837,178 results match your criteria muscle function


Five-Session Dual-Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation With Task-Specific Training Does Not Improve Gait and Lower Limb Performance Over Training Alone in Subacute Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

Neuromodulation 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Neuro Electrical Stimulation laboratory (NeuE), Faculty of Physical Therapy, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

Objective: To determine the effect of five-session dual-transcranial direct current stimulation (dual-tDCS) combined with task-specific training on gait and lower limb motor performance in individuals with subacute stroke.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-five participants who had a stroke in the subacute phase with mild motor impairment were recruited, randomized, and allocated into two groups. The active group (n = 13) received dual-tDCS with anodal over the lesioned hemisphere M1 and cathodal over the nonlesioned hemisphere, at 2 mA for 20 min before training for five consecutive days, while the sham group (n = 12) received sham mode before training. Read More

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September 2021

The Importance of Muscle Capillarization for Optimizing Satellite Cell Plasticity.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2021 Oct;49(4):284-290

Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Satellite cells are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration, repair, and adaptation. The activity of satellite cells is influenced by their interactions with muscle-resident endothelial cells. We postulate that the microvascular network between muscle fibers plays a critical role in satellite cell function. Read More

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October 2021

Bioenergetic Mechanisms Linking V˙O2 Kinetics and Exercise Tolerance.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2021 Oct;49(4):274-283

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences & Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

We hypothesize that the V˙O2 time constant (τV˙O2) determines exercise tolerance by defining the power output associated with a "critical threshold" of intramuscular metabolite accumulation (e.g., inorganic phosphate), above which muscle fatigue and work inefficiency are apparent. Read More

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October 2021

COVID-eVax, an electroporated plasmid DNA vaccine candidate encoding the SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain, elicits protective immune responses in animal models of COVID-19.

Mol Ther 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has made the development of safe and effective vaccines a critical priority. To date, four vaccines have been approved by European and American authorities for preventing COVID-19 but the development of additional vaccine platforms with improved supply and logistics profiles remains a pressing need. Here we report the preclinical evaluation of a novel COVID-19 vaccine candidate based on the electroporation of engineered, synthetic cDNA encoding a viral antigen in the skeletal muscle. Read More

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September 2021

Differential analysis of chromatin accessibility and gene expression profiles identifies cis-regulatory elements in rat adipose and muscle.

Genomics 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Neurology, Center for Advanced Research on Diagnostic Assays, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Chromatin accessibility is a key factor influencing gene expression. We optimized the Omni-ATAC-seq protocol and used it together with RNA-seq to investigate cis-regulatory elements in rat white adipose and skeletal muscle, two tissues with contrasting metabolic functions. While promoter accessibility correlated with RNA expression, integration of the two datasets identified tissue-specific differentially accessible regions (DARs) that predominantly localized in intergenic and intron regions. Read More

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September 2021

Dry needling for the treatment of muscle spasticity in a patient with multiple sclerosis: a case report.

Physiother Theory Pract 2021 Sep 21:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Research Center for War-Affected People, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Spasticity is a common cause of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), which can negatively affect the patient's walking and balance.

Objective: To evaluate the immediate effect of dry needling (DN) on spasticity and mobility in a female with MS.

Case Description: In this case, a 38-year-old female with a 4-year history of MS was treated. Read More

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September 2021

The miR-182/Myadm axis regulates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by balancing the BMP- and TGF-β-signalling pathways in an SMC/EC-crosstalk-associated manner.

Basic Res Cardiol 2021 Sep 21;116(1):53. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing, 100050, China.

We recently identified oncologic miR-182 as a new regulator of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) that targets myeloid-associated differentiation marker (Myadm), which is expressed in bone marrow stem cells and multipotent progenitors. Both miR-182 and Myadm are expressed in the cardiopulmonary system and correlated with the balance between the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling pathways, which are disturbed in PAH. We hypothesize that miR-182/Myadm are involved in BMP-TGF-β-signalling way in PAH. Read More

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September 2021

In Vitro Selection of Short DNA Aptamers that Can Inhibit or Alleviate Cocaine and MK-801 Inhibition of Muscle-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

J Membr Biol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, 216 Biotechnology Building, Ithaca, NY, 14853-2703, USA.

