261,702 results match your criteria mouse brain


Using spectrally-selective radiofrequency pulses to enhance lactate signal for diffusion-weighted MRS measurements in vivo.

J Magn Reson 2021 Nov 26;334:107113. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, MIRCen, Laboratoire des Maladies Neurodégénératives (UMR 9199), Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. Electronic address:

Measurement of lactate diffusion properties using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo may allow elucidating brain lactate cellular compartmentation, which would be of great importance for neuroscience. However, measuring lactate signal is complicated by low signal-to-noise ratio due to low lactate concentration and J-modulation of its 1.3 ppm peak. Read More

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November 2021

Diverse risk-avoidance behaviors in DISC1 mice are associated with different neuronal firing patterns in BLA neurons.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Nov 29;587:107-112. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Brain Connectome and Behavior, CAS Key Laboratory of Brain Connectome and Manipulation, The Brain Cognition and Brain Disease Institute (BCBDI), Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute of Brain Science-Shenzhen Fundamental Research Institutions, Shenzhen, 518055, China; University of Chinese of Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

It is very important to maintain normal levels of risk avoidance in daily life. We found that DISC1-N mice, which are a model for mental disorders, had a phenotype marked by a risk-avoidance impairment as measured in an open-field test (OFT). We used optogenetic methods to modulate glutamatergic neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in an attempt to rescue this risk-avoidance impairment. Read More

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November 2021

Simultaneous visualization and quantification of copper (II) ions in Alzheimer's disease by a near-infrared fluorescence probe.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Dec 1;198:113858. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, PR China. Electronic address:

The abnormal accumulation of copper ions (Cu) is considered to be one of the pathological factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the internal relationship between Cu and AD progression is still not fully clear. In this work, a sensitive and selective near-infrared fluorescent copper ion probe (DDP-Cu) was designed for quantification and visualization of Cu level in lysates, living cells, living zebrafish and brain tissues of drosophila and mice with AD. By using this probe, we demonstrated that the content of Cu in the brains of AD mice and drosophila enhanced nearly 3. Read More

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December 2021

Identification of cyclin D1 as a major modulator of 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal neurodegeneration.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Dec 3:105581. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Physiology, The University of Tennessee, Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. Electronic address:

Mitochondria dysfunction occurs in the aging brain as well as in several neurodegenerative disorders and predisposes neuronal cells to enhanced sensitivity to neurotoxins. 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a naturally occurring plant and fungal neurotoxin that causes neurodegeneration predominantly in the striatum by irreversibly inhibiting the tricarboxylic acid respiratory chain enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), the main constituent of the mitochondria respiratory chain complex II. Significantly, although 3-NP-induced inhibition of SDH occurs in all brain regions, neurodegeneration occurs primarily and almost exclusively in the striatum for reasons still not understood. Read More

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December 2021

Effect of PPM1F in Dorsal Raphe 5-HT Neurons in Regulating Methamphetamine-induced Conditioned Place Preference Performance in Mice.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Physiology, Binzhou Medical University, Shandong, China; Medical research center, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, China; Institute for Metabolic & Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, China; Neurosurgery, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, China; Department of Gastroenterology, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Methamphetamine (METH), a synthetically produced central nervous system stimulant, is one of the most illicit and addictive drugs worldwide. Protein phosphatase Mg/Mn-dependent 1F (PPM1F) has been reported to exert multiple biological and cellular functions. Nevertheless, the effects of PPM1F and its neuronal substrates on METH addiction remain unclear. Read More

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December 2021

The neurotoxic effect of lactational PFOS exposure on cerebellar functional development in male mice.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Dec 3:112751. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Integrative Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan. Electronic address:

Recent studies showed a possible association between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and developmental disabilities. We previously found the specific effects of PFOS exposure on learning and memory, however, its effect on the other developmental disabilities such as motor and social deficits remains unclear. We examined the effect of early lactational PFOS exposure on motor coordination, social activity, and anxiety in male mice. Read More

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December 2021

Hydrogen sulphide protects mice against the mutual aggravation of cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury and colitis.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Dec 3:174682. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China. Electronic address:

This study was undertaken to determine whether ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice are related. A cerebral I/R model of mice was established by blocking the bilateral common carotid arteries; 3% DSS in drinking water was administered to mice for 7 days to induce colitis; mice with cerebral I/R and colitis were administered DSS for 7 days from the third day onwards after acute cerebral I/R. Brain damage and intestinal inflammation were also tested. Read More

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December 2021

Pathogenic investigations of Streptococcus pasteurianus, an underreported zoonotic pathogen, isolated from a diseased piglet with meningitis.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Streptococcus pasteurianus, an underreported opportunistic pathogen, is considered an increasingly recognized cause of meningitis and bacteremia in many animals and humans worldwide. However, except for some epidemiological studies, there is no report about the gene-deletion mutagenesis, virulence factors, reservoir niches, or animal infection models for this pathogen. In this study, we first isolated an S. Read More

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December 2021

A type VII secretion system in Group B Streptococcus mediates cytotoxicity and virulence.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Dec 6;17(12):e1010121. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America.

