25,266 results match your criteria muscle fiber

Chronic electrical stimulation reduces reliance on anaerobic metabolism in locust jumping muscle.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Apr 5:110954. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308, United States of America.

Chronic electrical stimulation (CES) is a well-documented method for changing mammalian muscle from more fast-twitch to slow-twitch metabolic and contractile profiles. Although both mammalian and insect muscles have many similar anatomical and physiological properties, it is unknown if CES produces similar muscle plasticity changes in insects. To test this idea, we separated Schistocerca americana grasshoppers into two groups (n = 37 to 47): one that was subjected to CES for 180 min each day for five consecutive days and one group that was not. Read More

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Genetic Association of Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism with Milk Production Traits in Italian Mediterranean Buffalo.

Biomed Res Int 2021 18;2021:3653157. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.

gene plays an important role in the activation of various important hormone receptors and transcriptional factors involved in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, fiber-type switching in skeletal muscle, mitochondrial biogenesis, and adipogenesis, regulating the reproduction and proposed as a candidate gene for milk-related traits in cattle. This study identified polymorphisms in the gene in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes and their associations to milk production and quality traits (lactation length, peak milk yield, fat and protein yield, and percentage). As a result, a total of seven SNPs (g. Read More

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MicroRNA-129-5p Inhibited C2C12 Myogenesis and Repressed Slow Fiber Gene Expression in vitro.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Shaanxi Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Shaanxi, Yangling 712100, P. R., China.

The miR-129 family is widely reported as tumor repressors, while, their roles in skeletal muscle have not been fully investigated. Here, the function and mechanism of miR-129-5p in skeletal muscle, a member of the miR-129 family, were explored using C2C12 cell line. Our study shown that miR-129-5p was widely detected in mouse tissues, with the highest expression in skeletal muscle. Read More

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An Exercise Mimetic Approach to Reduce Poststroke Deconditioning and Enhance Stroke Recovery.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2021 Apr 7:15459683211005019. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Evidence supports early rehabilitation after stroke to limit disability. However, stroke survivors are typically sedentary and experience significant cardiovascular and muscular deconditioning. Despite growing consensus that preclinical and clinical stroke recovery research should be aligned, there have been few attempts to incorporate cardiovascular and skeletal muscle deconditioning into animal models of stroke. Read More

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Peripheral nervous system manifestations of rheumatological diseases.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Mar 27:117421. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

University of Virginia, Department of Neurology, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Rheumatological diseases result in immune-mediated injury to not only connective tissue, but often components of the peripheral nervous system. These overlap conditions can be broadly categorized as peripheral neuropathies and overlap myositis. The peripheral neuropathies are distinctive as many have unusual presentations such as non-length-dependent, small fiber neuropathies and sensory neuronopathies (both due to dorsal root ganglia dysfunction), multiple mononeuropathies (e. Read More

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TGF-β2 Promotes Oxidative Stress in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells by Selectively Enhancing NADPH Oxidase 4 Expression.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Apr;62(4)

Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, IL, United States.

Purpose: The multifunctional profibrotic cytokine TGF-β2 is implicated in the pathophysiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). While the underlying cause of POAG remains unclear, TGF-β2 dependent remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) within the trabecular meshwork (TM) microenvironment is considered an early pathologic consequence associated with impaired aqueous humor (AH) outflow and elevated IOP. Mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants have been recently shown by our group to markedly attenuate TGF-β2 profibrotic responses, strongly implicating oxidative stress as a key facilitator of TGF-β2 signaling in human TM cells. Read More

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Does Obesity Affect the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Injury?

J Obes Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Sport Science, College of Life Science and Nano Technology, Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea.

This literature review investigates the effects of obesity on exercise-induced muscle injury and reexamines the potential mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle injury related to obesity. Several studies reported that high body mass index and percent body fat can significantly affect the markers of muscle injury after exercise, including maximal strength, delayed onset muscle soreness, creatinine kinase level, and myoglobin level. The potential mechanisms resulting in these outcomes include structural changes in the cell membrane induced by high fat levels, increased inflammatory responses due to adipose tissues, reduced muscle satellite cell activation and myogenesis due to lipid overload, differences in muscle fiber distributions, and sedentary behaviors. Read More

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Dual motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation improves rehabilitation efficacy and restores skilled locomotor function in a rat cervical contusion injury model.

