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Cardiac Glycosides as Immune System Modulators.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic.

Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural steroid compounds occurring both in plants and animals. They are known for long as cardiotonic agents commonly used for various cardiac diseases due to inhibition of Na/K-ATPase (NKA) pumping activity and modulating heart muscle contractility. However, recent studies show that the portfolio of diseases potentially treatable with CGs is much broader. Read More

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Cellular and Virtualization Technologies for UAVs: An Experimental Perspective.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Telefónica I+D, Distrito Telefónica, Ronda de la Comunicación s/n, 28050 Madrid, Spain.

The Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) ecosystem is exponentially growing in both recreational and professional fields to provide novel services and applications to consumers from multiple engineering fields. However, this technology has only scraped the surface of its potential, especially in those cases that require fast reaction times. Accordingly, the UAS Traffic Management (UTM) project aims at efficiently managing the air traffic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations, including those cases where UAVs might be remotely managed from a completely different geographical location. Read More

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Speech Characteristics and Oromyofunctional Outcomes in Two Bimaxillary Face Transplantation Patients in Helsinki.

Laryngoscope 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Töölö Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital (HUS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives/hypothesis: Facial functional restoration is one of the main goals in face transplantation. We report the oromyofacial function outcomes of two bimaxillary face transplantation (FT) patients in Helsinki.

Study Design: Outcome Study. Read More

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An evolutionary genomic approach reveals both conserved and species-specific genetic elements related to human disease in closely related Aspergillus fungi.

Genetics 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA.

Aspergillosis is an important opportunistic human disease caused by filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus. Roughly 70% of infections are caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, with the rest stemming from approximately a dozen other Aspergillus species. Several of these pathogens are closely related to A. Read More

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What Survivorship Means to Liver Transplant Recipients-Qualitative Groundwork for A Survivorship Conceptual Model.

Liver Transpl 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina (UNC) School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Background & Aims: Survivorship is a well-established concept in the cancer care continuum with a focus on disease recurrence, quality of life, and minimizing competing risks for mortality; however, this has not been well studied in liver transplantation (LT). We aimed to investigate what survivorship means to LT patients and identify motivations and coping strategies for overcoming challenges after LT.

Approach & Results: Twenty in-depth home interviews were conducted among adults 3 to 6 months after LT. Read More

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Cognitive impairment after focal brain lesions is better predicted by damage to structural than functional network hubs.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242.

Hubs are highly connected brain regions important for coordinating processing in brain networks. It is unclear, however, which measures of network "hubness" are most useful in identifying brain regions critical to human cognition. We tested how closely two measures of hubness-edge density and participation coefficient, derived from white and gray matter, respectively-were associated with general cognitive impairment after brain damage in two large cohorts of patients with focal brain lesions (N = 402 and 102, respectively) using cognitive tests spanning multiple cognitive domains. Read More

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Perspective: Wearable Internet of Medical Things for Remote Tracking of Symptoms, Prediction of Health Anomalies, Implementation of Preventative Measures, and Control of Virus Spread During the Era of COVID-19.

Front Robot AI 2021 14;8:610653. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New York University, New York, NY, United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic has highly impacted the communities globally by reprioritizing the means through which various societal sectors operate. Among these sectors, healthcare providers and medical workers have been impacted prominently due to the massive increase in demand for medical services under unprecedented circumstances. Hence, any tool that can help the compliance with social guidelines for COVID-19 spread prevention will have a positive impact on managing and controlling the virus outbreak and reducing the excessive burden on the healthcare system. Read More

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A Deep Learning Based Framework for Diagnosing Multiple Skin Diseases in a Clinical Environment.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 16;8:626369. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Numerous studies have attempted to apply artificial intelligence (AI) in the dermatological field, mainly on the classification and segmentation of various dermatoses. However, researches under real clinical settings are scarce. This study was aimed to construct a novel framework based on deep learning trained by a dataset that represented the real clinical environment in a tertiary class hospital in China, for better adaptation of the AI application in clinical practice among Asian patients. Read More

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Hemodynamic study of unenhanced magnetic resonance angiography using spatial labeling with multiple inversion pulses sequence: a phantom study.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 May;11(5):1828-1835

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: This study sought to explore the functional relationship between displayed vascular length and blood suppression inversion time (BSP TI) and flow velocity in a phantom, and to provide a theoretical basis for quantitatively assessing vascular hemodynamic responses using unenhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and spatial labeling with multiple inversion pulses sequence (SLEEK).

Methods: A polyethylene catheter was laid in a long rectangular container filled with pork fat. The entrance of the catheter into the container was connected to a high-pressure syringe filled with normal saline. Read More

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Predicting Tumor Cell Response to Synergistic Drug Combinations Using a Novel Simplified Deep Learning Model.

AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2020 25;2020:1364-1372. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Institute for Informatics (I2), Washington University School of Medicine.

