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Incremental Impact of [ Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in Primary N and M Staging of Prostate Cancer Prior to Curative-Intent Surgery: a Prospective Clinical Trial in Comparison with mpMRI.

Mol Imaging Biol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Molecular Imaging and Theranostics, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, University Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstraße 48, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

Purpose: The main objective of this prospective study was to assess the value of gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen ([ Ga]Ga-PSMA-11) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in primary N and M staging of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients before planned curative-intent radical prostatectomy (RPE) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND). The second objective was to compare the [ Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT findings with standard of care pelvic multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in the detection of locoregional lymph node metastases and intraprostatic prostate cancer.

Procedures: A total of 81 patients (mean age: 64. Read More

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September 2021

Bioelectric Impedance Analysis Test Improves the Detection of Prostate Cancer in Biopsy Candidates: A Multifeature Decision Support System.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:555277. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Information Engineering & Research Center "E. Piaggio", University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Prostate cancer (PCa) gold-standard diagnosis relies on prostate biopsy, which is currently overly recommended since other available noninvasive tools such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) multiparametric MRI (mMRI) showed low diagnostic accuracy or high costs, respectively. The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a novel Bioelectric Impedance Analysis (BIA) test endorectal probe for the selection of patients candidate to prostate biopsy and in particular the clinical value of three different parameters such as resistance (R), reactance (Xc), and phase angle (PA) degree. One-hundred twenty-three consecutive candidates to prostate biopsy and 40 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Read More

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MRI DTI and PDFF as Biomarkers for Lower Motor Neuron Degeneration in ALS.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:682126. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Neuroradiology, Center Hospital Luxembourg, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg.

Objective: To evaluate the utility of nerve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and muscle MRI multi-echo Dixon for assessing lower motor neuron (LMN) degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, 14 patients with ALS and 13 healthy controls underwent a multiparametric MRI protocol, including DTI of the sciatic nerve and assessment of muscle proton density fat fraction of the biceps femoris and the quadriceps femoris muscles by a multi-echo Dixon sequence.

Results: In ALS patients, mean fractional anisotropy values of the sciatic nerve were significantly lower than those of healthy controls. Read More

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Multiparametric ultrasound in torsion of the testicular appendages: a reliable diagnostic tool?

Med Ultrason 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Radiology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstr. 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Aim: Torsion of the testicular appendages represents the most common cause of an acute scrotum in prepubertal boys. Its sonographic appearances on gray-scale US and color Doppler US have already been presented in several studies. The aim of this analysis was to expand those already established techniques with strain elastography and thus present typical features of this entity on multiparametric US. Read More

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September 2021

Patient understanding and experience of non-invasive imaging diagnostic techniques and the liver patient pathway.

J Patient Rep Outcomes 2021 Sep 10;5(1):89. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Perspectum Ltd, Oxford, UK.

Background: Clinical and patient-reported outcomes are positively affected when efforts to increase patient understanding of underlying diseases and foster patient participation are part of care pathways. The prevalence of liver diseases is increasing globally, and successful communication of results from liver diagnostic tests will be important for physicians to ensure patient engagement and encourage adherence to lifestyle changes and therapy. Here, we aimed to explore the impact of non-invasive liver tests on patient experience and patient comprehension of liver disease in chronic liver disease diagnostic pathways typically managed with liver biopsies. Read More

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September 2021

Multiparametric MRI Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. A Mono-Institutional Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 28;10(17). Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome, Italy.

The aim of this paper is to define the pre-treatment radiological characteristics of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) using morphological and non-morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based on HPV status, in a single-institution cohort. In total, 100 patients affected by OPSCC were prospectively enrolled in the present study. All patients underwent 1. Read More

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The Relationship between PI-RADS Categories and Incidental Findings in Multiparametric Prostate MRI.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Sep;31(9):1030-1034

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Medeniyet University, Goztepe Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To find the frequency and significance of extraprostatic incidental findings (ep-IFs) during multiparametric-magnetic prostate resonance imaging (mp-MRI), and compare them with prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) outcomes.