Ligands of high specificity and selectivity have been selected for biological molecules of interest including nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) using combinatorial libraries of nucleic acids. The nAChR belongs to a group of structurally related proteins that regulate signal transmission between ~ 10 cells of the mammalian nervous system. It is inhibited by both therapeutic agents and abused drugs, including cocaine. Read More

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September 2021

Neuroligin-1 is a mediator of methylmercury neuromuscular toxicity.

Toxicol Sci 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental toxicant capable of eliciting neurocognitive and neuromuscular deficits in children with in utero exposure. Previous research in Drosophila melanogaster uncovered that developmental MeHg exposure simultaneously targets the developing musculature and innervating motor neuron in the embryo, along with identifying Drosophila neuroligin 1 (nlg1) as a gene associated with developmental MeHg sensitivity. Nlg1 and its transsynaptic partner neurexin 1 (Nrx1) are critical for axonal arborization and NMJ maturation. Read More

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September 2021

Implication of folate deficiency in CYP2U1 loss of function.

J Exp Med 2021 Nov 21;218(11). Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pierre Bénite, France.

Hereditary spastic paraplegias are heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders. Understanding of their pathogenic mechanisms remains sparse, and therapeutic options are lacking. We characterized a mouse model lacking the Cyp2u1 gene, loss of which is known to be involved in a complex form of these diseases in humans. Read More

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November 2021

The distinct role of the four voltage sensors of the skeletal CaV1.1 channel in voltage-dependent activation.

J Gen Physiol 2021 Nov 21;153(11). Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Initiation of skeletal muscle contraction is triggered by rapid activation of RYR1 channels in response to sarcolemmal depolarization. RYR1 is intracellular and has no voltage-sensing structures, but it is coupled with the voltage-sensing apparatus of CaV1.1 channels to inherit voltage sensitivity. Read More

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November 2021

Characteristics of the athlete's heart in aged hypertensive and normotensive subjects.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Family Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: Both hypertension and age-related impairment of the cardiac condition are known to be improved by regular physical training. As relatively few studies have been reported about the older, hypertensive patients, the aim of this study was to establish cardiac benefits of active lifestyle in these subjects.

Methods: Two-dimensionally guided M-mode, Doppler- and tissue Doppler echocardiography was performed in 199 normo- and hypertensive, active and sedentary older (age>60 yrs. Read More

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September 2021

Muscle Function Loss and Gain of Body Weight during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Elderly Women: Effects of One Year of Lockdown.

J Nutr Health Aging 2021 ;25(8):1028-1029

Gustavo Duarte Pimentel, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, 74605-080, Brasil. E-mail: Phone: +55 62 32096270.

Objective: This study aimed to screen for a one year Brazilian elderly women who were physically active before of COVID-19 pandemic-induced lockdown and to assess the consequences of physical inactivity on body weight and muscle function loss.

Measurements: A cohort study of one-year was conducted with twenty-nine physically active elderly (65.5±5. Read More

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January 2021

Plant-Based Dietary Patterns, Body Composition, Muscle Strength and Function in Middle and Older Age: A Systematic Review.

J Nutr Health Aging 2021 ;25(8):1012-1022

Hilaria Hin Lam Chan, The University of Sydney, Australia,

Background: Sarcopenia is prevalent in middle-aged and older adults. A plant-based diet may be linked to changes in body composition and musculoskeletal health.

Objective: This systematic review aimed to investigate the effects of plant-based dietary patterns on the body composition, muscle strength and function in middle-aged and older adults. Read More

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January 2021

Muscle Assessment by Ultrasonography: Agreement with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and Relationship with Physical Performance.

J Nutr Health Aging 2021 ;25(8):956-963

Miguel A. Vázquez Ronda, Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofia, Spain,

Background: Different methods have been proposed to study skeletal muscle mass in sarcopenia diagnosis, although all have inherent drawbacks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of muscle ultrasound in muscle assessment by studying its correlation with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and calf circumference (CC), cut-off values for ultrasound-based detection of low muscle mass, and the correlation with muscle performance.

Methods: Fifty-seven participants older than 70 years, underwent a muscle ultrasound study, DXA, calf circumference (CC) and functional assessment. Read More

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January 2021

Sex differences in skeletal muscle revealed through fiber type, capillarity, and transcriptomics profiling in mice.

Physiol Rep 2021 Sep;9(18):e15031

Department of Surgery, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California, USA.

