213,135 results match your criteria mri studies

White Matter Hyperintensities after Five-Year Follow-Up and a Cross-Sectional FA Decrease in Bipolar I and Major Depressive Patients.

Neuropsychobiology 2021 Jun 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: An increase in brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and a decrease in white matter fractional anisotrophy (FA) have been detected in bipolar I (BPI), II (BPII), and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Their relationship, and differences in diagnostic groups are obscure. Longitudinal studies are rare. Read More

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Genetic architecture of 11 organ traits derived from abdominal MRI using deep learning.

Elife 2021 Jun 15;10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Calico Life Sciences LLC, South San Francisco, United States.

Cardiometabolic diseases are an increasing global health burden. While socioeconomic, environmental, behavioural, and genetic risk factors have been identified, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is required to develop more effective interventions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to assess organ health, but biobank-scale studies are still in their infancy. Read More

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Effect of androgen deprivation therapy on cognitive functioning in men with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

Int J Urol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The objective of this study was to review publications assessing cognitive functioning in patients with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy. We conducted a systematic review of the literature published in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO up to February 2020. A total of 31 studies were included. Read More

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Synthesis of SPIO Nanoparticles and the Subsequent Applications in Stem Cell Labeling for Parkinson's Disease.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Jun 14;16(1):107. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 88 Keling Road, Suzhou New District, Suzhou, 215163, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, and the stem cell transplantation method provides a promising strategy for the treatment. In these studies, tracking the biological behaviors of the transplanted cells in vivo is essential for a basic understanding of stem cell function and evaluation of clinical effectiveness. In the present study, we developed a novel ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coating with the polyacrylic acid (PAA) and methoxypolyethylene glycol amine (PEG) by thermal decomposition method and a two-step modification. Read More

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Implications of DTI in mild traumatic brain injury for detecting neurological recovery and predicting long-term behavioural outcome in paediatric and young population-a systematic review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

SMS Medical College and Hospital, JLN Marg, Ashok Nagar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 302004, India.

Purpose: This systematic review was done with the aim to answer these three questions: 1) Is there any change in diffusion metrics in MRI-DTI sequences after mild traumatic brain injury in paediatric and young population?, 2) Is there any correlation of these changes in diffusion metrics with severity of post concussion symptoms?, 3) Is the change in diffusion metrics predictive of neurocognitive function or neurological recovery?

Material And Methods: Eligibility criteria- Mild TBI patients upto 22 years of age, MRI- DTI sequence done post injury, Outcome measurement with follow up at least for onemonth and articles published in English language only. Data sources- PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus and Cochrane RESULTS: Some studies show increased FA and some studies show decrease FA and few showed no change in white matter microstructure in mTBI patients and this depends on the duration of injury. Prediction of PCSs severity on the basis of changes in white matter microstructure showed inconsistent results. Read More

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Neurosurgical anatomy of the floor of the third ventricle and related vascular structures.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Unit of Anatomy, Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319, Porto, Portugal.

Purpose: Anatomical knowledge of the floor of the third ventricle (FTV) is essential in avoiding surgical complications during endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphometry of FTV and related arteries, particularly the basilar artery (BA), as well as the factors that influence it.

Methods: Twenty-six formalin-fixed adult brains and two hundred adult brain MRIs were studied focusing on FTV and related arteries. Read More

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Tumor microenvironment-triggered cancer vaccines inducing dual immunogenic cell death for elevated antitumor and antimetastatic therapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, China. and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China.

Cancer vaccines are made from tumor-specific antigens, which are then injected back into the body to activate immune responses for cancer immunotherapy. Despite the high specificity and therapeutic efficiency, the vaccine has huge challenges such as complex preparation process, expensiveness and limited durational effects. Herein, a strategy to develop in situ cancer vaccines by enhancing the immunomodulatory effects for immunogenic cell death (ICD) is presented. Read More

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[Diagnostic Imaging of Epilepsy].

Brain Nerve 2021 Jun;73(6):725-730

Department of Radiology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry.