Type VII secretion systems (T7SS) have been identified in Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and have been shown to secrete effector proteins with functions in virulence, host toxicity, and/or interbacterial killing in a few genera. Bioinformatic analysis indicates that isolates of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) encode at least four distinct subtypes of T7SS machinery, three of which encode adjacent putative T7SS effectors with WXG and LXG motifs. However, the function of T7SS in GBS pathogenesis is unknown. Read More

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December 2021

Paradoxical relationship between speed and accuracy in olfactory figure-background segregation.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Dec 6;17(12):e1009674. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Medical Neurobiology, School of Medicine and IMRIC, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

In natural settings, many stimuli impinge on our sensory organs simultaneously. Parsing these sensory stimuli into perceptual objects is a fundamental task faced by all sensory systems. Similar to other sensory modalities, increased odor backgrounds decrease the detectability of target odors by the olfactory system. Read More

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December 2021

Microbiome Methods in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Curr Protoc 2021 Dec;1(12):e314

Department of Biology, Eastern Washington University, Cheney, Washington.

Microbiome composition studies are increasingly shedding light on animal models of disease. This paper describes a protocol for analyzing the gut microbiome composition prior to and after the induction of mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal animal model of the human neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). We also address and provide data assessing the impact of mice reared in different animal facilities on EAE induction. Read More

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December 2021

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Exercise on the Endocannabinoid System.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis, including the regulation of metabolism and stress responses. Chronic stress may blunt eCB signaling, and disruptions in eCB signaling have been linked to stress-related psychiatric disorders and physical health conditions, including anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), diabetes, and obesity. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological behavioral interventions (e. Read More

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December 2021

Two alternative cell line models for the study of multiorganic metastasis and immunotherapy in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Program in Solid Tumors, CIMA-University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

There is a paucity of adequate mouse models and cell lines available to study lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). We have generated and characterized two models of phenotypically different transplantable LUSC cell lines (UN-SCC679 and UN-SCC680) derived from an N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) chemically-induced mouse model in A/J mice. Furthermore, we genetically characterized and compared both LUSC cell lines by performing whole exome and RNA sequencing. Read More

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December 2021

Chronic Low-Dose Alcohol Consumption Promotes Cerebral Angiogenesis in Mice.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 17;8:681627. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, United States.

Chronic alcohol consumption dose-dependently affects the incidence and prognosis of ischemic stroke. We determined the influence of chronic alcohol consumption on cerebral angiogenesis under physiological conditions and following ischemic stroke. In studies, acute exposure to low-concentration ethanol significantly increased angiogenic capability and upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in C57BL/6J mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMVECs). Read More

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November 2021

Hyperoxia Provokes Time- and Dose-Dependent Gut Injury and Endotoxemia and Alters Gut Microbiome and Transcriptome in Mice.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 17;8:732039. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

Oxygen therapy usually exposes patients to hyperoxia, which induces injuries in the lung, the heart, and the brain. The gut and its microbiome play key roles in critical illnesses, but the impact of hyperoxia on the gut and its microbiome remains not very clear. We clarified the time- and dose-dependent effects of hyperoxia on the gut and investigated oxygen-induced gut dysbiosis and explored the underlying mechanism of gut injury by transcriptome analysis. Read More

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November 2021

GLP-1 Induces the Expression of FNDC5 Derivatives That Execute Lipolytic Actions.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:777026. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Multiple GLP-1-derived therapeutics are clinically used to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, the underlying mechanism of how these drugs regulate the body weight of obese patients remains incompletely understood. Here, we report that the lipolysis effects of GLP-1 on β cells can depend on its induced expression of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). Read More

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November 2021

The Blockade of Interleukin-2 During the Acute Phase of Infection Reveals Its Dominant Regulatory Role.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 17;11:758273. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

infection causes Chagas' disease in humans. The infection activates the innate and adaptative immunity in an orchestrated immune response to control parasite growth, guaranteeing host survival. Despite an effective immune response to the parasite in the acute phase, the infection progresses to a chronic stage. Read More

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November 2021

PSMA PET Imaging in Glioblastoma: A Preclinical Evaluation and Theranostic Outlook.

