462 results match your criteria multitude pathogens

Genetic diversity analysis of Dermacentor nuttalli within Inner Mongolia, China.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Mar 1;14(1):131. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Inner Mongolia Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hohhot, 010000, Inner Mongolia, China.

Background: Ticks (Arthropoda, Ixodida), after mosquitoes, are the second most prevalent vector of infectious diseases. They are responsible for spreading a multitude of pathogens and threatening the health and welfare of animals and human beings. However, given the history of tick-borne pathogen infections in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, surprisingly, neither the genetic diversity nor the spatial distribution of haplotypes within ticks has been studied. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Host Diversity and Potential Transmission Pathways of SARS-CoV-2 at the Human-Animal Interface.

Pathogens 2021 Feb 8;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA.

Emerging infectious diseases present great risks to public health. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become an urgent public health issue of global concern. It is speculated that the virus first emerged through a zoonotic spillover. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Gastrointestinal epithelial innate immunity-regionalization and organoids as new model.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2021 04 4;99(4):517-530. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, Institute for Molecular Infection Biology, Julius Maximilians University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

The human gastrointestinal tract is in constant contact with microbial stimuli. Its barriers have to ensure co-existence with the commensal bacteria, while enabling surveillance of intruding pathogens. At the centre of the interaction lies the epithelial layer, which marks the boundaries of the body. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Seaweed-Based Compounds and Products for Sustainable Protection against Plant Pathogens.

Mar Drugs 2021 Jan 25;19(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Marine Bio-Products Research Laboratory, Department of Plant, Food and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS B2N5E3, Canada.

Sustainable agricultural practices increasingly demand novel, environmentally friendly compounds which induce plant immunity against pathogens. Stimulating plant immunity using seaweed extracts is a highly viable strategy, as these formulations contain many bio-elicitors (phyco-elicitors) which can significantly boost natural plant immunity. Certain bioactive elicitors present in a multitude of extracts of seaweeds (both commercially available and bench-scale laboratory formulations) activate pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) due to their structural similarity (i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Innate Immune Sensing of Viruses and Its Consequences for the Central Nervous System.

Viruses 2021 01 23;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Viral infections remain a global public health concern and cause a severe societal and economic burden. At the organismal level, the innate immune system is essential for the detection of viruses and constitutes the first line of defense. Viral components are sensed by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Predictability of Biotic Stress Structures Plant Defence Evolution.

Trends Ecol Evol 2021 05 16;36(5):444-456. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

To achieve ecological and reproductive success, plants need to mitigate a multitude of stressors. The stressors encountered by plants are highly dynamic but typically vary predictably due to seasonality or correlations among stressors. As plants face physiological and ecological constraints in responses to stress, it can be beneficial for plants to evolve the ability to incorporate predictable patterns of stress in their life histories. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Protein cost allocation explains metabolic strategies in Escherichia coli.

J Biotechnol 2021 Feb 10;327:54-63. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Modeling of Biological Processes, BioQuant/Center for Organismal Studies Heidelberg, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 267, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

In-depth understanding of microbial growth is crucial for the development of new advances in biotechnology and for combating microbial pathogens. Condition-specific proteome expression is central to microbial physiology and growth. A multitude of processes are dependent on the protein expression, thus, whole-cell analysis of microbial metabolism using genome-scale metabolic models is an attractive toolset to investigate the behaviour of microorganisms and their communities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Spontaneous Intramuscular Abscesses Involving the Rotator Cuff Muscles in Two Cases Presenting During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Cureus 2020 Dec 1;12(12):e11833. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Trauma and Orthopaedics, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, GBR.

Spontaneous abscesses involving the rotator cuff muscles are a rare surgical occurrence. Patients with such abscesses are often initially misdiagnosed or there is a significant diagnostic delay. Herein, we report one case of a spontaneous intramuscular abscess involving the subscapularis muscle and a second case of an abscess involving the supraspinatus muscle. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

The Role of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in Bacterial Phytopathogenesis.

Phytopathology 2021 Apr 18;111(4):600-610. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Agricultural Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Bacteria use selective membrane transporting strategies to support cell survival in different environments. Of the membrane transport systems, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to deliver substrate across the cytoplasmic membrane, are the largest and most diverse superfamily. These transporters import nutrients, export molecules, and are required for diverse cell functions, including cell division and morphology, gene regulation, surface motility, chemotaxis, and interspecies competition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Snow mold of winter cereals: a complex disease and a challenge for resistance breeding.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Feb 22;134(2):419-433. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

State Plant Breeding Institute, University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 21, 70599, Stuttgart, Germany.

Key Message: Snow mold resistance is a complex quantitative trait highly affected by environmental conditions during winter that must be addressed by resistance breeding. Snow mold resistance in winter cereals is an important trait for many countries in the Northern Hemisphere. The disease is caused by at least four complexes of soilborne fungi and oomycetes of which Microdochium nivale and M. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Tick-borne diseases and co-infection: Current considerations.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 01 9;12(1):101607. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Solna, Sweden.

