(596)

Division of Genetics and Cell Biology, Tissue Regeneration and Homeostasis Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy.

Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive muscle wasting associated to oxidative stress and persistent inflammation. It is essential to deepen our knowledge on the mechanism connecting these two processes because current treatments for MDs have limited efficacy and/or are associated with side effects. Here, we identified the alarmin high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a functional link between oxidative stress and inflammation in MDs. Read More

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Tick-Tock Consider the Clock: The Influence of Circadian and External Cycles on Time of Day Variation in the Human Metabolome-A Review.

Metabolites 2021 May 19;11(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

The past decade has seen a large influx of work investigating time of day variation in different human biofluid and tissue metabolomes. The driver of this daily variation can be endogenous circadian rhythms driven by the central and/or peripheral clocks, or exogenous diurnal rhythms driven by behavioural and environmental cycles, which manifest as regular 24 h cycles of metabolite concentrations. This review, of all published studies to date, establishes the extent of daily variation with regard to the number and identity of 'rhythmic' metabolites observed in blood, saliva, urine, breath, and skeletal muscle. Read More

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Single cell transcriptomic analysis of external genitalia reveals complex and sexually dimorphic cell populations in the early genital tubercle.

Dev Biol 2021 May 24;477:145-154. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA; Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA. Electronic address:

External genital organs are among the most recognizable sexually dimorphic characters. The penis and clitoris develop from the embryonic genital tubercle, an outgrowth at the anterior margin of the cloaca that undergoes an extensive period of development in male and female embryos prior to the onset of sexual differentiation. In mice, differentiation into the penis and clitoris begins around embryonic day (E)15. Read More

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Membraneless condensates by Rapsn phase separation as a platform for neuromuscular junction formation.

Neuron 2021 Jun 24;109(12):1963-1978.e5. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address:

Our daily life depends on muscle contraction, a process that is controlled by the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). However, the mechanisms of NMJ assembly remain unclear. Here we show that Rapsn, a protein critical for NMJ formation, undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and condensates into liquid-like assemblies. Read More

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Fate and State of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerosis.

Circulation 2021 May 24;143(21):2110-2116. Epub 2021 May 24.

Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle Children's Research Institute (M.W.M.).

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have long been associated with phenotypic modulation/plasticity or dedifferentiation. Innovative technologies in cell lineage tracing, single-cell RNA sequencing, and human genomics have been integrated to gain unprecedented insights into the molecular reprogramming of VSMCs to other cell phenotypes in experimental and clinical atherosclerosis. The current thinking is that an apparently small subset of contractile VSMCs undergoes a fate switch to transitional, multipotential cells that can adopt plaque-destabilizing (inflammation, ossification) or plaque-stabilizing (collagen matrix deposition) cell states. Read More

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Heat Treatment of Milk: A Rapid Review of the Impacts on Postprandial Protein and Lipid Kinetics in Human Adults.

Front Nutr 2021 30;8:643350. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

AgResearch Ltd., Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Most milk consumed by humans undergoes heat treatment to ensure microbiological safety and extend shelf life. Although heat treatment impacts the structure and physiochemical properties of milk, effects on nutrient absorption in humans are unclear. Therefore, a rapid review was performed to identify studies conducted on healthy human adult subjects that have assessed the impacts of heat treatment of milk on protein and fat digestion and metabolism in the postprandial period (up to 24 h). Read More

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Early embryogenesis and organogenesis in the annelid Owenia fusiformis.

Evodevo 2021 May 10;12(1). Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS, UK.

Background: Annelids are a diverse group of segmented worms within Spiralia, whose embryos exhibit spiral cleavage and a variety of larval forms. While most modern embryological studies focus on species with unequal spiral cleavage nested in Pleistoannelida (Sedentaria + Errantia), a few recent studies looked into Owenia fusiformis, a member of the sister group to all remaining annelids and thus a key lineage to understand annelid and spiralian evolution and development. However, the timing of early cleavage and detailed morphogenetic events leading to the formation of the idiosyncratic mitraria larva of O. Read More

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Endolysosomal N-glycan processing is critical to attain the most active form of the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase.

