17,057 results match your criteria muscle fibres

Headache from clinically confirmed hemicrania continua arising from the sternocleidomastoid muscle: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2021 May 3;21(1):184. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: A patient with a history of cluster headaches, now in remission, presented with confirmed hemicrania continua that resolved with a local anaesthetic injection into the Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia arising from a soft tissue source in the neck.

Case Presentation: A 66-year-old man with a history of cluster headaches presented with a six-month history of a new constant right-sided headache. Read More

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C-bouton components on rat extensor digitorum longus motoneurons are resistant to chronic functional overload.

J Anat 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neuromuscular Diseases, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Mammalian motor systems adapt to the demands of their environment. For example, muscle fibre types change in response to increased load or endurance demands. However, for adaptations to be effective, motoneurons must adapt such that their properties match those of the innervated muscle fibres. Read More

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Congenital asymmetric distal myopathy with hemifacial weakness caused by a heterozygous large de novo mosaic deletion in nebulin.

Neuromuscul Disord 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Medical Genetics, Medicum, University of Helsinki, Finland.

We report the first mosaic mutation, a deletion of exons 11-107, identified in the nebulin gene in a Finnish patient presenting with a predominantly distal congenital myopathy and asymmetric muscle weakness. The female patient is ambulant and currently 26 years old. Muscle biopsies showed myopathic features with type 1 fibre predominance, strikingly hypotrophic type 2 fibres and central nuclei, but no nemaline bodies. Read More

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Exercise Training-Induced Extracellular Matrix Protein Adaptation in Locomotor Muscles: A Systematic Review.

Cells 2021 Apr 26;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.

Exercise training promotes muscle adaptation and remodelling by balancing the processes of anabolism and catabolism; however, the mechanisms by which exercise delays accelerated muscle wasting are not fully understood. Intramuscular extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are essential to tissue structure and function, as they create a responsive environment for the survival and repair of the muscle fibres. However, their role in muscle adaptation is underappreciated and underinvestigated. Read More

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Neuromuscular junction instability and altered intracellular calcium handling as early determinants of force loss during unloading in humans.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, 35131, Italy.

Key Points: Few days of unloading are sufficient to induce a decline of skeletal muscle mass and function; notably, contractile force is lost at a faster rate than mass. The reasons behind this disproportionate loss of muscle force are still poorly understood. We provide strong evidence of two mechanisms only hypothesized until now for the rapid muscle force loss in only 10 days of bed rest. Read More

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Respiratory muscle function in the newborn: a narrative review.

Pediatr Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.

Our aim was to summarise the current evidence and methods used to assess respiratory muscle function in the newborn, focusing on current and future potential clinical applications. The respiratory muscles undertake the work of breathing and consist mainly of the diaphragm, which in the newborn is prone to dysfunction due to lower muscle mass, flattened shape and decreased content of fatigue-resistant muscle fibres. Premature infants are prone to diaphragmatic dysfunction due to limited reserves and limited capacity to generate force and avoid fatigue. Read More

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Effects of Triangle Grass Decoction on Bone Metabolism in Rats with Chronic Kidney Disease Complicated with Mineral and Bone Abnormalities.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 16:114126. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhongshan 528400, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Triangle grass is a liliaceous Chlorophytum perennial herb of ChlorophytumlaxumR.Br. It is distributed mainly in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces of China. Read More

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Disseminated Cysticercosis.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2021 24;8(3):002430. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Serviço de Medicina Interna - Hospital Sousa Martins, ULS Guarda, Portugal.

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by larval cysts of the tapeworm . It is highly prevalent in rural areas of developing countries with poor sanitary conditions. We report a rare case of extensive disseminated cysticercosis in a 98-year-old woman who was brought to the emergency department following a fall. Read More

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A novel nonsense variant in MT-CO3 causes MELAS syndrome.