Study Design: Analytical study. Place & Duration of Study: Goztepe Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from June 2019 to January 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Combined Transfer Learning and Test-Time Augmentation Improves Convolutional Neural Network-Based Semantic Segmentation of Prostate Cancer from Multi-Parametric MR Images.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Aug 28;210:106375. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Biomedical Translational Imaging Centre, Nova Scotia Health Authority and IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, Canada; Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: Multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) is a widely used tool for diagnosing and staging prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether transfer learning, unsupervised pre-training and test-time augmentation significantly improved the performance of a convolutional neural network (CNN) for pixel-by-pixel prediction of cancer vs. non-cancer using mp-MRI datasets. Read More

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Focal Cryoablation of Image-Localized Prostate Cancer.

J Endourol 2021 Sep;35(S2):S17-S23

Department of Urologic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Focal cryoablation of localized prostate cancer can offer patients superior genitourinary functional outcomes in terms of preservation of urinary continence and potency compared with radical whole-gland therapy, while maintaining intermediate-term oncologic control. We present a step-by-step guide to focal cryoablation of localized prostate cancer. A patient with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) underwent multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate that revealed a prostate imaging-reporting and data system (PI-RADS) four lesion. Read More

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September 2021

An interpretable multiparametric radiomics model for the diagnosis of schizophrenia using magnetic resonance imaging of the corpus callosum.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Sep 6;11(1):462. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Psychiatry, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

There is a growing need to develop novel strategies for the diagnosis of schizophrenia using neuroimaging biomarkers. We investigated the robustness of the diagnostic model for schizophrenia using radiomic features from T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images of the corpus callosum (CC). A total of 165 participants [86 schizophrenia and 79 healthy controls (HCs)] were allocated to training (N = 115) and test (N = 50) sets. Read More

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September 2021

[OBTAINING A PROSTATE MPMRI BEFORE THE FIRST PROSTATE BIOPSY - IS IT THE TIME TO CHANGE THE INDICATIONS IN ISRAEL?]

Harefuah 2021 Sep;160(9):576-581

Urology Department, Shaare Zedek Medical Center.

Introduction: Transrectal ultrasound is utilized as an auxiliary tool when performing a prostate biopsy, but its sensitivity and specificity are low. Performing prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) before prostate biopsy can increase the probability to detect aggressive prostate cancer while decreasing the probability to detect indolent prostate cancer, thereby assisting in the selection of patients before the biopsy. The Israel Basket of Health Services does not include prostate mpMRI prior to the first prostate biopsy. Read More

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September 2021

Multiparameter MRI-based radiomics for preoperative prediction of extramural venous invasion in rectal cancer.

Eur Radiol 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliated People's Hospital, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Objectives: To compare multiparameter MRI-based radiomics for preoperative prediction of extramural venous invasion (EMVI) in rectal cancer using different machine learning algorithms and to develop and validate the best diagnostic model.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 317 patients with rectal cancer. Of these, 114 were EMVI positive and 203 were EMVI negative. Read More

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September 2021

Cost-effectiveness of MRI targeted biopsy strategies for diagnosing prostate cancer in Singapore.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Sep 3;21(1):909. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Agency for Care Effectiveness, Ministry of Health, Singapore, 16 College Road, Singapore, 169854, Singapore.

Background: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of six diagnostic strategies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeted biopsy for diagnosing prostate cancer in initial and repeat biopsy settings from the Singapore healthcare system perspective.

Methods: A combined decision tree and Markov model was developed. The starting model population was men with mean age of 65 years referred for a first prostate biopsy due to clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. Read More

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September 2021

Multiparametric dual-energy CT to differentiate stage T1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma from benign hyperplasia.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Sep;11(9):4004-4015

Department of Radiology, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital & Chongqing Cancer Institute & Chongqing Cancer Hospital, Chongqing, China.

Background: Stage T1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and benign hyperplasia (BH) are 2 common causes of nasopharyngeal mucosa/submucosa thickening without specific clinical symptoms. The treatment management of these 2 entities is significantly different. Reliable differentiation between the 2 entities is critical for the treatment decision and prognosis of patients. Read More

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September 2021

Cancer Detection Rates in Targeted Transperineal MRI-TRUS Elastic Fusion-guided Prostate Biopsies Performed Under Local Anesthesia.

Anticancer Res 2021 Sep 1;41(9):4395-4400. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Urology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background/aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cancer detection rate (CDR) using magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound (MRI-TRUS) fusion-guided transperineal targeted biopsy (TB).