J Biol Chem 2021 May 7:100769. Epub 2021 May 7.

Amicus Therapeutics, Inc. Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) is a lysosomal glycogen-catabolizing enzyme, the deficiency of which leads to Pompe disease. Pompe disease can be treated with systemic recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), but the current standard of care exhibits poor uptake in skeletal muscles, limiting its clinical efficacy. Further, it is unclear how the specific cellular processing steps of GAA post-delivery to lysosomes impact its efficacy. Read More

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Altered Metabolic Flexibility in Inherited Metabolic Diseases of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Metabolism.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 6;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of General Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Neonatology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany.

In general, metabolic flexibility refers to an organism's capacity to adapt to metabolic changes due to differing energy demands. The aim of this work is to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding variables that modulate energy regulation in two different pathways of mitochondrial fatty metabolism: β-oxidation and fatty acid biosynthesis. We focus specifically on two diseases: very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and malonyl-CoA synthetase deficiency (acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3 (ACSF3)) deficiency, which are both characterized by alterations in metabolic flexibility. Read More

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Familial Thoracic Aortic Dissection.

Radiol Technol 2021 May;92(5):428-434

Chair and professor for the Department of Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, School of Health Related Professions in Jackson.

Background: This case report details familial aortic dissection in 2 second-degree blood relatives who experienced sudden aortic dissections. One patient underwent emergency computed tomography angiography (CTA) and the other underwent magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). These imaging examinations were instrumental in revealing each patient's condition. Read More

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Divergent immunometabolic changes in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle with ageing in healthy humans.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department for Health, Centre for Nutrition, Exercise, and Metabolism, University of Bath, Bath, Somerset, UK.

Key Points: Ageing is associated with increased systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction that contributes to the development of age-associated diseases. The role of adipose tissue in immunometabolic alterations that take place with ageing is unknown in humans. We show, in healthy, active and lean older adults, that adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, displays considerable pro-inflammatory transcriptomic, cellular and secretory changes, as well as a reduction in insulin signalling proteins compared to younger adults. Read More

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Furin is involved in uterine activation for labor.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21565

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Research Center for Molecular Metabolomics, Xiangya Hospital Central South University, Changsha, China.

The uterus undergoes distinct molecular and functional changes during pregnancy and parturition. These processes are associated with the dramatic changes in various proteins. Given that the maturation and activation of many proteins require proteolytic processing by proprotein convertases (PCs), we sought to explore the role of PCs in uterine activation for labor. Read More

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Migratory state and patterns of steroid hormone regulation in the pectoralis muscle of a nomadic migrant, the pine siskin (Spinus pinus).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Aug 14;309:113787. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

The endocrine system is known to mediate responses to environmental change and transitions between different life stages (e.g., a non-breeding to a breeding life stage). Read More

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Flexibility of microstructural adaptations in airway smooth muscle.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 May 15;130(5):1555-1561. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Quebec, Canada.

The airway smooth muscle undergoes an elastic transition during a sustained contraction, characterized by a gradual decrease in hysteresivity caused by a relatively greater rate of increase in elastance than resistance. We recently demonstrated that these mechanical changes are more likely to persist after a large strain when they are acquired in dynamic versus static conditions; as if the microstructural adaptations liable for the elastic transition are more flexible when they evolve in dynamic conditions. The extent of this flexibility is undefined. Read More

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Telocytes of the male urogenital system: Interrelationships, possible functions, and pathological implications.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

The male urogenital system is composed of the reproductive system and the urinary tract; they have an interconnected embryonic development and share one of their anatomical components, the urethra. This system has a highly complex physiology deeply interconnected with the circulatory and nervous systems, as well as being capable of adapting to environmental variations; it also undergoes changes with aging and, in the case of the reproductive system, with seasonality. The stroma is an essential component in this physiological plasticity and its complexity has increased with the description in the last decade of a new cell type, the telocyte. Read More

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Dry-aging of beef as a tool to improve meat quality. Impact of processing conditions on the technical and organoleptic meat properties.