Neuromuscul Disord 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Research Institute of Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases and Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, No. 107 West Wenhua Road Jinan, Jinan, Shandong 250012 China; Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong 266035 China; Mitochondrial Medicine Laboratory, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong 266035 China; Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250000, China. Electronic address:

Both mitochondrial and nuclear gene mutations can cause cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex Ⅳ) dysfunction, leading to mitochondrial diseases. Although numerous diseases caused by defects of the COX subunits or COX assembly factors have been documented, clinical cases directly related to mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 gene (MT-CO3) mutations are relatively rare. Here, we report a 47-year-old female patient presented with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome. Read More

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Rate of force development is Ca-dependent and influenced by Ca-sensitivity in human single muscle fibres from older adults.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 14;150:111348. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, College of Biological Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Natural adult aging is associated with declines in skeletal muscle performance, including impaired Ca sensitivity and a slowing of rapid force production (rate of force redevelopment; k). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between impaired Ca sensitivity and k of single muscle fibres from young and older adults. Participants included 8 young (22-35 yrs) and 8 older (60-81 yrs) males who were living independently. Read More

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Rules of nature's Formula Run: Muscle mechanics during late stance is the key to explaining maximum running speed.

J Theor Biol 2021 Apr 13:110714. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Computational Biophysics and Biorobotics, Institute for Modelling and Simulation of Biomechanical Systems, Universität Stuttgart, Nobelstraße 15, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany; Stuttgart Center for Simulation Science (SC SimTech), Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 5a, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

The maximum running speed of legged animals is one evident factor for evolutionary selection-for predators and prey. Therefore, it has been studied across the entire size range of animals, from the smallest mites to the largest elephants, and even beyond to extinct dinosaurs. A recent analysis of the relation between animal mass (size) and maximum running speed showed that there seems to be an optimal range of body masses in which the highest terrestrial running speeds occur. Read More

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Metalloelastase-12 is involved in the temporomandibular joint inflammatory response as well as cartilage degradation by aggrecanases in STR/Ort mice.

Biomed Rep 2021 Jun 1;14(6):51. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8640, Japan.

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) is characterised by clinical symptoms involving both the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Disc internal derangement and osteoarthritis (OA) are the most common forms of TMJD. Currently, the molecular process associated with degenerative changes in the TMJ is unclear. Read More

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Biallelic variants in LIG3 cause a novel mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy.

Brain 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, 611-0011, Japan.

Abnormal gut motility is a feature of several mitochondrial encephalomyopathies, and mutations in genes such as TYMP and POLG, have been linked to these rare diseases. The human genome encodes three DNA ligases, of which only one, ligase III (LIG3), has a mitochondrial splice variant and is crucial for mitochondrial health. We investigated the effect of reduced LIG3 activity and resulting mitochondrial dysfunction in seven patients from three independent families, who showed the common occurrence of gut dysmotility and neurological manifestations reminiscent of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy. Read More

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Evaluation of the efficacy of foam sclerosant after addition of glycerine on human great saphenous vein: histological and immunohistochemical study.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Alexandria University, Egypt.

Introduction: Several treatment modalities have been postulated to improve the efficacy of varicose vein treatment. Addition of glycerine to the sclerosing material has been documented to increase its viscosity and subsequently prolong the duration of stability, in addition to the direct sclerosing effect of glycerine. This histological and immunohistochemical study investigated the efficacy of addition of glycerine 72% to sclerotherapy on the human varicose vein. Read More

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Modification of a Haematoxylin, Eosin, and Natural Saffron Staining Method for The Detection of Connective Tissue.

J Vet Res 2021 Mar 29;65(1):125-130. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Division of Histology and Embryology, Department of Biostructure and Animal Physiology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wrocław, Poland.

Introduction: The aim of our study was to optimise an existing staining procedure: haematoxylin-eosin saffron (HES). The method follows the classical haematoxylin and eosin protocol with the addition of a staining step using natural saffron to better identify the collagen fibres.