Drug combinations targeting multiple targets/pathways are believed to be able to reduce drug resistance. Computational models are essential for novel drug combination discovery. In this study, we proposed a new simplified deep learning model, for drug combination prediction. Read More

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January 2021

IMCC: A Novel Quantitative Approach Revealing Variation of Global Modular Map and Local Inter-Module Coordination Among Differential Drug's Targeted Cerebral Ischemic Networks.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:637253. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Stroke is a common disease characterized by multiple genetic dysfunctions. In this complex disease, detecting the strength of inter-module coordination (genetic community interaction) and subsequent modular rewiring is essential to characterize the reactive biosystematic variation (biosystematic perturbation) brought by multiple-target drugs, whose effects are achieved by hitting on a series of targets (target profile) jointly. Here, a quantitative approach for inter-module coordination and its transition, named as IMCC, was developed. Read More

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Casp8 Acts Through A20 to Inhibit PD-L1 Expression: The Mechanism and Its Implication in Immunotherapy.

Cancer Sci 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Abdominal Oncology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Cancer Center, Sichuan Province, Chengdu, China.

Immunotherapy targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway is a novel type of clinical cancer treatment, but only small subsets of patients can benefit from it because of multiple factors. PD-L1/PD-1 expression is a biomarker for predicting the efficacy of anti-PD-L1/PD-1 therapy, which highlights the importance of understanding the regulatory mechanisms of PD-L1 expression in cancer cells. Casp8 is an apical caspase protease involved in mediating cell apoptosis, but it also has multiple nonapoptotic functions. Read More

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The possibilities of using the effects of ozone therapy in neurology.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2021 Mar 2;42(1):13-21. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Trnava University in Trnava, University Hospital Trnava, Slovakia.

Objectives: The beneficial effects of ozone therapy consist mainly of the promotion of blood circulation: peripheral and central ischemia, immunomodulatory effect, energy boost, regenerative and reparative properties, and correction of chronic oxidative stress. Ozone therapy increases interest in new neuroprotective strategies that may represent therapeutic targets for minimizing the effects of oxidative stress.

Methods: The overview examines the latest literature in neurological pathologies treated with ozone therapy as well as our own experience with ozone therapy. Read More

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Contemporary insight into diffuse axonal injury.

Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2021 Apr;63(2):163-170

Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is present in approximately 50% of the cases with severe traumatic brain injury. It is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children and young individuals worldwide. Generally, DAI occurs as a result of high-velocity accidents. Read More

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Mapping region-specific seizure-like patterns in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain.

Exp Neurol 2021 Apr 27:113727. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Epilepsy Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, via Amadeo 42, 20133 Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

Specific neurophysiological seizure patterns in patients with focal epilepsy depend on cerebral location and the underlying neuropathology. Location-specific patterns have been also reported in experimental models. Two focal seizure patterns, named p-type and l-type, typical of neocortical and mesial temporal regions were identified in both patients explored with intracerebral EEG and in animal models. Read More

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Cluster Identification Using Modularity Optimization to Uncover Chemical Heterogeneity in Complex Solutions.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, United States.

Structural heterogeneity is commonly manifested in solutions and liquids that feature competition of different interparticle forces. Identifying and characterizing heterogeneity across different length scales requires multimodal experimental measurement and/or the application of new techniques for the interrogation of atomistic simulation data. Within the latter, the parsing of networks of interparticle interactions (chemical networks) has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for identifying subensembles of chemical environments. Read More

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Kinesiophobia in Stroke Patients, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disesase.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, 40-754 Katowice, Poland.

Background: Stroke (S), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD) are chronic neurological diseases that are a challange for public health and represent a real social problem. Physical activity (PA) improves functional performance, reduces various symptoms in PD and MS, in stroke- reduced neurological impairment of patients and provides a chance for independence. One of the main obstacles in successful rehabilitation is patients' movement passivity. Read More

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On-Board Ship Detection for Medium Resolution Optical Sensors.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

U.R. Rao Satellite Centre, Bengaluru 560017, India.

In recent years there has been an increased interest in ocean surveillance. The activity includes control and monitoring of illegal fisheries, manmade ocean pollution and illegal sea traffic surveillance, etc. The key problem is how to identify ships and ship-like objects accurately and in a timely manner. Read More

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Integration of Multiple Resolution Data in 3D Chromatin Reconstruction Using .

Biology (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Information Science and Technologies, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

The three-dimensional structure of chromatin in the cellular nucleus carries important information that is connected to physiological and pathological correlates and dysfunctional cell behaviour. As direct observation is not feasible at present, on one side, several experimental techniques have been developed to provide information on the spatial organization of the DNA in the cell; on the other side, several computational methods have been developed to elaborate experimental data and infer 3D chromatin conformations. The most relevant experimental methods are Chromosome Conformation Capture and its derivatives, chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing techniques (CHIP-seq), RNA-seq, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and other genetic and biochemical techniques. Read More

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A Micro-Computed Tomography Comparison of the Porosity in Additively Fabricated CuCr1 Alloy Parts Using Virgin and Surface-Modified Powders.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300 Box 2420, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Recently, the use of novel CuCr1 surface-modified powder for reliable laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) manufacturing has been proposed, enabling a broader LPBF processing window and longer powder storage life. Nevertheless, virgin CuCr1 powder is also LPBF processable, on the condition that a high-energy density is employed. In this work, we compare two dense specimens produced from virgin and surface-modified CuCr1 powder. Read More

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Smart Video Surveillance System Based on Edge Computing.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Electronics, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, 28801 Madrid, Spain.