Neuroimaging is the most important tool to treat epileptic foci. Preoperative detection of underlying structural lesions increases the likelihood of the successful surgical treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. Imaging studies used for preoperative focal determination include morphological imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and functional ones, such as positron emission tomography and single photon-emission computed tomography. Read More

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[Electrodiagnosis of Lumbar Spine Disorders and Cauda Equina Syndrome].

Masahiro Sonoo

Brain Nerve 2021 Jun;73(6):715-724

Department of Neurology, Teikyo University School of Medicine.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely employed in the diagnosis of lumbar spine disorders, such as lumbar spinal stenosis or lumbar disc herniation. However, incomplete specificity is a definite drawback, given that MRI abnormalities are frequently identified in aged control subjects. Relying solely on MRI without considering clinical symptoms/signs or electrodiagnosis may lead to misdiagnosis. Read More

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A Multiparametric MRI Protocol for Evaluation of Cognitive Insufficiency, Dementia and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Case Series.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):179

Colorado Springs Neurological Associates, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.

Background: The purpose of this work was to determine the extent to which a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to patients with dementia and/or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can help to determine the most likely diagnosis and the prognosis of these patients.

Objective: Volumetric brain MRI alone is recognized as a useful imaging tool to differentiate behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from the more common Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our objective is to create a protocol that will provide additional non-standard, objective imaging data that can be utilized clinically to distinguish common and uncommon forms of dementia and TBI. Read More

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The Challenge of Managing Patients Suffering from TBI: The Utility of Multiparametric MRI.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):178-179

Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex phenomenon affecting multiple areas of the brain in multiple ways. Both right and left hemispheres are affected as well as supratentorial and infratentorial compartments. These multifocal injuries are caused by many factors including acute mechanical injury, focal intracranial hemorrhage, blunt and rotational forces, epidural and subdural hematoma, hypoxemia, hypotension, edema, axonal damage, neuronal death, gliosis and blood brain barrier disruption. Read More

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Hippocampal volume as treatment predictor in antidepressant naïve patients with major depressive disorder.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 7;140:323-328. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo Leon, School of Medicine, Human Anatomy Department, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. Electronic address:

Major depression disorder (MDD) limits psychosocial functioning and quality of life. One of the biological alterations is a hippocampal volume (HV) reduction. Previous prospective neuroimaging studies present inconsistencies regarding HV reductions and clinical features and response of antidepressant treatment of the participants. Read More

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Abnormality of subcortical volume and resting functional connectivity in adolescents with early-onset and prodromal schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 4;140:282-288. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence Assisted Diagnosis and Treatment for Mental Disorder, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China; Department of Psychiatry, First Hospital/First Clinical Medical College of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China; Department of Mental Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Studies have found that there may be qualitative changes in brain structure and function in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and prodromal schizophrenia (PDS). However, the abnormal brain structure and function of adolescents with EOS and PDS have received little attention, and their underlying neural mechanisms are still unknown.

Methods: In this study, structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to compare the subcortical volume and functional connectivity (FC) among EOS, PDS, and a control group. Read More

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Facilitation of drug-resistant epilepsy and catastrophic status epilepticus in children with combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Jun 6;33:99-105. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Neuropediatrics and Muscle Disorders, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Germany; Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany; Department of Paediatrics and Department of Neuroscience, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Canada.

Purpose: Clinicians and researchers often focus on the primary cause of seizures and epilepsy, but outcomes in individual patients also depend on multiple other variables, which might be easy to adjust. Previous studies suggest mutual interactions between endocrine disorders and epilepsy. We therefore hypothesized that combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) facilitates seizures and epilepsy. Read More

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Reproducibility of cortical response modulation induced by intermittent and continuous theta-burst stimulation of the human motor cortex.