Skeletal muscle anatomy and physiology are sexually dimorphic but molecular underpinnings and muscle-specificity are not well-established. Variances in metabolic health, fitness level, sedentary behavior, genetics, and age make it difficult to discern inherent sex effects in humans. Therefore, mice under well-controlled conditions were used to determine female and male (n = 19/sex) skeletal muscle fiber type/size and capillarity in superficial and deep gastrocnemius (GA-s, GA-d), soleus (SOL), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and plantaris (PLT), and transcriptome patterns were also determined (GA, SOL). Read More

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September 2021

Deep learning methods for automatic segmentation of lower leg muscles and bones from MRI scans of children with and without cerebral palsy.

NMR Biomed 2021 Sep 21:e4609. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Cerebral palsy is a neurological condition that is known to affect muscle growth. Detailed investigations of muscle growth require segmentation of muscles from MRI scans, which is typically done manually. In this study, we evaluated the performance of 2D, 3D, and hybrid deep learning models for automatic segmentation of 11 lower leg muscles and two bones from MRI scans of children with and without cerebral palsy. Read More

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September 2021

4D imaging of fetal right ventricle-feasibility study and a review of the literature.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Perinatal Cardiology and Congenital Anomalies, The Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland.

Functional analysis of the fetal cardiovascular system is crucial for the assessment of fetal condition. Evaluation of the right ventricle with standard 2D echocardiography is challenging due to its complex geometry and irregular muscle fibers arrangement. Software package TOMTEC 4D RV-Function is an analysis tool which allows assessment of right ventricular function based on volumetric measurements and myocardial deformation. Read More

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September 2021

Olfactory receptor Olfr78 (prostate-specific G protein-coupled receptor PSGR) expression in arterioles supplying skeletal and cardiac muscles and in arterioles feeding some murine organs.

Histochem Cell Biol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Excellence Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary Institute, German Center for Lung Research, Justus Liebig University, Aulweg 123, 35385, Giessen, Germany.

The olfactory receptor Olfr78 (prostate-specific G protein-coupled receptor PSGR) is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family mediating olfactory chemosensation, but it is additionally expressed in other tissues. Olfr78 expressed in kidney participates in blood pressure regulation, and in prostate it plays a role in the development of cancer. We here screened many organs/tissues of transgenic mice co-expressing β-galactosidase with Olfr78. Read More

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September 2021

Daily activity in minimal footwear increases foot strength.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 20;11(1):18648. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Musculoskeletal and Ageing Science, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

The human foot is uniquely adapted to bipedal locomotion and has a deformable arch of variable stiffness. Intrinsic foot muscles regulate arch deformation, making them important for foot function. In this study we explore the hypothesis that normal daily activity in minimal footwear, which provides little or no support, increases foot muscle strength. Read More

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September 2021

Brain stimulation in zero gravity: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor threshold decreases during zero gravity induced by parabolic flight.

NPJ Microgravity 2020 Sep 21;6(1):26. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.

We are just beginning to understand how spaceflight may impact brain function. As NASA proceeds with plans to send astronauts to the Moon and commercial space travel interest increases, it is critical to understand how the human brain and peripheral nervous system respond to zero gravity. Here, we developed and refined head-worn transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) systems capable of reliably and quickly determining the amount of electromagnetism each individual needs to detect electromyographic (EMG) threshold levels in the thumb (called the resting motor threshold (rMT)). Read More

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September 2020

An Electromyographically Driven Cervical Spine Model in OpenSim.

J Appl Biomech 2021 Sep 20:1-13. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

University of Waterloo.

Relatively few biomechanical models exist aimed at quantifying the mechanical risk factors associated with neck pain. In addition, there is a need to validate spinal-rhythm techniques for inverse dynamics spine models. Therefore, the present investigation was 3-fold: (1) the development of a cervical spine model in OpenSim, (2) a test of a novel spinal-rhythm technique based on minimizing the potential energy in the passive tissues, and (3) comparison of an electromyographically driven approach to estimating compression and shear to other cervical spine models. Read More

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September 2021

Juvenile hormone signaling promotes ovulation and maintains egg shape by inducing expression of extracellular matrix genes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(39)

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental Biology and Applied Technology, Institute of Insect Science and Technology and School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China;