Over recent years, a multitude of pathogens have been reported to be tick-borne. Given this, it is unsurprising that these might co-exist within the same tick, however our understanding of the interactions of these agents both within the tick and vertebrate host remains poorly defined. Despite the rich diversity of ticks, relatively few regularly feed on humans, 12 belonging to argasid and 20 ixodid species, and literature on co-infection is only available for a few of these species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Marine Bioactive Compounds against : Challenges and Future Prospects.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Nov 16;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 16.

National Engineering Research Center for Non-Food Biorefinery, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning 530007, Guangxi, China.

With the mortality rate of invasive aspergillosis caused by reaching almost 100% among some groups of patients, and with the rapidly increasing resistance of to available antifungal drugs, new antifungal agents have never been more desirable than now. Numerous bioactive compounds were isolated and characterized from marine resources. However, only a few exhibited a potent activity against when compared to the multitude that did against some other pathogens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Review of otitis media microbiome studies: What do they tell us?

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2020 Oct 21;5(5):936-940. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Children's National Health System Washington District of Columbia USA.

Objectives: To provide a state of the art review on accruing studies focused on defining the middle ear microbiome, highlighting the relationship of the microbiome to disease pathophysiology.

Data Sources: Pubmed indexed peer-reviewed articles and published textbooks.

Review Methods: Comprehensive review of the literature using the following search terms: "microbiome" "bacterial pathogens" with the term "otitis media," and "middle ear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

The Outer Membrane Proteins OmpA, CarO, and OprD of Confer a Two-Pronged Defense in Facilitating Its Success as a Potent Human Pathogen.

Front Microbiol 2020 6;11:589234. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India.

Of all the pathogens, carbapenem-resistant and multidrug-resistant is the leading cause of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. infections are notoriously hard to eradicate due to its propensity to rapidly acquire multitude of resistance determinants and the virulence factor cornucopia elucidated by the bacterium that help it fend off a wide range of adverse conditions imposed upon by host and environment. One such weapon in the arsenal of is the outer membrane protein (OMP) compendium. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Recent progress in nanomaterial-based sensing of airborne viral and bacterial pathogens.

Environ Int 2021 01 25;146:106183. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sector 30 C, Chandigarh 160030, India. Electronic address:

Airborne pathogens are small microbes that can cause a multitude of diseases (e.g., the common cold, flu, asthma, anthrax, tuberculosis, botulism, and pneumonia). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Development of a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against highly pathogenic viruses in human and animal serum samples.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 10 23;14(10):e0008699. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Biosafety Level-4 Laboratory, Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

Surveillance of highly pathogenic viruses circulating in both human and animal populations is crucial to unveil endemic infections and potential zoonotic reservoirs. Monitoring the burden of disease by serological assay could be used as an early warning system for imminent outbreaks as an increased seroprevalance often precedes larger outbreaks. However, the multitude of highly pathogenic viruses necessitates the need to identify specific antibodies against several targets from both humans as well as from potential reservoir animals such as bats. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Conceptualization of the Holobiont Paradigm as It Pertains to Corals.

Front Physiol 2020 23;11:566968. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Physical Sciences and Forensic Science Programs, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, United States.

Corals' obligate association with unicellular dinoflagellates, family Symbiodiniaceae form the foundation of coral reefs. For nearly a century, researchers have delved into understanding the coral-algal mutualism from multiple levels of resolution and perspectives, and the questions and scope have evolved with each iteration of new techniques. Advances in genetic technologies not only aided in distinguishing between the multitude of Symbiodiniaceae but also illuminated the existence and diversity of other organisms constituting the coral microbiome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

The Multivalent Role of Fibronectin-Binding Proteins A and B (FnBPA and FnBPB) of in Host Infections.

Front Microbiol 2020 26;11:2054. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Unit of Biochemistry, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

, one of the most important human pathogens, is the causative agent of several infectious diseases including sepsis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and soft tissue infections. This pathogenicity is due to a multitude of virulence factors including several cell wall-anchored proteins (CWA). CWA proteins have modular structures with distinct domains binding different ligands. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Post-infectious neurological disorders.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2020 30;13:1756286420952901. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

A multitude of environmental factors can result in breakdown of immune tolerance in susceptible hosts. Infectious pathogens are among the most important environmental triggers in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Certain autoimmune disorders have a strong association with specific infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evolved to vary: genome and epigenome variation in the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2021 01;45(1)

Max von Pettenkofer Institute, Faculty of Medicine, LMU München, Pettenkoferstr. 9a, 80336 München, Germany.

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, spiral shaped bacterium that selectively and chronically infects the gastric mucosa of humans. The clinical course of this infection can range from lifelong asymptomatic infection to severe disease, including peptic ulcers or gastric cancer. The high mutation rate and natural competence typical of this species are responsible for massive inter-strain genetic variation exceeding that observed in all other bacterial human pathogens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

A Global Survey of Carbohydrate Esterase Families 1 and 10 in Oomycetes.

Front Genet 2020 7;11:756. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Applied Bioinformatics, Institute for Microbiology and Genetics, University of Göettingen, Göettingen, Germany.

Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are a cornerstone in the phytopathogenicity of filamentous microbes. CAZymes are required for every step of a successful infection cycle-from penetration, to nutrient acquisition (during colonization), to exit and dispersal. Yet, CAZymes are not a unique feature of filamentous pathogens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Rare viral infections of the lungs].

Pneumologe (Berl) 2020 Jul 20:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Infektiologie und Pneumologie, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Deutschland.

Due to the direct contact with the environment the lungs are exposed to a multitude of viruses. This article describes four viral pathogens, which can lead to pulmonary manifestations but are little known because they are rare in Germany. Avian influenza, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and infections are all zoonotic infections, whereas measles is a purely human disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antimicrobial Peptides of Salmonid Fish: From Form to Function.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Aug 18;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small, usually cationic, and amphiphilic molecules that play a crucial role in molecular and cellular host defense against pathogens, tissue damage, and infection. AMPs are present in all metazoans and several have been discovered in teleosts. Some teleosts, such as salmonids, have undergone whole genome duplication events and retained a diverse AMP repertoire. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Regulatory effects of post-translational modifications on zDHHC -acyltransferases.

J Biol Chem 2020 10 17;295(43):14640-14652. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The human zDHHC -acyltransferase family comprises 23 enzymes that mediate the -acylation of a multitude of cellular proteins, including channels, receptors, transporters, signaling molecules, scaffolds, and chaperones. This reversible post-transitional modification (PTM) involves the attachment of a fatty acyl chain, usually derived from palmitoyl-CoA, to specific cysteine residues on target proteins, which affects their stability, localization, and function. These outcomes are essential to control many processes, including synaptic transmission and plasticity, cell growth and differentiation, and infectivity of viruses and other pathogens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Human Neural Stem Cell Systems to Explore Pathogen-Related Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Cells 2020 08 12;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Unit of Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Building and functioning of the human brain requires the precise orchestration and execution of myriad molecular and cellular processes, across a multitude of cell types and over an extended period of time. Dysregulation of these processes affects structure and function of the brain and can lead to neurodevelopmental, neurological, or psychiatric disorders. Multiple environmental stimuli affect neural stem cells (NSCs) at several levels, thus impairing the normal human neurodevelopmental program. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comprehensive metagenomic insights into a unique mass gathering and bathing event reveals transient influence on a riverine ecosystem.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Oct 11;202:110938. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM), CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory (CSIR-NCL), Pune, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, India. Electronic address:

The religious mass gathering and bathing can pose a multitude of significant public health challenges and lead to severe alterations in the river microbial ecology. The Pandharpur Wari is an annual pilgrimage of Maharashtra, India, where millions of devotees carry the footprints of the saint-poets and pay their obeisance to Lord Vitthal on the 11th day of moon's waxing phase (Ashadi Ekadashi). As a part of the ritual, the engrossed devotees, walk over 250 km, take a first holy dip in a sacred river Indrayani at Alandi and secondly in Bhima River at Pandharpur. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

The Skin Microbiota: Balancing Risk and Reward.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 08;28(2):190-200

Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The skin microbiome is an ecosystem comprised of a multitude of microbial species interacting with their surroundings, including other microbes and host epithelial and immune cells. These interactions are the basis of important roles within the skin microbiome that provide benefit to the host, boosting multiple aspects of barrier function, a critical function of this essential organ. However, with reward always comes risk; resident skin microbes function in a context-dependent manner, set on the backdrop of a dynamic host and microbial milieu. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The fungal elicitor AsES requires a functional ethylene pathway to activate the innate immunity in strawberry.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2020 Nov 24;22(6):1030-1040. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biológicas (INSIBIO), CONICET-UNT, e Instituto de Química Biológica "Dr. Bernabé Bloj", Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina.

Acremonium strictum Elicitor Subtilisin (AsES) is a fungal elicitor that activates innate immunity, conferring disease resistance in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.), Arabidopsis and other plant species. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the involvement of the ethylene (ET) signalling pathway in AsES-mediated immune response in strawberry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Identification of multiple potential viral diseases in a large urban center using wastewater surveillance.

Water Res 2020 Oct 7;184:116160. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48823, USA. Electronic address:

Viruses are linked to a multitude of human illnesses and can disseminate widely in urbanized environments causing global adverse impacts on communities and healthcare infrastructures. Wastewater-based epidemiology was employed using metagenomics and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to identify enteric and non-enteric viruses collected from a large urban area for potential public health monitoring and outbreak analysis. Untreated wastewater samples were collected from November 2017 to February 2018 (n = 54) to evaluate the diversity of human viral pathogens in collected samples. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Strategies employed by viruses to manipulate autophagy.

Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2020 10;172:203-237. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells & Systems, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Autophagy, originally described as a conserved bulk degradation pathway important to maintain cellular homeostasis during starvation, has also been implicated in playing a central role in multiple physiological processes. For example, autophagy is part of our innate immunity by targeting intracellular pathogens to lysosomes for degradation in a process called xenophagy. Coevolution and adaptation between viruses and autophagy have armed viruses with a multitude of strategies to counteract the antiviral functions of the autophagy pathway. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF