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Evaluating the pesticidal impact of plant protease inhibitors: Lethal weaponry in the co-evolutionary battle.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, 226001, India.

In the arsenal of plant defense, protease inhibitors (PIs) are well-designed defensive products to counter field pests. PIs are produced in plant tissues by means of "stable defense metabolite" and triggered on demand as the perception of the signal and well established as a part of "plant active defense. PIs have been utilized for approximately four decades, initially as gene alone approach and later replaced by multiple gene pyramiding/gene stacking, due to insect adaptability towards the PI alone. Read More

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September 2021

Metformin Therapy Attenuates Pro-inflammatory Microglia by Inhibiting NF-κB in Cuprizone Demyelinating Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurotox Res 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Institute of Neuroanatomy, RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disorder characterized by reactive gliosis, inflammation, and demyelination. Microglia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS and has the dynamic plasticity to polarize between pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes. Metformin, a glucose-lowering drug, attenuates inflammatory responses by activating adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) which suppresses nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Read More

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September 2021

Association between inflammatory cytokines and caregiving distress in family caregivers of cancer patients.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Mo-Im Kim Nursing Research Institute, College of Nursing, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: Caregivers of cancer patients experience distress that can manifest as caregiving burden, burnout, depression, and fatigue. Caregiving distress affects physical health in various ways such as causing the dysregulation of inflammatory functions. We examined the relationships between psychological distress experienced by and inflammatory cytokine levels of family caregivers of cancer patients. Read More

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September 2021

Research Letter: Concussion Knowledge Is Difficult to Predict From Self-Reported Exposure, Sports Participation, and Education.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia (Ms Kinmond and Mr Jaganathan); and School of Psychology and Counselling, and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia (Dr Sullivan).

Objectives: Increasing concussion knowledge could contribute to improving injury outcomes. Understanding the predictors of concussion knowledge could determine the areas of educational need. This study examined whether individual factors, prior brain injury, prior concussion education, and contact-sports participation predicted concussion knowledge. Read More

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September 2021

T cell dysfunction in glioblastoma: a barrier and an opportunity for the development of successful immunotherapies.

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Departments of Neurology and Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine Yale Brain Tumor Center, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint blockade have revolutionized cancer treatment, but current approaches have failed to improve outcomes in glioblastoma and other brain tumours. T cell dysfunction has emerged as one of the major barriers for the development of central nervous system (CNS)-directed immunotherapy. Here, we explore the unique requirements that T cells must fulfil to ensure immune surveillance in the CNS, and we analyse T cell dysfunction in glioblastoma (GBM) through the prism of CNS-resident immune responses. Read More

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September 2021

The amino acid substitution affects cellular response to mistranslation.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Sep;11(10)

Department of Biochemistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada.

Mistranslation, the misincorporation of an amino acid not specified by the "standard" genetic code, occurs in all organisms. tRNA variants that increase mistranslation arise spontaneously and engineered tRNAs can achieve mistranslation frequencies approaching 10% in yeast and bacteria. Interestingly, human genomes contain tRNA variants with the potential to mistranslate. Read More

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September 2021

Antioxidant Effects of Caffeic Acid Lead to Protection of Intestinal Stem Cell Aging.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 9;9:735483. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Laboratory of Metabolism and Aging Research, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The dysfunction or exhaustion of adult stem cells during aging is closely linked to tissue aging and age-related diseases. Circumventing this aging-related exhaustion of adult stem cells could significantly alleviate the functional decline of organs. Therefore, identifying small molecular compounds that could prevent the age-related decline of stem cell function is a primary goal in anti-aging research. Read More

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September 2021

-Related Overgrowth Spectrum From Diagnosis to Targeted Therapy: A Case of CLOVES Syndrome Treated With Alpelisib.

Front Pediatr 2021 9;9:732836. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Medical Genetics Unit, Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) is an umbrella term referring to various clinical entities, which share the same pathogenetic mechanism. These conditions are caused by somatic gain-of-function mutations in , which encodes the 110-kD catalytic α subunit of PI3K (p110α). These mutations occur as post-zygotic events and lead to a gain of function of PI3K, with consequent constitutional activation of the downstream cascades (e. Read More

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September 2021

COVID-19 Pandemic and Vaccines Update on Challenges and Resolutions.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 10;11:690621. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biotechnology, Host Pathogen Interaction and Molecular Immunology Laboratory, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a positive-stranded RNA virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), belonging to the family. This virus originated in Wuhan City, China, and became the cause of a multiwave pandemic that has killed 3.46 million people worldwide as of May 22, 2021. Read More

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September 2021

A microfluidic approach for synchronous and nondestructive study of the permeability of multiple oocytes.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2020 27;6:55. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Electronic Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230027 China.

Investigation of oocyte membrane permeability plays a crucial role in fertility preservation, reproductive medicine, and reproductive pharmacology. However, the commonly used methods have disadvantages such as high time consumption, low efficiency, and cumbersome data processing. In addition, the developmental potential of oocytes after measurement has not been fully validated in previous studies. Read More

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Infrared neural stimulation and inhibition using an implantable silicon photonic microdevice.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2020 1;6:44. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Research Group for Implantable Microsystems, Faculty of Information Technology & Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Budapest, Hungary.

Brain is one of the most temperature sensitive organs. Besides the fundamental role of temperature in cellular metabolism, thermal response of neuronal populations is also significant during the evolution of various neurodegenerative diseases. For such critical environmental factor, thorough mapping of cellular response to variations in temperature is desired in the living brain. Read More

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Comparison of perceived educational value of an in-person versus virtual medical conference.

Can Med Educ J 2021 Sep 14;12(4):65-69. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Though prior literature has shown that virtual conferences improve accessibility and provide a comparable educational experience, further research is required to characterize their educational value.

Methods: In this repeated cross-sectional study, demographic and survey data were compared between attendance perspectives for the in-person student-led internal medicine conference held in 2019 and subsequent virtual conference held in 2020.

Results: There were 146 attendees at the in-person conference and 200 attendees at the online conference, in which 32 (22% response rate) and 52 responses (26% response rate) were gathered, respectively. Read More

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September 2021

A collaborative emergency decision making approach based on BWM and TODIM under interval 2-tuple linguistic environment.

Int J Mach Learn Cybern 2021 Sep 19:1-23. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Emergencies require various emergency departments to collaborate to achieve timely and effective emergency responses. Thus, the overall performance of emergency response is influenced not only by the efficiency of each department alternative but also by the coordination effect among different department alternatives. This paper proposes a collaborative emergency decision making (CEDM) approach considering the synergy among different department alternatives based on the best-worst method (BWM) and TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese of interactive and multiple attribute decision making) method within an interval 2-tuple linguistic environment. Read More

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September 2021

Immune Landscape of CMV Infection in Cancer Patients: From "Canonical" Diseases Toward Virus-Elicited Oncomodulation.

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:730765. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department Pathogens & Inflammation-EPILAB EA4266, University of Franche-Comté UBFC, Besançon, France.

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an immensely pervasive herpesvirus, persistently infecting high percentages of the world population. Despite the apparent robust host immune responses, HCMV is capable of replicating, evading host defenses, and establishing latency throughout life by developing multiple immune-modulatory strategies. HCMV has coexisted with humans mounting various mechanisms to evade immune cells and effectively win the HCMV-immune system battle mainly through maintaining its viral genome, impairing HLA Class I and II molecule expression, evading from natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity, interfering with cellular signaling, inhibiting apoptosis, escaping complement attack, and stimulating immunosuppressive cytokines (immune tolerance). Read More

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September 2021

Construction of Interferon-Gamma-Related Gene Signature to Characterize the Immune-Inflamed Phenotype of Glioblastoma and Predict Prognosis, Efficacy of Immunotherapy and Radiotherapy.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:729359. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Interferon-gamma (IFNG) has profound impacts on tumor-immune interaction and is of great clinical significance for multiple cancers. Exploring the role of IFNG in glioblastoma (GBM) may optimize the current treatment paradigm of this disease. Here, multi-dimensional data of 429 GBM samples were collected. Read More

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September 2021

A Peripheral Immune Signature of Labor Induction.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:725989. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States.