Exp Neurol 2021 Apr 2:113715. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, Center for Discovery and Innovation, City University of New York School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Neuroscience Program, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Motor recovery after spinal cord injury is limited due to sparse descending pathway axons caudal to the injury. Rehabilitation is the primary treatment for paralysis in humans with SCI, but only produces modest functional recovery. Here, we determined if dual epidural motor cortex (M1) intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) and cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct stimulation (tsDCS) enhances the efficacy of rehabilitation in improving motor function after cervical SCI. Read More

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Accumulation of α-2,6-sialyoglycoproteins in the Muscle Sarcoplasm Due to . Invasion.

Open Life Sci 2019 Jan 18;14:470-481. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Sasinkova 4, 81372 Bratislava, Slovakia.

The sialylation of the glycoproteins in skeletal muscle tissue is not well investigated, even though the essential role of the sialic acids for the proper muscular function has been proven by many researchers. The invasion of the parasitic nematode in the muscles with subsequent formation of Nurse cell-parasite complex initiates increased accumulation of sialylated glycoproteins within the affected area of the muscle fiber. The aim of this study is to describe some details of the α-2,6-sialylation in invaded muscle cells. Read More

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January 2019

Nanofiber-Based Delivery of Bioactive Lipids Promotes Pro-regenerative Inflammation and Enhances Muscle Fiber Growth After Volumetric Muscle Loss.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 19;9:650289. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries after extremity trauma results in an important clinical challenge often associated with impaired healing, significant fibrosis, and long-term pain and functional deficits. While acute muscle injuries typically display a remarkable capacity for regeneration, critically sized VML defects present a dysregulated immune microenvironment which overwhelms innate repair mechanisms leading to chronic inflammation and pro-fibrotic signaling. In this series of studies, we developed an immunomodulatory biomaterial therapy to locally modulate the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling axis and resolve the persistent pro-inflammatory injury niche plaguing a critically sized VML defect. Read More

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The Efficacy of Tocilizumab in the Treatment of Patients with Refractory Immune-Mediated Necrotizing Myopathies: An Open-Label Pilot Study.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:635654. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Rheumatology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

To evaluate the efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) in adult patients with refractory immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies (IMNMs) and investigate possible predictive biomarkers of the response to treatment with TCZ. Patients with refractory IMNM were enrolled in this open-label pilot observational study and received intravenous TCZ treatment. The clinical response was assessed after 6 months of TCZ treatment according to the 2016 American College of Rheumatology-European League Against Rheumatism (ACR-EULAR) response criteria for adult dermatomyositis and polymyositis. Read More

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Effects of metabolizable protein concentration, amino acid profile, and fiber source on the messenger RNA expression of skeletal muscle in peripartum dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster 44691. Electronic address:

After parturition, dairy cows mobilize AA from skeletal muscle to meet metabolizable protein (MP) requirements. High mobilization may compromise cow health and longer-term milk production. Postpartum diets with higher MP concentrations, improved AA profiles, or MP increased at the expense of forages rather than nonforage fiber sources may attenuate muscle catabolism; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible need investigation. Read More

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Muscle transcriptome in mouse models of osteogenesis imperfecta.

Bone 2021 Mar 31;148:115940. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Shriners Hospital for Children-Canada, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable connective tissue disorder that is most often caused by mutations in collagen type I encoding genes. Even though bone fragility is the most conspicuous finding in OI, the muscle system is also affected. In the present study we explored the muscle phenotype related to collagen type I mutations on the transcriptome level. Read More

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Preparation and biological characteristics of a bovine acellular tendon fiber material.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Spine Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Zheng Hospital, Naval Medical Univeristy (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai, China.

Acellular tendon matrix is an ideal substitute for constructing tissue engineering ligaments, but using detergents causes damage to collagen and fibrin during the process of decellularization. In this study, fresh tendons were lyophilized and separated into fresh tendon fiber (FTF) bundles, and then the cellular components in FTF were removed to prepare acellular tendon fiber (ATF) without adding chemical detergent. H&E staining and DAPI fluorescence microscopy showed no nucleus and DNA residue. Read More

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Virtualized clinical studies to assess the natural history and impact of gut microbiome modulation in non-hospitalized patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 a randomized, open-label, prospective study with a parallel group study evaluating the physiologic effects of KB109 on gut microbiota structure and function: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled study.

Trials 2021 Apr 2;22(1):245. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Kaleido Biosciences, Inc, Lexington, MA, USA.

