46,819 results match your criteria muscle organ


The Role of Biaxial Loading on Smooth Muscle Contractility in the Nulliparous Murine Cervix.

Ann Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Ave, New Orleans, LA, 70118, USA.

Throughout the estrus cycle, the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cervical smooth muscle cells (cSMC) coordinate to accomplish normal physiologic function in the non-pregnant cervix. While previous uniaxial experiments provide fundamental knowledge about cervical contractility and biomechanics, the specimen preparation is disruptive to native organ geometry and does not permit simultaneous assessment of circumferential and axial properties. Thus, a need remains to investigate cervical contractility and passive biomechanics within physiologic multiaxial loading. Read More

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Reproducible Quantitative Stimulation Allows New Analysis of Crayfish Muscle Receptor Organ Responses.

J Undergrad Neurosci Educ 2020 31;19(1):A1-A20. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544.

The crustacean muscle receptor organ (MRO) has provided a particularly accessible preparation for the study of sensory coding, which has been widely used in introductory laboratory courses incorporating extracellular recording from sensory nerves in living preparations. We describe three innovations to the standard laboratory exercise using the MRO: (1) a new form of suction electrode to facilitate extracellular recording; (2) a new, Arduino-driven actuator to allow reproducible and quantifiable mechanical stimulation of the MRO; and (3) a new approach to the crayfish abdomen preparation that allows linear extension of the MRO muscles. These novel approaches allow the collection of data sets comprised of sensory cell spike trains under software control as important mechanical stimulus parameters are varied systematically through software. Read More

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December 2020

Glabridin Relaxes Vascular Smooth Muscles by Activating BK Channels and Inhibiting Phosphodiesterase in Human Saphenous Vein.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Apr 20;41(2):381-389. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Adiyaman, Adiyaman, 02040, Turkey.

The aim of the current study was to investigate the pharmacological activity of glabridin on the isolated human saphenous vein (SV) and explore the underlying mechanisms. Samples of patients' SVs were removed during bypass surgery, and 4-mm lengths of the vessels were placed in Krebs solution at +4°C and hung in an isolated organ bath to assess their contraction/relaxation responses. The contraction/relaxation responses were recorded to observe if the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway mediates the relaxant effect of glabridin after treatment with blockers like ODQ (a guanylate cyclase inhibitor), KT5823 (a PKG inhibitor), isobutylmethylxanthine [IBMX, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor], and cantharidin [Cant, a myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) inhibitor]. Read More

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Phosphorylation of MYL12 by Myosin Light Chain Kinase Regulates Cellular Shape Changes in Cochlear Hair Cells.

J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

The organ of Corti is an auditory organ located in the cochlea, comprising hair cells (HCs) and other supporting cells. Cellular shape changes of HCs are important for the development of auditory epithelia and hearing function. It was previously observed that HCs and inner sulcus cells (ISCs) demonstrate cellular shape changes similar to the apical constriction of the neural epithelia. Read More

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A cross-sectional study of functional and metabolic changes during aging through the lifespan in male mice.

Elife 2021 Apr 20;10. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, United States.

Aging is associated with distinct phenotypical, physiological, and functional changes, leading to disease and death. The progression of aging-related traits varies widely among individuals, influenced by their environment, lifestyle, and genetics. In this study, we conducted physiologic and functional tests cross-sectionally throughout the entire lifespan of male C57BL/6N mice. Read More

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[A prospective randomized controlled study on the effect of balance training on lower limb movement and balance dysfunction in severe burn patients].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2021 Mar 30;37:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Institute of Burns, Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University&Wuhan Third Hospital, Wuhan 430060, China.