Approximately 1 in 4 pregnant women in the United States undergo labor induction. The onset and establishment of labor, particularly induced labor, is a complex and dynamic process influenced by multiple endocrine, inflammatory, and mechanical factors as well as obstetric and pharmacological interventions. The duration from labor induction to the onset of active labor remains unpredictable. Read More

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September 2021

Human Mitochondrial Ribosomal RNA Modification-Based Classification Contributes to Discriminate the Prognosis and Immunotherapy Response of Glioma Patients.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:722479. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Background: Epigenetic regulations of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and immunotherapy have been investigated in recent years. Nevertheless, the potential value of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (mt-rRNA) modification in regulation of the TME and immunotherapy remains unknown.

Methods: We comprehensively investigated the mt-rRNA-modification patterns in glioma patients based on nine regulators of mt-rRNA. Read More

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September 2021

A Hypothesis: The Interplay of Exercise and Physiological Heterogeneity as Drivers of Human Ageing.

Front Physiol 2021 9;12:695392. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Centre for Human & Applied Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

As the inherent ageing process affects every facet of biology, physiology could be considered as the study of the healthy human ageing process. Where biological health is affected by lifestyle, the continual and continuing interaction of this process with physical activity and other lifestyle choices determine whether the ageing trajectory is toward health or disease. The presentation of both these states is further modified in individuals by the interaction of inherent physiological heterogeneity and the heterogeneity associated with responses and adaptions to exercise. Read More

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September 2021

Ferulic Acid Ameliorates Hepatic Inflammation and Fibrotic Liver Injury by Inhibiting PTP1B Activity and Subsequent Promoting AMPK Phosphorylation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 8;12:754976. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Life Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Chronic inflammation in response to persistent exogenous stimuli or damage results in liver fibrosis, which subsequently progresses into malignant liver diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic acid widely isolated from abundant plants and exhibits multiple biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation and enhancement of immune responses. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a critical energy sensor and is regulated through the phosphorylation of liver kinases like LKB1 or dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Read More

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September 2021

Brain Network to Placebo and Nocebo Responses in Acute Experimental Lower Back Pain: A Multivariate Granger Causality Analysis of fMRI Data.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 9;15:696577. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Rehabilitation, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

: Placebo and nocebo responses are widely observed. Herein, we investigated the nocebo hyperalgesia and placebo analgesia responses in brain network in acute lower back pain (ALBP) model using multivariate Granger causality analysis (GCA). This approach analyses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for lagged-temporal correlation between different brain areas. Read More

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September 2021

A Structured Brain-wide and Genome-wide Association Study Using ADNI PET Images.

Can J Stat 2021 Mar 20;49(1):182-202. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Statistics, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109.

A multi-stage variable selection method is introduced for detecting association signals in structured brain-wide and genome-wide association studies (brain-GWAS). Compared to conventional single-voxel-to-single-SNP approaches, our approach is more efficient and powerful in selecting the important signals by integrating anatomic and gene grouping structures in the brain and the genome, respectively. It avoids large number of multiple comparisons while effectively controls the false discoveries. Read More

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Nominal Factor Analysis of Situational Judgment Tests: Evaluation of Latent Dimensionality and Factorial Invariance.

Educ Psychol Meas 2021 Dec 25;81(6):1054-1088. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Situational judgment tests have gained popularity in educational and psychological measurement and are widely used in personnel assessment. A situational judgment item presents a hypothetical scenario and a list of actions, and the individuals are asked to select their most likely action for that scenario. Because actions have no explicit order, the item generates nominal responses consisting of the actions selected by the individuals. Read More

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December 2021

Frontline healthcare workers' mental distress, top concerns, and assessment on hierarchy of controls in response to COVID-19: a cross-sectional survey study.

Hum Resour Health 2021 Sep 26;19(1):118. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Westfield State University, 577 Western Avenue, Westfield, MA, 01086, USA.