Brain Stimul 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Over the past decade, the number of experimental and clinical studies using theta-burst-stimulation (TBS) protocols of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to modulate brain activity has risen substantially. The use of TBS is motivated by the assumption that these protocols can reliably and lastingly modulate cortical excitability despite their short duration and low number of stimuli. However, this assumption, and thus the experimental validity of studies using TBS, is challenged by recent work showing large inter- and intra-subject variability in response to TBS protocols. Read More

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Fear extinction learning modulates large-scale brain connectivity.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 11;238:118261. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States; The Neuroscience Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States; Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Exploring the neural circuits of the extinction of conditioned fear is critical to advance our understanding of fear- and anxiety-related disorders. The field has focused on examining the role of various regions of the medial prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala in conditioned fear and its extinction. The contribution of this 'fear network' to the conscious awareness of fear has recently been questioned. Read More

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Patterns of failure and implications for clinical target volume definition of locally advanced T4b rectal cancer identified with magnetic resonance imaging and treated using neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing 100142, PR China. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Elective irradiation of the external iliac lymph nodes (EIN) has always been advocated for T4b rectal cancer with anterior organ invasion without convincing evidence. This study aimed to explore the patterns of treatment failure for locally advanced T4b rectal cancer treated using neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) and surgery. This information may help to clarify whether the current definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) is still appropriate. Read More

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PEG-Neridronate-Modified NaYF:Gd,Yb,Tm/NaGdF Core-Shell Upconverting Nanoparticles for Bimodal Magnetic Resonance/Optical Luminescence Imaging.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 17;6(22):14420-14429. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Polymer Particles, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Czech Academy of Sciences, Heyrovského nám. 2, Prague 6, Prague 162 06, Czech Republic.

Upconverting nanoparticles are attracting extensive interest as a multimodal imaging tool. In this work, we report on the synthesis and characterization of gadolinium-enriched upconverting nanoparticles for bimodal magnetic resonance and optical luminescence imaging. NaYF:Gd,Yb,Tm core upconverting nanoparticles were obtained by a thermal coprecipitation of lanthanide oleate precursors in the presence of oleic acid as a stabilizer. Read More

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Young athletes: Preventing sudden death by adopting a modern screening approach? A critical review and the opening of a debate.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2021 Jun 28;34:100790. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes is a primary duty of sports cardiologists. Current recommendations for detecting high-risk cardiovascular conditions (hr-CVCs) are history and physical examination (H&P)-based. We discuss the effectiveness of H&P-based screening versus more-modern and accurate methods. Read More

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Single-unit Recording in Awake Behaving Non-human Primates.

Bio Protoc 2021 Apr 20;11(8):e3987. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Non-human primates (NHPs) have been widely used as a species model in studies to understand higher brain functions in health and disease. These studies employ specifically designed behavioral tasks in which animal behavior is well-controlled, and record neuronal activity at high spatial and temporal resolutions while animals are performing the tasks. Here, we present a detailed procedure to conduct single-unit recording, which fulfils high spatial and temporal resolutions while macaque monkeys (, widely used NHPs) perform behavioral tasks in a well-controlled manner. Read More

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Recent Advances in Fluorescence Imaging of Traumatic Brain Injury in Animal Models.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 26;8:660993. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Chemistry, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the top three specific neurological disorders, requiring reliable, rapid, and sensitive imaging of brain vessels, tissues, and cells for effective diagnosis and treatment. Although the use of medical imaging such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the TBI detection is well established, the exploration of novel TBI imaging techniques is of great interest. In this review, recent advances in fluorescence imaging for the diagnosis and evaluation of TBI are summarized and discussed in three sections: imaging of cerebral vessels, imaging of brain tissues and cells, and imaging of TBI-related biomarkers. Read More

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Outcomes in Juvenile-Onset Spondyloarthritis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 28;8:680916. Epub 2021 May 28.

Departamento de Reumatologia, Hospital General de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

Some studies have suggested children with juvenile onset spondyloarthritis (JoSpA) have a relatively poor outcome compared to other juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) categories, in regards to functional status and failure to attain remission. Thus, in the interest of earlier recognition and risk stratification, awareness of the unique characteristics of this group is critical. Herein, we review the clinical burden of disease, prognostic indicators and outcomes in JoSpA. Read More

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Myoclonus and Cerebellar Ataxia Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2021 6;8(5):002531. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Switzerland.