New processing methods based on artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning are replacing traditional computer vision algorithms. The more advanced systems can process huge amounts of data in large computing facilities. In contrast, this paper presents a smart video surveillance system executing AI algorithms in low power consumption embedded devices. Read More

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Energy Allocation for LoRaWAN Nodes with Multi-Source Energy Harvesting.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 19;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University Rennes, CNRS, IRISA, 22300 Lannion, France.

Many connected devices are expected to be deployed during the next few years. Energy harvesting appears to be a good solution to power these devices but is not a reliable power source due to the time-varying nature of most energy sources. It is possible to harvest energy from multiple energy sources to tackle this problem, thus increasing the amount and the consistency of harvested energy. Read More

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A Security Scheme Based on Intranal-Adding Links for Integrated Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China.

With the advent of the Internet of Everything era, the Industrial Internet is increasingly showing mutual integration and development. Its core framework, the industrial CPS (Cyber-Physical Systems), has received more and more attention and in-depth research in recent years. These complex industrial CPS systems are usually composed of multiple interdependent sub-networks (such as physical networks and control networks, etc. Read More

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A Raspberry Pi-Based Traumatic Brain Injury Detection System for Single-Channel Electroencephalogram.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Computing and Software Systems, University of Washington, Bothell, WA 98011, USA.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and disability. However, existing tools for TBI diagnosis are either subjective or require extensive clinical setup and expertise. The increasing affordability and reduction in the size of relatively high-performance computing systems combined with promising results from TBI related machine learning research make it possible to create compact and portable systems for early detection of TBI. Read More

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CPW Fed Compact UWB 4-Element MIMO Antenna with High Isolation.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 11;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

In the paper, an extremely compact multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna is proposed for portable wireless ultrawideband (UWB) applications. The proposed prototype consists of four monopole antenna elements, which are placed perpendicularly to achieve polarization diversity. In addition, the mutual coupling between antenna elements is suppressed by designing the gap between the radiation element and the ground plane. Read More

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Spectrum Based Power Management for Congested IoT Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Erik Jonsson School of Engineering & Computer Science, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA.

With constantly increasing demand in connected society Internet of Things (IoT) network is frequently becoming congested. IoT sensor devices lose more power while transmitting data through congested IoT networks. Currently, in most scenarios, the distributed IoT devices in use have no effective spectrum based power management, and have no guarantee of a long term battery life while transmitting data through congested IoT networks. Read More

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The Unique Phenotype of Lipid-Laden Macrophages.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 14;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Macrophages are key multi-talented cells of the innate immune system and are equipped with receptors involved in damage and pathogen recognition with connected immune response guiding signaling systems. In addition, macrophages have various systems that are involved in the uptake of extracellular and intracellular cargo. The lysosomes in macrophages play a central role in the digestion of all sorts of macromolecules and the entry of nutrients to the cytosol, and, thus, the regulation of endocytic processes and autophagy. Read More

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On the Solubility and Stability of Polyvinylidene Fluoride.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

WMG, International Manufacturing Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

This literature review covers the solubility and processability of fluoropolymer polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF). Fluoropolymers consist of a carbon backbone chain with multiple connected C-F bonds; they are typically nonreactive and nontoxic and have good thermal stability. Their processing, recycling and reuse are rapidly becoming more important to the circular economy as fluoropolymers find widespread application in diverse sectors including construction, automotive engineering and electronics. Read More

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Ultra-High Packing Density Next Generation Microtube Array Membrane for Absorption Based Applications.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials & Tissue Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11052, Taiwan.

Previously, we successfully developed an extracorporeal endotoxin removal device (EERD) that is based on the novel next generation alternating microtube array membrane (MTAM-A) that was superior to the commercial equivalent. In this article, we demonstrated multiple different parameter modifications that led to multiple different types of novel new MTAM structures, which ultimately led to the formation of the MTAM-A. Contrary to the single layered MTAM, the MTAM-A series consisted of a superior packing density fiber connected in a double layered, alternating position which allowed for the greater fiber count to be packed per unit area. Read More

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A Pixel Design of a Branching Ultra-Highspeed Image Sensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;21(7). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan.

A burst image sensor named Hanabi, meaning fireworks in Japanese, includes a branching CCD and multiple CMOS readout circuits. The sensor is backside-illuminated with a light/charge guide pipe to minimize the temporal resolution by suppressing the horizontal motion of signal carriers. On the front side, the pixel has a guide gate at the center, branching to six first-branching gates, each bifurcating to second-branching gates, and finally connected to 12 (=6×2) floating diffusions. Read More

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