Background: The existing studies showed that frontline healthcare workers during an epidemic experienced unusual stressors and mental distress which even lasted for years after the crisis. It is important to learn about their concerns early to mitigate the negative impact as well as to evaluate disease control from experiences on the front lines for improving responses to the outbreak. The study aimed to provide insights on how to strengthen public health responses to protect healthcare workers both physically and mentally, and effectively control the disease in light of hierarchy of controls. Read More

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September 2021

Fundamentally different roles of neuronal TNF receptors in CNS pathology: TNFR1 and IKKβ promote microglial responses and tissue injury in demyelination while TNFR2 protects against excitotoxicity in mice.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Sep 26;18(1):222. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Department of Immunology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 127 Vasilissis Sophias Ave, 11521, Athens, Greece.

Background: During inflammatory demyelination, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) mediates detrimental proinflammatory effects of soluble TNF (solTNF), whereas TNFR2 mediates beneficial effects of transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) through oligodendroglia, microglia, and possibly other cell types. This model supports the use of selective inhibitors of solTNF/TNFR1 as anti-inflammatory drugs for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. A potential obstacle is the neuroprotective effect of solTNF pretreatment described in cultured neurons, but the relevance in vivo is unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Addressing the 'hypoxia paradox' in severe COVID-19: literature review and report of four cases treated with erythropoietin analogues.

Mol Med 2021 Sep 26;27(1):120. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Clinical Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str.3, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Since fall 2019, SARS-CoV-2 spread world-wide, causing a major pandemic with estimated ~ 220 million subjects affected as of September 2021. Severe COVID-19 is associated with multiple organ failure, particularly of lung and kidney, but also grave neuropsychiatric manifestations. Overall mortality reaches > 2%. Read More

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September 2021

Non-Canonical Translation Initiation Mechanisms Employed by Eukaryotic Viral mRNAs.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Sep;86(9):1060-1094

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234, Russia.

Viruses exploit the translation machinery of an infected cell to synthesize their proteins. Therefore, viral mRNAs have to compete for ribosomes and translation factors with cellular mRNAs. To succeed, eukaryotic viruses adopt multiple strategies. Read More

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September 2021

Knowledge and Attitudes toward Dementia among Undergraduate Health Professional Students in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

Teach Learn Med 2021 Sep 26:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

School of Nursing, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Phenomenon: Dementia is a huge burden to the economic and health care system in China. As the next generation of health care providers, undergraduate health professional students play a pivotal role in caring for dementia patients during their clinical placements and in independent practice. Nevertheless, they may not be adequately prepared to care for patients with dementia by their undergraduate programs. Read More

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September 2021

Conserved broad HIV-1 Gag-specific responses associated with low viral load and high CD4+ T cell nadir and preserved HAART regimen.

Acta Virol 2021 ;65(3):324-329

Broad human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-specific cellular responses can control viremia and provide slow progression to Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, we evaluate multiple HIV-1 Gag-specific lymphoproliferative responses and find their connection with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T cell count and viral load from chronically HIV-1-infected patients. We further search for the correlation between multiple Gag-specific lymphoproliferative responses and changes in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. Read More

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January 2021

Comparative analyses of responses to exogenous and endogenous antiherbivore elicitors enables a forward genetics approach to identify maize gene candidates mediating sensitivity to Herbivore Associated Molecular Patterns.

Plant J 2021 Sep 26. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Division of Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

Crop damage by herbivorous insects remains a significant contributor to annual yield reductions. Following attack, maize (Zea mays) responds to Herbivore Associated Molecular Patterns (HAMPs) and Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs), activating dynamic direct and indirect antiherbivore defense responses. To define underlying signaling processes, comparative analyses between Plant Elicitor Peptide (Pep) DAMPs and fatty acid-amino acid conjugate (FAC) HAMPs were conducted. Read More

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September 2021

Establishment of a Newborn Lamb Gut-Loop Model to Evaluate New Methods of Enteric Disease Control and Reduce Experimental Animal Use.

Vet Sci 2021 Aug 24;8(9). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

UMR1282 Infectiologie et Santé Publique, INRAE Centre Val de Loire, Université François Rabelais de Tours, 37380 Nouzilly, France.

Enteric infectious diseases are not all well controlled, which leads to animal suffering and sometimes death in the most severe cases, in addition to economic losses for farmers. Typical symptoms of enteric infections include watery diarrhea, stomach cramps or pain, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, fever and weight loss. Evaluation of new control methods against enteric infections requires the use of many animals. Read More

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