Metabolism 2021 Sep 23:154892. Epub 2021 Sep 23.
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research, Partner Düsseldorf, München-Neuherberg, Germany; Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:
Insulin resistance is a common feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but novel approaches of diabetes subtyping (clustering) revealed variable degrees of insulin resistance in people with diabetes. Specifically, the severe insulin resistant diabetes (SIRD) subtype not only exhibits metabolic abnormalities, but also bears a higher risk for cardiovascular, renal and hepatic comorbidities. In humans, insulin resistance comprises dysfunctional adipose tissue, lipotoxic insulin signaling followed by glucotoxicity, oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation. Read More