To observe the rehabilitation effect of balance training on motor and balance function of lower extremities of deep burn patients. A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted. From January 2016 to January 2020, sixty-four patients with lower limb motor and balance dysfunction after deep burn were admitted to Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University&Wuhan Third Hospital, the burn area was 30% to 70% Total Body Surface Area, and the burn depth of more than one hip, knee and ankle joint of both lower limbs and their periphery were deep second or third degree. Read More

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Contemporary Rates of Gynecologic Organ Involvement in Females With Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Retrospective Review of Women Undergoing Radical Cystectomy Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

J Urol 2021 Apr 19:101097JU0000000000001784. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Purpose: According to the AUA/ASCO/ASTRO/SUO Guideline on treatment of nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), females requiring radical cystectomy (RC) should undergo concomitant anterior pelvic exenteration despite low rates of malignant involvement of gynecologic organs. We present the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with MIBC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and evaluate the impact of NAC on gynecologic organ involvement (GOI).

Materials And Methods: An IRB approved review of patients with cT2-T3 MIBC treated with RC at our institution between 2005-2018 was performed. Read More

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Removal of Epididymal Visceral Adipose Tissue Prevents Obesity-Induced Multi-organ Insulin Resistance in Male Mice.

J Endocr Soc 2021 May 20;5(5):bvab024. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, an important risk factor of type 2 diabetes, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The major purpose of this study was to test hypothesize that prophylactic removal of epididymal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) prevents obesity-induced multi-organ (liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue) insulin resistance. Accordingly, we surgically removed epididymal VAT pads from adult C57BL/6J mice and evaluated in vivo and cellular metabolic pathways involved in glucose and lipid metabolism following chronic high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Read More

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Side effects of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: A randomized, cross-sectional study with detailed self-reported symptoms from healthcare workers.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Internal Medicine, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Introduction: Concerns are prevailing about the safety and side effects from BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.

Methods: A randomized, cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the side effects of BNT162b2 vaccine using an independent online questionnaire gathering responses from healthcare workers (HCWs) with detailed review of organ systems.

Results: Of all HCWs, 87. Read More

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Randomized trial comparing efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training with a digital therapeutic motion-based device to standard pelvic floor exercises for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUV trial): An all-virtual trial design.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Apr 15:106406. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Birmingham, AL, United States of America.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of an Intravaginal Motion-Based Digital Health System (PDHS) compared to standardized Pelvic Floor Muscle Training (PFMT) for the treatment of stress or stress-predominant urinary incontinence (SUI).

Methods: This is a virtually conducted prospective randomized controlled trial. The primary outcomes are change in urinary incontinence episodes by 3-day bladder diary and change in Urogenital Distress Inventory-6 score, measured at 8 weeks. Read More

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Recovery of physical function in lung transplant recipients with sarcopenia.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Apr 16;21(1):124. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Background: Lung transplant (LTX) can provide a survival benefit and improve physical function for selected patients with advanced pulmonary disease. Sarcopenia is a systemic muscle-failure that can be found in a variety of life stages and disabilities. In this study, we follow the evolution of each variable defined in sarcopenia and the outcomes in LTX recipients with post-transplant sarcopenia. Read More

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Skeletal Muscle Changes, Function, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Survivors of Pediatric Critical Illness.

Crit Care Med 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

1 Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. 2 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore. 3 Children's Intensive Care Unit, KK Women's Children's Hospital, Singapore. 4 Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore. 5 Clinical Nutrition Research Center, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore. 6 Department of Endocrinology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. 7 Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. 8 William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom. 9 Adult Critical Care Unit, Royal London Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To describe functional and skeletal muscle changes observed during pediatric critical illness and recovery and their association with health-related quality of life.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Single multidisciplinary PICU. Read More

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A soft elastomer alternative to polypropylene for pelvic organ prolapse repair: a preliminary study.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Introduction And Hypothesis: We compared the impact of a mesh manufactured from the soft elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to that of a widely used lightweight polypropylene (PP) mesh. To achieve a similar overall device stiffness between meshes, the PDMS mesh was made with more material and therefore was heavier and less porous. We hypothesized that the soft polymer PDMS mesh, despite having more material, would have a similar impact on the vagina as the PP mesh. Read More

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Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy in association with primary Sjögren's syndrome: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2021 Apr 15;21(1):161. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.