It is well documented that the juvenile hormone (JH) can function as a gonadotropic hormone that stimulates vitellogenesis by activating the production and uptake of vitellogenin in insects. Here, we describe a phenotype associated with mutations in the JH receptor genes, and : the accumulation of mature eggs with reduced egg length in the ovary. JH signaling is mainly activated in ovarian muscle cells and induces gene expression in these cells. Read More

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September 2021

COVID-19 is associated with distinct myopathic features in the diaphragm of critically ill patients.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2021 Sep;8(1)

Department of Physiology, Amsterdam UMC Locatie VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Introduction: The diaphragm is the main muscle of inspiration, and its dysfunction contributes to adverse clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. We recently reported the infiltration of SARS-CoV-2, and the development of fibrosis, in the diaphragm of critically ill patients with COVID-19. In the current study, we aimed to characterise myofiber structure in the diaphragm of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Read More

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September 2021

A comparison of acute mouse hindlimb injuries between tourniquet- and femoral artery ligation-induced ischemia-reperfusion.

Injury 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5850, USA; Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA. Electronic address:

The tourniquet or femoral artery ligation is widely used to stop extremity hemorrhage or create a bloodless operating field in the combat scenario and civilian setting. However, these procedures with subsequent reperfusion also induce ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries. To fully evaluate animal models of limb IR injuries, we compared tourniquet- and femoral artery ligation-induced IR injuries in the hindlimb of mice. Read More

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September 2021

Fli1 Promotes Vascular Morphogenesis by Regulating Endothelial Potential of Multipotent Myogenic Progenitors.

Circ Res 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, UNITED STATES.

Fetal growth and survival depend critically on proper development and integrity of the vascular system. Fli1 (Friend leukemia integration 1), a member of the Ets family of transcription factors, plays critical roles in vascular morphogenesis and homeostasis at mid-gestation, the developmental stage at which expression of its upstream regulator, Etv2, ceases. However, molecular mechanisms of Fli1 action in vascular morphogenesis remain incompletely understood. Read More

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September 2021

Use of weak DC electric fields to rapidly align mammalian cells.

J Neural Eng 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, 408 S. University St., West Lafayette, Indiana, 47907-2050, UNITED STATES.

Objective: The ability to modulate cell morphology has clinical relevance in regenerative biology. For example, cells of the skeletal muscle, peripheral nerve and the vasculature have specific oriented architectures that emerge from the unique structure-function relationship within these tissues. Methods that can induce similar cell morphologies in vitro can be of use in the development of biomimetic constructs for the repair or replacement of damaged tissues. Read More

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September 2021

Comparisons of muscle thicknesses, echo intensities, and motor functions between community-dwelling older Japanese adults with and without diabetes.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Sep 6;97:104516. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Individuals with diabetes tend to show decreased muscle volume and motor function compared to those without diabetes. Ultrasound is a non-invasive and potentially safe method to assess muscle function in patients with diabetes; however, the characteristics of muscle thickness and quality, measured by ultrasound, in individuals with diabetes are unclear.

Methods: This study included 825 community-dwelling older individuals who underwent the Otassha Study comprehensive health survey. Read More

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September 2021

Reboxetine plus Oxybutynin for Obstructed Sleep Apnea Treatment A 1-week Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-Blind Crossover Trial.

Chest 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, Sleep Disorders Center & Department of Cardiovascular, Neural and Metabolic Sciences, San Luca Hospital, Milan, Italy; Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Background: The recent discovery that a combination of noradrenergic and antimuscarinic drugs improved upper airway muscle function during sleep and reduced obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity has revitalized interest in pharmacological therapies for OSA.

Research Question: Would 1-week of reboxetine plus oxybutynin be effective on OSA severity?

Study Design And Methods: We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial comparing 4 mg reboxetine plus 5 mg oxybutynin (reb-oxy) to placebo in OSA subjects. After a baseline in-lab polysomnogram (PSG), patients performed PSGs after 7 nights of reb-oxy and 7 nights of placebo to compare apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, primary outcome). Read More

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September 2021

The improvement in body composition including subcutaneous and visceral fat reduces ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

Liver Int 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Sarcopenia and myosteatosis have been associated to a poor prognosis of cirrhosis and to a higher incidence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The prognostic implications of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity are less known.

Aim: to evaluate the modifications of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue after TIPS and to investigate their relationships with the modification of muscle mass and with the incidence of post-TIPS HE. Read More

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September 2021