Material And Methods: The saffron solution was obtained by dissolving ground saffron stigmas in absolute alcohol. Read More

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Variations in Muscle Activity and Exerted Torque During Temporary Blood Flow Restriction in Healthy Individuals.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 19;9:557761. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute for Modelling and Simulation of Biomechanical Systems, Chair for Continuum Biomechanics and Mechanobiology, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

Recent studies suggest that transitory blood flow restriction (BFR) may improve the outcomes of training from anatomical (hypertrophy) and neural control perspectives. Whilst the chronic consequences of BFR on local metabolism and tissue adaptation have been extensively investigated, its acute effects on motor control are not yet fully understood. In this study, we compared the neuromechanical effects of continuous BFR against non-restricted circulation (atmospheric pressure-AP), during isometric elbow flexions. Read More

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Immune response to dermatomyositis-specific autoantigen, transcriptional intermediary factor 1γ can result in experimental myositis.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Objectives: To investigate whether autoimmunity to transcriptional intermediary factor 1 (TIF1)γ, a ubiquitous nuclear autoantigen for myositis-specific autoantibodies detected in patients with dermatomyositis (DM) is pathogenetic for inflammatory myopathy.

Methods: Wild-type, β-microglobulin-null, perforin-null, Igμ-null and interferon α/β receptor (IFNAR)-null mice were immunised with recombinant human TIF1γ whole protein. A thymidine incorporation assay was performed using lymph node T cells from TIF1γ-immunised mice. Read More

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Triterpenoid Saponins Impact the Immune Recognition of Proteins in Parasitic Nematodes.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 4;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Plant Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland.

The influence of triterpenoid saponins on subcellular morphological changes in the cells of parasitic nematodes remains poorly understood. Our study examines the effect of oleanolic acid glucuronides from marigold () on the possible modification of immunogenic proteins from infective larvae (L3). Our findings indicate that the triterpenoid saponins alter the subcellular morphology of the larvae and prevent recognition of nematode-specific proteins by rabbit immune-IgG. Read More

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Histochemical Characterisation and Gene Expression Analysis of Skeletal Muscles from Maremmana and Aubrac Steers Reared on Grazing and Feedlot Systems.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Agro-ambientali, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

This study aimed to characterise the fibre composition of (TB) and (SM) muscles from 20 Maremmana (MA) and 20 Aubrac (AU) steers, and the effect of grazing activity in comparison with feedlot system. The histochemical method was performed with the m-ATPase method with an acid pre-incubation, thus allowing to distinguish type I, IIA, and IIB fibres. Additionally, on total RNA extracted from SM muscle, the expressions of atp1a1, mt-atp6, and capn1 genes were evaluated, in order to find potential associations with muscle fibre histochemical characteristics. Read More

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Vitamin D Supplementation and Impact on Skeletal Muscle Function in Cell and Animal Models and an Aging Population: What Do We Know So Far?

Nutrients 2021 Mar 28;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Curtin Medical School, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102, Australia.

Aging is associated with impairment in skeletal muscle mass and contractile function, predisposing to fat mass gain, insulin resistance and diabetes. The impact of Vitamin D (VitD) supplementation on skeletal muscle mass and function in older adults is still controversial. The aim of this review was to summarize data from randomized clinical trials, animal dietary intervention and cell studies in order to clarify current knowledge on the effects of VitD on skeletal muscle as reported for these three types of experiments. Read More

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Modelling extracellular matrix and cellular contributions to whole muscle mechanics.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(4):e0249601. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Mathematics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Skeletal muscle tissue has a highly complex and heterogeneous structure comprising several physical length scales. In the simplest model of muscle tissue, it can be represented as a one dimensional nonlinear spring in the direction of muscle fibres. However, at the finest level, muscle tissue includes a complex network of collagen fibres, actin and myosin proteins, and other cellular materials. Read More

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Computational modelling of muscle fibre operating ranges in the hindlimb of a small ground bird (Eudromia elegans), with implications for modelling locomotion in extinct species.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Apr 1;17(4):e1008843. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Structure and Motion Laboratory, Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

The arrangement and physiology of muscle fibres can strongly influence musculoskeletal function and whole-organismal performance. However, experimental investigation of muscle function during in vivo activity is typically limited to relatively few muscles in a given system. Computational models and simulations of the musculoskeletal system can partly overcome these limitations, by exploring the dynamics of muscles, tendons and other tissues in a robust and quantitative fashion. Read More

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Phenotypic features of cancer cachexia-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function: lessons from human and animal studies.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Apr 30;12(2):252-273. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Inter-university Laboratory of Human Movement Biology, Université de Lyon, University Jean Monnet Saint-Etienne, Saint-Étienne, France.