Background: Primary Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic, autoimmune, connective tissue disorder that results from the infiltration of exocrine glands, especially the lacrimal and salivary glands, by autoantibodies. Patients with Sjögren's syndrome commonly present with dry eyes (xerophthalmia) and dry mouth (xerostomia). However, the clinical manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome can be complicated and variable due to involvement of extraglandular organ systems, such as the nervous system. Read More

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Functionalizing biomaterials to promote neurovascular regeneration following skeletal muscle injury.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212; Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, Columbia, MO 65211, United States.

During embryogenesis, blood vessels and nerves develop with similar branching structure in response to shared signaling pathways guiding network growth. With both systems integral to physiological homeostasis, dual targeting of blood vessels and nerves to promote neurovascular regeneration following injury is an emerging therapeutic approach in biomedical engineering. A limitation to this strategy is that the nature of crosstalk between emergent vessels and nerves during regeneration in the adult is poorly understood. Read More

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Evaluation of licofelone as an adjunct anti-inflammatory therapy to biologic scaffolds in the treatment of volumetric muscle loss.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

DoD-VA Extremity Trauma and Amputation Center of Excellence, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Biologic scaffolds (BS) are the most widely studied therapeutics for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss (VML) owing to their purported effects on cell proliferation, chemotaxis, migration, and differentiation. Despite these claims, variability in reports on the nature of the immune response to their implantation suggests that BS-associated inflammation may be limiting their regenerative efficacy. To address this shortcoming, this study sought to evaluate licofelone (ML3000), a dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitor, as an anti-inflammatory adjunct therapy to a BS in the treatment of VML. Read More

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Short-term effects of delivery methods on postpartum pelvic floor function in primiparas: a retrospective study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar;10(3):3386-3395

Department of Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Background: The present study sought to investigate the short-term effects of different delivery methods on postpartum pelvic floor function in Chinese primiparas.

Methods: Primiparous women who delivered a full-term, cephalic, singleton infant at our hospital between January 1, 2018 and August 15, 2019 were recruited into this study. All women underwent pelvic floor function screening at 6-8 weeks postpartum. Read More

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The effect of pessary treatment on puborectalis muscle function.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Reproductive Medicine and Gynecology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Introduction And Hypothesis: The objective was to assess if puborectalis muscle (PRM) function changes in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) undergoing pessary treatment.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of women with symptomatic POP choosing pessary treatment. An interview, clinical examination and 3D/4D transperineal ultrasound were performed at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Read More

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Rehabilitation in the treatment of mandibular condyle fractures.

Dent Med Probl 2021 Jan-Mar;58(1):89-96

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Pomeranian Medical University of Szczecin, Poland.

Background: The objective of rehabilitation after the treatment of a mandibular condyle fracture is to retrieve the effortless, symmetrical opening of the jaws with the preservation of appropriate movements to the sides, and appropriate occlusion without a sense of tension in the mastication muscles or pain sensations.

Objectives: The aim of the article was to establish the conditions of the rehabilitation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) after the surgical treatment of a fractured condyle.

Material And Methods: The research featured 46 of patients treated surgically between January 2, 2017 and December 30, 2017. Read More

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The landscape of molecular chaperones across human tissues reveals a layered architecture of core and variable chaperones.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2180. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology and the National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

The sensitivity of the protein-folding environment to chaperone disruption can be highly tissue-specific. Yet, the organization of the chaperone system across physiological human tissues has received little attention. Through computational analyses of large-scale tissue transcriptomes, we unveil that the chaperone system is composed of core elements that are uniformly expressed across tissues, and variable elements that are differentially expressed to fit with tissue-specific requirements. Read More

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Protective effects of farnesyltransferase inhibitor on sepsis-induced morphological aberrations of mitochondria in muscle and increased circulating mitochondrial DNA levels in mice.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 9;556:93-98. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, 02129, USA; Shriners Hospitals for Children, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Sepsis remains a leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients and is characterized by multi-organ dysfunction. Mitochondrial damage has been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of sepsis. In addition to metabolic impairments resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) causes systemic inflammation as a damage-associated molecular pattern when it is released to the circulation. Read More

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Expert Perspective: Management of refractory inflammatory myopathy.