Patients And Methods: We included 401 consecutive patients, of which 161 were biopsy-naïve. All underwent prebiopsy bi-parametric MRI; patients with positive MRI [prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS≥3)] underwent TB. Read More

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September 2021

Radiomics analysis improves FDG PET/CT-based risk stratification of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules.

Endocrine 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Clinic for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Imaging Institute of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, 6500, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Purpose: As ~25% of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules harbour malignancy, diagnostic lobectomy is still performed in many cases. FDG PET/CT rules out malignancy in visually negative nodules; however, none of the currently available interpretation criteria differentiates malignant from benign FDG-avid nodules. We evaluated the ability of PET metrics and radiomics features (RFs) to predict final diagnosis of FDG-avid cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Read More

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September 2021

Utility of machine learning of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2-weighted (T2W) radiomic features in PI-RADS version 2.1 category 3 lesions to predict prostate cancer diagnosis.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, 1053 Carling Ave, Civic Campus C1, Ottawa, ON, K1Y 4E9, Canada.

Purpose: To evaluate if machine learning (ML) of radiomic features extracted from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2-weighted (T2W) MRI can predict prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis in Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2.1 category 3 lesions.

Methods: This multi-institutional review board-approved retrospective case-control study evaluated 158 men with 160 PI-RADS category 3 lesions (79 peripheral zone, 81 transition zone) diagnosed at 3-Tesla MRI with histopathology diagnosis by MRI-TRUS-guided targeted biopsy. Read More

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The Additive Diagnostic Value of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography to Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Triage in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PRIMARY): A Prospective Multicentre Study.

Eur Urol 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is validated for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa), although patients with negative/equivocal MRI undergo biopsy for false negative concerns. In addition, Ga-PSMA-11 positron emission tomography/computed tomography (prostate-specific membrane antigen [PSMA]) may also identify csPCa accurately.

Objective: This trial aimed to determine whether the combination of PSMA + MRI was superior to MRI in diagnostic performance for detecting csPCa. Read More

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Diagnostic Performance of Ga Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen PET/MRI Compared with Multiparametric MRI for Detecting Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer.

Radiology 2021 Aug 31:204093. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

From the Division of Urology (D.M., Y.B., O.N., N.S., J.B.), Department of Nuclear Medicine (H.B., D.G.), and Department of Pathology (M.Y.), Rabin Medical Center, 39 Jabotinski Rd, Petah-Tikva, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel (D.M., H.B., D.G., J.B., L.D.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Assuta Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel (H.B., D.G.); and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel (L.D.).

Background Gallium 68 (Ga) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/MRI may improve detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPC). Purpose To compare the sensitivity and specificity of Ga-PSMA PET/MRI with multiparametric MRI for detecting CSPC. Materials and Methods Men with prostate specific antigen levels of 2. Read More

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Transperineal multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion targeted prostate biopsy combined with standard template improves perineural invasion detection.

Hum Pathol 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Objective: Perineural invasion (PNI) on biopsy is associated with adverse features in prostate cancer (PCa). Transrectal multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeted biopsy (TBx) has shown to detect higher presence of PNI than standard template biopsies (SBx). Transperineal biopsy provides effective cancer detection with lower complications than the transrectal approach. Read More

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Design of an Ultrasound-Navigated Prostate Cancer Biopsy System for Nationwide Implementation in Senegal.

J Imaging 2021 Aug 20;7(8). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

This paper presents the design of NaviPBx, an ultrasound-navigated prostate cancer biopsy system. NaviPBx is designed to support an affordable and sustainable national healthcare program in Senegal. It uses spatiotemporal navigation and multiparametric transrectal ultrasound to guide biopsies. Read More

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Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for bladder cancer: a comprehensive systematic review of the Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) performance and potential clinical applications.

Ther Adv Urol 2021 Jan-Dec;13:17562872211039583. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Lille University, School of Medicine, Urology Department, Claude Huriez Hospital, CHRU Lille, LILLE Cedex, France Researcher - PhD Candidate, Univ. Lille, CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, UMR9020-U1277 - CANTHER - Cancer Heterogeneity Plasticity and Resistance to Therapies, Lille, France.

Background: The Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) score is a novel standardized approach to image and report bladder cancer (BC) with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI).