Objectives: These 2 parallel studies (K031 and K032) aim to evaluate the safety of KB109 in addition to supportive self-care (SSC) compared with SSC alone in outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). KB109 is a novel synthetic glycan that was formulated to modulate the gut microbiome composition and metabolic output in order to increase beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the gut. The K031 study is designed to evaluate the safety of KB109 and characterize its impact on the natural progression of COVID-19 in patients with mild to moderate disease. Read More

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Examining Associations of HIV and Iron Status with Nutritional and Inflammatory Status, Anemia, and Dietary Intake in South African Schoolchildren.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 16;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Global Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7505, South Africa.

The etiology of multifactorial morbidities such as undernutrition and anemia in children living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (HIV+) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is poorly understood. Our objective was to examine associations of HIV and iron status with nutritional and inflammatory status, anemia, and dietary intake in school-aged South African children. Using a two-way factorial case-control design, we compared four groups of 8 to 13-year-old South African schoolchildren: (1) HIV+ and low iron stores (inflammation-unadjusted serum ferritin ≤ 40 µg/L), = 43; (2) HIV+ and iron sufficient non-anemic (inflammation-unadjusted serum ferritin > 40 µg/L, hemoglobin ≥ 115 g/L), = 41; (3) children without HIV (HIV-ve) and low iron stores, = 45; and (4) HIV-ve and iron sufficient non-anemic, = 45. Read More

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Characteristics of the Electrophysiological Properties of Neuromuscular Motor Units and Its Adaptive Strategy Response in Lower Extremity Muscles for Seniors with Pre-Sarcopenia: A Preliminary Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 16;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Sports Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Older adults with sarcopenia, which is an aging-related phenomenon of muscle mass loss, usually suffer from decreases in both strength and functional performance. However, the causality between function loss and physiological changes is unclear. This study aimed to explore the motor unit characteristics of the neurological factors between normal subjects and those with sarcopenia. Read More

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Periostin Is Required for the Maintenance of Muscle Fibers during Muscle Regeneration.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 31;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biological Information, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8501, Japan.

Skeletal muscle regeneration is a well-organized process that requires remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we revealed the protective role of periostin, a matricellular protein that binds to several ECM proteins during muscle regeneration. In intact muscle, periostin was localized at the neuromuscular junction, muscle spindle, and myotendinous junction, which are connection sites between muscle fibers and nerves or tendons. Read More

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Nox2 Inhibition Regulates Stress Response and Mitigates Skeletal Muscle Fiber Atrophy during Simulated Microgravity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 23;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Redox Biology & Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Graduate Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Insufficient stress response and elevated oxidative stress can contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy during mechanical unloading (e.g., spaceflight and bedrest). Read More

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Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Abnormalities Associated with Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 4;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

The University of Leicester Ulverscroft Eye Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, RKCSB, PO Box 65, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK.

Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder caused by developmental abnormalities affecting cranial nerves/nuclei innervating the extraocular muscles. Autosomal dominant CFEOM arises from heterozygous missense mutations of or . Although spatiotemporal expression studies have shown KIF21A and TUBB3 expression in developing retinal ganglion cells, it is unclear whether dysinnervation extends beyond the oculomotor system. Read More

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Soft Inductive Coil Spring Strain Sensor Integrated with SMA Spring Bundle Actuator.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;21(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials, Daejeon 34103, Korea.

This study proposes a soft inductive coil spring (SICS) strain sensor that can measure the strain of soft actuators. The SICS sensor, produced by transforming a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire with the same materials as that of an SMA spring bundle actuator (SSBA) into a coil spring shape, measures inductance changes according to length changes. This study also proposes a manufacturing method, output characteristics of the SICS sensor applicable to the SSBA among soft actuators, and the structure of the SICS sensor-integrated SSBA (SI-SSBA). Read More

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Ascorbic Acid Supplementation Improves Skeletal Muscle Growth in Pacu () Juveniles: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 15;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu 18618-689, São Paulo, Brazil.

In fish, fasting leads to loss of muscle mass. This condition triggers oxidative stress, and therefore, antioxidants can be an alternative to muscle recovery. We investigated the effects of antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) on the morphology, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression in the skeletal muscle of pacu () following fasting, using in vitro and in vivo strategies. Read More

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Skeletal Muscle Development in Postnatal Beef Cattle Resulting from Maternal Protein Restriction during Mid-Gestation.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Animal Science, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa MG 3657-000, Brazil.