The current SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global health crisis. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic infection to critical illness affecting almost every organ including the central and peripheral nervous systems. Myoclonus, a less expected and relatively unusual neurological complication, together with ataxia, has lately been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Rationale and Clinical Implications of Fluorescein-Guided Supramarginal Resection in Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Glioma.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:666734. Epub 2021 May 26.

Gabriele Bartoli Brain Tumor Laboratory, Department of Neurological Surgery and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, United States.

Current standard of care for glioblastoma is surgical resection followed by temozolomide chemotherapy and radiation. Recent studies have demonstrated that >95% extent of resection is associated with better outcomes, including prolonged progression-free and overall survival. The diffusely infiltrative pattern of growth in gliomas results in microscopic extension of tumor cells into surrounding brain parenchyma that makes complete resection unattainable. Read More

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Acid-catalyzed proton exchange as a novel approach for relaxivity enhancement in Gd-HPDO3A-like complexes.

Chem Sci 2020 Jul 6;11(30):7829-7835. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Science and Technological Innovation, Università del Piemonte Orientale Viale T. Michel 11 15121 Alessandria Italy

A current challenge in medical diagnostics is how to obtain high MRI relaxation enhancement using Gd-based contrast agents (CAs) containing the minimum concentration of Gd ions. We report that in GdHPDO3A-like complexes a primary amide group located in close proximity to the coordinated hydroxyl group can provide a strong relaxivity enhancement at slightly acidic pH. A maximum relaxivity of = 9. Read More

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Atherosclerotic Components in Thrombi Retrieved by Thrombectomy for Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Due to Large Artery Atherosclerosis: A Case Report.

Front Neurol 2021 28;12:670610. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

The correlation between the composition of thrombi retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy (MT) and stroke etiology is inconclusive. We describe a case with atherosclerotic components in thrombi retrieved by MT for acute internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. A 69-year-old man with acute onset of global aphasia and right hemiplegia was transferred to our institute. Read More

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Disrupted Regional Homogeneity in Major Depressive Disorder With Gastrointestinal Symptoms at Rest.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:636820. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are prominent in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies have reported brain structural and functional changes in both MDD and digestive system diseases but it remains unclear whether MDD patients with GI symptoms have brain imaging changes. We recruited 35 MDD patients with GI symptoms, 17 MDD patients without GI symptoms and 28 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls. Read More

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Hyperpolarization of common antifungal agents with SABRE.

Magn Reson Chem 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27606, United States.

Signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) is a robust and inexpensive hyperpolarization (HP) technique to enhance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals using parahydrogen (pH ). The substrate scope of SABRE is continually expanding. Here, we present the polarization of three antifungal drugs (voriconazole, clotrimazole and fluconazole) and elicit the detailed HP mechanisms for H and N nuclei. Read More

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Ventral Tegmental Area Disconnection Contributes Two Years Early to Correctly Classify Patients Converted to Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Treatment.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

'Rita Levi Montalcini' Department of Neuroscience University of Torino, Turin, Italy.

Background: Recent cross-sectional studies highlighted the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as an early pathophysiological event in Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Objective: In this study, we longitudinally investigated by resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) a cohort of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD to evaluate the impact of VTA disconnection in predicting the conversion to AD.

Methods: A cohort of 35 patients with MCI due to AD were recruited and followed-up for 24 months. Read More

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Altered effective connectivity of the reward network during an incentive processing task in adults with alcohol use disorder.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA.

Background: Abnormalities of reward sensitivity and impulsivity are known to be correlated with each other and alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk, but the underlying aberrant neural circuitry involved is not clearly defined. We sought to extend the current knowledge of AUD pathophysiology by studying incentive processing in persons with AUD using functional neuroimaging data.

Methods: We utilized functional MRI data from the Human Connectome Project Database (HCP) obtained during performance of a number-guessing incentive processing task with win, loss, and neutral feedback conditions in N=78 participants with either DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence (combined as the AUD group) and N=78 age and sex-matched control (CON) participants. Read More

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