Adv Food Nutr Res 2021 27;95:97-130. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Food Quality and Sensory Analysis, Ashtown Teagasc Food Research Centre, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Meat consumers are demanding products of higher and consistent quality, with a distinctive flavor and aroma, able to provide a particular sensorial experience when consuming beef. The impact of all the factors affecting the final eating quality, known as the farm to fork approach, has been extensively studied in the last decades. This includes genetic factors, production system, transport, carcass intervention, aging, packaging and cooking method, among others. Read More

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February 2021

[The no-Reflow Phenomenon During Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction due to Massive Coronary Thrombosis. Pathogenesis and Predictors of no-Reflow].

Kardiologiia 2021 Mar 6;61(2):99-105. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow.

Despite successful and timely revascularization of the infarct-related artery, myocardial tissue remains underperfused in some patients. This condition is known as the no-reflow phenomenon, which is associated with a worse prognosis. The first part of the systematic review on no-reflow focuses on description of the no-reflow pathogenesis and predictors. Read More

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Simvastatin inhibits POVPC-mediated induction of endothelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition.

J Lipid Res 2021 Mar 10;62:100066. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

National-Guangdong Joint Engineering Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Vascular Diseases, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; NHC key Laboratory of Assisted Circulation (Sun Yat-sen University), Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; Guangdong Provincial Engineering and Technology Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Vascular Diseases, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; Division of Hypertension and Vascular Diseases, Department of Cardiology, Heart Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), the process by which an endothelial cell (EC) undergoes a series of molecular events that result in a mesenchymal cell phenotype, plays an important role in atherosclerosis. 1-Palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), derived from the oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, is a proinflammatory lipid found in atherosclerotic lesions. Whether POVPC promotes EndMT and how simvastatin influences POVPC-mediated EndMT remains unclear. Read More

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Role of FoxO transcription factors in aging-associated cardiovascular diseases.

Vitam Horm 2021 13;115:449-475. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Cardiovascular and Muscle Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India. Electronic address:

Aging constitutes a major risk factor toward the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The aging heart undergoes several changes at the molecular, cellular and physiological levels, which diminishes its contractile function and weakens stress tolerance. Further, old age increases the exposure to risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Read More

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February 2021

Oxidative stress in cardiac hypertrophy: From molecular mechanisms to novel therapeutic targets.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Apr 4;166:297-312. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore; Cardiovascular & Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Singapore, Singapore; The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, London, UK; Cardiovascular Research Center, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Asia University, Taiwan.

When faced with increased workload the heart undergoes remodelling, where it increases its muscle mass in an attempt to preserve normal function. This is referred to as cardiac hypertrophy and if sustained, can lead to impaired contractile function. Experimental evidence supports oxidative stress as a critical inducer of both genetic and acquired forms of cardiac hypertrophy, a finding which is reinforced by elevated levels of circulating oxidative stress markers in patients with cardiac hypertrophy. Read More

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The Emerging Role of Macrophages in Immune System Dysfunction under Real and Simulated Microgravity Conditions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 26;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Key Laboratory for Space Biosciences & Biotechnology, Institute of Special Environmental Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

In the process of exploring space, the astronaut's body undergoes a series of physiological changes. At the level of cellular behavior, microgravity causes significant alterations, including bone loss, muscle atrophy, and cardiovascular deconditioning. At the level of gene expression, microgravity changes the expression of cytokines in many physiological processes, such as cell immunity, proliferation, and differentiation. Read More

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February 2021

Mechanistic analysis of actin-binding compounds that affect the kinetics of cardiac myosin-actin interaction.

J Biol Chem 2021 Feb 24:100471. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455.