Authors:
Ingrid E Undberg

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.

The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are chronic disorders characterized by inflammation in skeletal muscle but also in other organs like the skin, lungs, joints, gastro-intestinal tract and the heart. The effect of immunosuppressive treatment varies between individual patients and between organ manifestations within the same individual. Many patients respond poorly to first line treatment with glucocorticoids and another immunosuppressive agent such as methotrexate or azathioprine, with persistent symptoms from muscles, skin and lungs thus becoming refractory. Read More

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Epidemiology of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies in Africa: A Contemporary Systematic Review.

J Clin Rheumatol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

From the Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Yaoundé, Cameroon Centre for Heart Rhythm Disorders, University of Adelaide and Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia Rheumatology Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, CHRU Lille, Referral Centre for rare systemic autoimmune diseases North and Northwest of France, Univ. Lille, INSERM U995, LIRIC-Lille Inflammation Research International Centre, Lille, France.

Background: The epidemiology of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) has been extensively studied in America, Europe, and Asia, but remains unclear in Africa.

Objective: The aim of this review was to summarize available data on the epidemiology of IIMs in Africa.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and African Journals Online for studies published up to December 30, 2020, and reporting epidemiological data on IIMs in Africa. Read More

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Inhibition of CXCR4 ameliorates hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1458-1470. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China.

Pulmonary vascular remodeling due to aberrant proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is the main characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). CXCR4 is a specific stem cell surface receptor of cytokine CXCL12 which could regulate homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells and their mobilization. There is evidence that bone marrow-derived CXCR4 proangiogenic cell accumulation take an important part in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms still remain unknown. Read More

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Aging features of the migratory locust at physiological and transcriptional levels.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 10;22(1):257. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Background: Non-Drosophila insects provide diverse aging types and important complementary systems for studies of aging biology. However, little attention has been paid to the special roles of non-Drosophila insects in aging research. Here, the aging-related features of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, were determined at the physiological, cellular, and transcriptional levels. Read More

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The Activation of Prosurvival Pathways in during Torpor.

Physiol Biochem Zool 2021 May-Jun;94(3):180-187

AbstractHibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive harsh winter conditions. Many small mammals, such as the little brown bat, , enter a long-term state of hibernation characterized by a period of deep torpor that can range from days to weeks. Torpid bats undergo metabolic rate depression that not only results in physiological changes but also promotes biochemical changes that favor survival. Read More

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Cell-autonomous defects contribute to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Insulin resistance is a major factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the first organ to exhibit insulin resistance, which precedes onset of type 2 diabetes and may be predictive of the disease (1). Despite the fact that skeletal muscle insulin resistance is clearly involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, it has been unclear whether the underlying mechanism crucially involves defects in cell-autonomous signaling or alterations in blood lipids, hormones, and other systemic changes that modulate insulin action in type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Characteristics of pelvic organ prolapse content available on social media.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Urology, Division of Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Aims: To analyze the quality, understandability, and actionability of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) content and to characterize creators of content and treatment options discussed on social media platforms YouTube, Instagram, and Pinterest.

Methods: A cross-sectional, qualitative study was conducted for each platform. A search for "pelvic organ prolapse" was conducted and the first 100 relevant results analyzed. Read More

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Metabolic complications of hepatitis C virus infection.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(13):1267-1282

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Preston PR2 9HT, United Kingdom.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a systemic disease that is implicated in multiple extrahepatic organ dysfunction contributing to its protean manifestations. HCV is associated with diverse extrahepatic disorders including atherosclerosis, glucose and lipid metabolic disturbances, alterations in the iron metabolic pathways, and lymphoproliferative diseases over and above the traditional liver manifestations of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The orchestration between HCV major proteins and the liver-muscle-adipose axis, poses a major burden on the global health of human body organs, if not adequately addressed. Read More

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