We aimed to investigate the effects of maternal protein restriction during mid-gestation on the skeletal muscle composition of the offspring. In the restriction treatment (RES, n = 9), cows were fed a basal diet, while in the control (CON, n = 9) group cows received the same RES diet plus the protein supplement during mid-gestation (100-200d). Samples of muscle were collected from the offspring at 30d and 450d postnatal. Read More

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Compound- and fiber type-selective requirement of AMPKγ3 for insulin-independent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

Mol Metab 2021 Mar 30:101228. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Nestlé Research, Société des Produits Nestlé S.A., EPFL Innovation Park, Lausanne, 1015, Switzerland; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2200, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objective: The metabolic master-switch AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates insulin-independent glucose uptake in muscle and regulates the metabolic activity of brown and beige adipose tissue (BAT). The regulatory AMPKγ3 isoform is uniquely expressed in skeletal muscle and also potentially in BAT. Here, we investigated the role that AMPKγ3 plays in mediating skeletal muscle glucose uptake and whole-body glucose clearance in response to small-molecule activators that act on AMPK via distinct mechanisms. Read More

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Establishment of a Novel Mouse Model for Atherosclerotic Vulnerable Plaque.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 16;8:642751. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of clinical syndromes characterized by rupture or erosion of atherosclerotic unstable plaques. Effective intervention for vulnerable plaques (VP) is of great significance to reduce adverse cardiovascular events. Fbn1 mice were crossbred with LDLR mice to obtain a novel model for atherosclerotic VP. Read More

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Collimating micro-lens fiber array for noncontact near-infrared diffuse correlation tomography.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 Mar 17;12(3):1467-1481. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Shanxi Provincial Key Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging and Big Data, North University of China, No. 3 Xueyuan Road, Taiyuan 030051, China.

Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy/tomography (DCS/DCT) has recently emerged as a noninvasive measurement/imaging technology for tissue blood flow. In DCT studies, the high-dense collection of light temporal autocorrelation curves (()) via fiber array are critical for image reconstruction of blood flow. Previously, the camera-based fiber array limits the field of view (FOV), precluding its applications on large-size human tissues. Read More

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Label-free histological imaging of tissues using Brillouin light scattering contrast.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 Mar 17;12(3):1437-1448. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne St., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Brillouin light scattering offers a unique label-free approach to measure biomechanical properties non-invasively. While this technique is used in biomechanical analysis of cells and tissues, its potential for visualizing structural features of tissues based on the biomechanical contrast has not been much exploited. Here, we present high-resolution Brillouin microscopy images of four basic tissue types: muscular, connective, epithelial, and nervous tissues. Read More

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Magnetization Transfer Ratio in Lower Limbs of Late Onset Pompe Patients Correlates With Intramuscular Fat Fraction and Muscle Function Tests.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:634766. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Neuromuscular Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging exploits the interaction between bulk water protons and protons contained in macromolecules to induce signal changes through a special radiofrequency pulse. MT detects muscle damage in patients with neuromuscular conditions, such as limb-girdle muscular dystrophies or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which are characterized by progressive fiber loss and replacement by fatty tissue. In Pompe disease, in which there is, in addition, an accumulation of glycogen inside the muscle fibers, MT has not been tested yet. Read More

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TS-HDS and FGFR3 Antibodies in Small Fiber Neuropathy and Dysautonomia.

Muscle Nerve 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: The specificity of TS-HDS/FGFR3 antibodies in the diagnosis of autoimmune small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is unclear.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients evaluated for SFN and dysautonomia in the Brigham and Women's Faulkner Hospital Autonomic Laboratory in 2019-2020. Associations were assessed between TS-HDS/FGFR3 antibodies and SFN markers including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD), and autonomic dysfunction assessed by Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing, sudomotor, and tilt testing. Read More

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Appendicular Muscle Physiology and Biomechanics in .

Integr Org Biol 2020 5;2(1):obaa038. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Structure and Motion Laboratory, Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hawkshead Lane, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK.

Archosaurian reptiles (including living crocodiles and birds) had an explosive diversification of locomotor form and function since the Triassic approximately 250 million years ago. Their limb muscle physiology and biomechanics are pivotal to our understanding of how their diversity and evolution relate to locomotor function. Muscle contraction velocity, force, and power in extinct archosaurs such as early crocodiles, pterosaurs, or non-avian dinosaurs are not available from fossil material, but are needed for biomechanical modeling and simulation. Read More

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November 2020