Objectives: To describe and evaluate the performance of the VI-RADS score using mpMRI and assess its potential clinical applications and limitations.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted using the MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic bibliographic databases between June 2020 and December 2020. Read More

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Simplified PI-RADS-based biparametric MRI: A rationale for detecting and managing prostate cancer.

Authors:
Michele Scialpi

Clin Imaging 2021 Aug 21;80:290-291. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

Biparametric MRI is a potential and valid alternative to multiparametric MRI. The simplified Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (S-PI-RADS)-based biparametric MRI represents the rationale for the validation and standardization in clinical practice of MRI in detecting, managing and guiding biopsy in naïve men with suspicion prostate cancer. Read More

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Visual MRI T-category versus VI-RADS evaluation from multiparametric MRI in the detection of muscle-invasion in patients with suspected bladder cancer: single centre registered clinical trial (MIB-trial).

Scand J Urol 2021 Aug 27:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Urology, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) has been proposed to add value in the diagnostic pathway of bladder cancer (BC). We wanted to evaluate the performance of mpMRI for muscle-invasion detection in BC patients using a subjective MRI visual T-category and the Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) score.

Methods: This single centre clinical trial included 45 patients with suspected BC (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Salvage local treatment for localized radio-recurrent prostate cancer: a narrative review and future perspectives.

Future Oncol 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Radiation Oncology, Quirón Salud University Hospital, Madrid 28223, Spain.

Although dose escalation protocols have improved biochemical control in prostate cancer radiotherapy, 10-45% of patients will experience disease recurrence. The prostate and seminal vesicles are the most frequent site of the first relapse. Traditionally, these patients have been managed with hormonal therapy, which is not curative. Read More

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Hip Position Acutely Affects Oxygenation and Perfusion of Kidney Grafts as Measured by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods-The Bent Knee Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 10;8:697055. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Departments of Biomedical Research and Radiology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Kidney perfusion and oxygenation are two important determinants of kidney graft function. In kidney transplantation, repeated graft hypoperfusion may occur during hip flexion, for example in the sitting position, due to the progressive development of fibrotic tissue around iliac arteries. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in oxygenation and perfusion of kidney grafts during hip flexion and extension using a new functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol. Read More

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Systematic Training of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging v2018 can Improve the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma for Different Radiologists.

J Clin Transl Hepatol 2021 Aug 16;9(4):537-544. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background And Aims: Liver imaging reporting and data system (LI-RADS) provides standardized lexicon and categorization for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of LI-RADS training. We prospectively explored whether the systematic training of LI-RADS v2018 on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can effectively improve the diagnostic performances of different radiologists for HCC. Read More

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Thyroid Nodule Characterization: How to Assess the Malignancy Risk. Update of the Literature.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jul 30;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Ultrasound (US) is the first imaging modality for thyroid parenchyma evaluation. In the last decades, the role of ultrasound has been improved with the introduction of new US software, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and US-elastography (USE). USE is nowadays recognized as an essential part of the multiparametric ultrasound (MPUS) examination, in particular for the indeterminate thyroid nodule with possible fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) number reduction; even if further and larger studies are needed to validate it. Read More

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Challenges in the Use of Artificial Intelligence for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis from Multiparametric Imaging Data.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 5;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Physics and Astronomy "Augusto Righi", University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy.

Many efforts have been carried out for the standardization of multiparametric Magnetic Resonance (mp-MR) images evaluation to detect Prostate Cancer (PCa), and specifically to differentiate levels of aggressiveness, a crucial aspect for clinical decision-making. Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) has contributed noteworthily to this aim. Nevertheless, as pointed out by the European Association of Urology (EAU 2020), the PI-RADS still has limitations mainly due to the moderate inter-reader reproducibility of mp-MRI. Read More

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Multiparametric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric and adolescent patients with acute myocarditis.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Background: The diagnostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) employing the 2018 Lake Louise criteria in pediatric and adolescent patients with acute myocarditis is undefined.

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of the Lake Louise criteria in pediatric and adolescent patients with suspected acute myocarditis and to show the utility of cardiac MRI for follow-up in this patient cohort.

Materials And Methods: Forty-three patients (age range: 8-21 years) with suspected acute myocarditis and 13 control patients who underwent cardiac MRI were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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