Actin-myosin mediated contractile forces are crucial for many cellular functions, including cell motility, cytokinesis and muscle contraction. We determined the effects of ten actin-binding compounds on the interaction of cardiac myosin subfragment 1 (S1) with pyrene-labeled F-actin (PFA). These compounds, previously identified from a small-molecule high-throughput screen (HTS), perturb the structural dynamics of actin and the steady-state actin-activated myosin ATPase activity. Read More

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February 2021

Defining the relative impact of muscle versus Schwann cell denervation on functional recovery after delayed nerve repair.

Exp Neurol 2021 May 16;339:113650. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Peripheral Nerve Research Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America. Electronic address:

Functional recovery following peripheral nerve injury worsens with increasing durations of delay prior to repair. From the time of injury until re-innervation occurs, denervated muscle undergoes progressive atrophy that limits the extent to which motor function can be restored. Similarly, Schwann cells (SC) in the distal nerve lacking axonal interaction progressively lose their capacity to proliferate and support regenerating axons. Read More

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Vitamin D Restores Skeletal Muscle Cell Remodeling and Myogenic Program: Potential Impact on Human Health.

Clara Crescioli

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 10;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Section of Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Piazza L. de Bosis 6, 00135 Rome, Italy.

Skeletal muscle cells, albeit classified as vitamin D receptor (VDR)-poor cells, are finely controlled by vitamin D through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms. Skeletal muscle constantly undergoes cell remodeling, a complex system under multilevel regulation, mainly orchestrated by the satellite niche in response to a variety of stimuli. Cell remodeling is not limited to satisfy reparative and hypertrophic needs, but, through myocyte transcriptome/proteome renewal, it warrants the adaptations necessary to maintain tissue integrity. Read More

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February 2021

Over-expression of Fgf8 in cardiac neural crest cells leads to persistent truncus arteriosus.

J Mol Histol 2021 Apr 5;52(2):351-361. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Oral Pathology, School of Stomatology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, China.

During cardiogenesis, the outflow tract undergoes a complicated morphogenesis, including the re-alignment of the great blood vessels, and the separation of aorta and pulmonary trunk. The deficiency of FGF8 in the morphogenesis of outflow tract has been well studied, however, the effect of over-dosed FGF8 on the development of outflow tract remains unknown. In this study, Rosa26R-Fgf8 knock-in allele was constitutively activated by Wnt1-cre transgene in the mouse neural crest cells presumptive for the endocardial cushion of outflow tract. Read More

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Mechano-chemical enforcement of tendon apical ECM into nano-filaments during Drosophila flight muscle development.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 4;31(7):1366-1378.e7. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Laboratory for Morphogenetic Signaling, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR), 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan; Department of Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Science, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Contractile tension is critical for musculoskeletal system development and maintenance. In insects, the muscular force is transmitted to the exoskeleton through the tendon cells and tendon apical extracellular matrix (ECM). In Drosophila, we found tendon cells secrete Dumpy (Dpy), a zona pellucida domain (ZPD) protein, to form the force-resistant filaments in the exuvial space, anchoring the tendon cells to the pupal cuticle. Read More

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Examining Muscle Regeneration in Zebrafish Models of Muscle Disease.

J Vis Exp 2021 01 18(167). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University;

Skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to regenerate following injury, which is driven by obligate tissue resident muscle stem cells. Following injury, the muscle stem cell is activated and undergoes cell proliferation to generate a pool of myoblasts, which subsequently differentiate to form new muscle fibers. In many muscle wasting conditions, including muscular dystrophy and ageing, this process is impaired resulting in the inability of muscle to regenerate. Read More

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January 2021

Biomechanical properties of acellular scar ECM during the acute to chronic stages of myocardial infarction.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 04 22;116:104342. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, 76019, USA. Electronic address:

After myocardial infarction (MI), the infarcted tissue undergoes dynamic and time-dependent changes. Previous knowledge on MI biomechanical alterations has been obtained by studying the explanted scar tissues. In this study, we decellularized MI scar tissue and characterized the biomechanics of the obtained pure scar ECM. Read More

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