Cancer cachexia is a complex multi-organ catabolic syndrome that reduces mobility, increases fatigue, decreases the efficiency of therapeutic strategies, diminishes the quality of life, and increases the mortality of cancer patients. This review provides an exhaustive and comprehensive analysis of cancer cachexia-related phenotypic changes in skeletal muscle at both the cellular and subcellular levels in human cancer patients, as well as in animal models of cancer cachexia. Cancer cachexia is characterized by a major decrease in skeletal muscle mass in human and animals that depends on the severity of the disease/model and the localization of the tumour. Read More

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Muscle fibre distribution in forelimb, hindlimb and trunk muscles in three bat species: The little Japanese horseshoe, greater horseshoe and Egyptian fruit.

Anat Histol Embryol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of System Physiology, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan.

This study characterised muscle fibres in trunk, forelimb and hindlimb muscles of three bat species: little Japanese horseshoe (Rhinolophus cornutus), greater horseshoe (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) and Egyptian fruit (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Twenty-seven muscles from trunk, forelimb and hindlimb were dissected, weighed and analysed by immunohistochemistry and sodium didecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and determined their cross-sectional areas (CSA). Results showed that Type IIa and Type IIa/x made the highest proportion of total muscle mass. Read More

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Granulomatous interstitial polymyositis and intramuscular neuritis in a dog.

Acta Vet Scand 2021 Mar 30;63(1):14. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ullevålsveien 72, 0454, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Granulomatous myositis is a rare condition in both humans and dogs. In humans it is most frequently related to sarcoidosis, where a concurrent granulomatous neuritis has been reported occasionally. Simultaneous granulomatous myositis and neuritis have been diagnosed previously in dogs (unpublished observations), but have not been studied further. Read More

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Near-fiber electromyography.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Mar 10;132(5):1089-1104. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Describe and evaluate the concepts of near fiber electromyography (NFEMG), the features used, including near fiber motor unit potential (NFMUP) duration and dispersion, which relate to motor unit distal axonal branch and muscle fiber conduction time dispersion, and NFMUP segment jitter, a new measure of the temporal variability of neuromuscular junction transmission (NMJ), and axonal branch and muscle fibre conduction for the near fibres (i.e. NF jitter), and the methods for obtaining their values. Read More

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Carbohydrate improves exercise capacity but does not affect subcellular lipid droplet morphology, AMPK and p53 signalling in human skeletal muscle.

J Physiol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK.

Key Points: Muscle glycogen and intramuscular triglycerides (IMTG, stored in lipid droplets) are important energy substrates during prolonged exercise. Exercise-induced changes in lipid droplet (LD) morphology (i.e. Read More

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Lifelong exercise is associated with more homogeneous motor unit potential features across deep and superficial areas of vastus lateralis.

Geroscience 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Motor unit (MU) expansion enables rescue of denervated muscle fibres helping to ameliorate age-related muscle atrophy, with evidence to suggest master athletes are more successful at this remodelling. Electrophysiological data has suggested MUs located superficially are larger than those located deeper within young muscle. However, the effects of ageing and exercise on MU heterogeneity across deep and superficial aspects of vastus lateralis (VL) remain unclear. Read More

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The structure and musculature of male terminalia in the Palaearctic and Indo-Australian species of the eupitheciine genera Eupithecia Curtis, Gymnoscelis Mabille, and Pasiphila Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae).

Olga Schmidt

Zootaxa 2020 Dec 21;4896(2):zootaxa.4896.2.4. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

SNSB - Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Münchhausenstraße 21, 81247, Munich, Germany.

Eupitheciini is a diverse cosmopolitan tribe of larentiine moths. The structure and musculature of the male terminalia were described in six Palaearctic and Indo-Australian eupitheciine species from the genera Eupithecia Curtis, Gymnoscelis Mabille, and Pasiphila Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae). The tergal flexors of the valvae, muscles m4, running to the medial part of the transtilla or to the membrane dorsad of the transtilla are identified as a potential synapomorphy for the tribe Eupitheciini. Read More

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December 2020