Front Oncol 2021 17;11:774017. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET imaging has recently gained attention in glioblastoma (GBM) patients as a potential theranostic target for PSMA radioligand therapy. However, PSMA PET has not yet been established in a murine GBM model. Our goal was to investigate the potential of PSMA PET imaging in the syngeneic GL261 GBM model and to give an outlook regarding the potential of PMSA radioligand therapy in this model. Read More

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November 2021

Air Pollution Particulate Matter Amplifies White Matter Vascular Pathology and Demyelination Caused by Hypoperfusion.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:785519. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Cerebrovascular pathologies are commonly associated with dementia. Because air pollution increases arterial disease in humans and rodent models, we hypothesized that air pollution would also contribute to brain vascular dysfunction. We examined the effects of exposing mice to nanoparticulate matter (nPM; aerodynamic diameter ≤200 nm) from urban traffic and interactions with cerebral hypoperfusion. Read More

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November 2021

Dynamic Process of Secondary Pulmonary Infection in Mice With Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:767155. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

College of Chinese Materia Medica, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Stroke is a common central nervous system disease in clinical practice. Stroke patients often have infectious complications, such as pneumonia and infections of the urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract. Although it has been shown that translocation of the host gut microbiota to the lungs and immune dysfunction plays a vital role in the development of infection after ischemic stroke, the occurrence and mechanism of pulmonary infection at different time points after hemorrhagic cerebral remain unclear. Read More

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November 2021

CXCL13 Neutralization Attenuates Neuropsychiatric Manifestations in Lupus-Prone Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:763065. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States.

Neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE), the nervous system presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), remains challenging to treat due to its unclear pathogenesis and lack of available targeted therapies. A potential contributor to disease progression is brain tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS); these ectopic lymphoid follicles that can develop tissue-targeted antibodies have recently been described in the MRL/ lupus mouse strain, a classic model for studying NPSLE. The brains of MRL/ mice show a significant increase of CXCL13, an important chemokine in lymphoid follicle formation and retention that may also play a role in the disease progression of NPSLE. Read More

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November 2021

Prolactin-Induced Adaptation in Glucose Homeostasis in Mouse Pregnancy Is Mediated by the Pancreas and Not in the Forebrain.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 12;12:765976. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology, Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Adaptive changes in glucose homeostasis during pregnancy require proliferation of insulin-secreting beta-cells in the pancreas, together with increased sensitivity for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Increased concentrations of maternal prolactin/placental lactogen contribute to these changes, but the site of action remains uncertain. Use of Cre-lox technology has generated pancreas-specific prolactin receptor (Prlr) knockouts that demonstrate the development of a gestational diabetic like state. Read More

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November 2021

Anxiety and Cognition in Cre- Collagen Type II Sirt1 K/O Male Mice.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 19;12:756909. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Introduction: Using transgenic collagen type II-specific Sirt1 knockout (CKO) mice we studied the role of Sirt1 in nutritional induced catch up growth (CUG) and we found that these mice have a less organized growth plate and reduced efficiency of CUG. In addition, we noted that they weigh more than control (CTL) mice. Studying the reason for the increased weigh, we found differences in activity and brain function. Read More

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November 2021

Microcontact Printing of Cholinergic Neurons in Organotypic Brain Slices.

Front Neurol 2021 17;12:775621. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Laboratory of Psychiatry and Experimental Alzheimer's Research, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, characterized by beta-amyloid plaques, tau pathology, and cell death of cholinergic neurons, resulting in loss of memory. The reasons for the damage of the cholinergic neurons are not clear, but the nerve growth factor (NGF) is the most potent trophic factor to support the survival of these neurons. In the present study we aim to microprint NGF onto semipermeable 0. Read More

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November 2021

20-HETE Participates in Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Acute Injury by Promoting Cell Ferroptosis.

Front Neurol 2021 12;12:763419. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a highly fatal type of stroke that leads to various types of neuronal death. Recently, ferroptosis, a form of cell death resulting from iron-dependent lipid peroxide accumulation, was observed in a mouse ICH model. N-hydroxy-N'-(4-n-butyl-2-methylphenyl)-formamidine (HET0016), which inhibits synthesis of the arachidonic acid metabolite 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), has shown a protective effect after ICH. Read More

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November 2021

Study on the Application of Super-Resolution Ultrasound for Cerebral Vessel Imaging in Rhesus Monkeys.

Front Neurol 2021 17;12:720320. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Institute of Medical Research, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China.

Ultrasound is ideal for displaying intracranial great vessels but not intracranial microvessels and terminal vessels. Even with contrast agents, the imaging effect is still unsatisfactory. In recent years, significant theoretical advances have been achieved in super-resolution imaging. Read More

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November 2021

Denervation Dynamics After Intramuscular BNT Injection in Patients With Focal Spasticity Monitored by MRI and Dynamometry-a Blinded Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

Front Neurol 2021 19;12:719030. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Botulinumtoxin associated muscle denervation (BNTMD) can be detected by magnet resonance imaging (MRI), MRI may provide further insights into the exact timeline of BNTMD and the potential impact and timing of physical exercise. We aimed to assess the time interval until detection of BNTMD by MRI and whether immediate physical exercise after intramuscular BNT injection has a measurable effect on clinical parameters and the intramuscular denervation dynamics illustrated by MRI. Eleven age-matched patients were randomized to an "exercise" or "no-exercise" group. Read More

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November 2021

Mitochondria-Related Nuclear Gene Expression in the Nucleus Accumbens and Blood Mitochondrial Copy Number After Developmental Fentanyl Exposure in Adolescent Male and Female C57BL/6 Mice.

Front Psychiatry 2021 18;12:737389. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The potency of the synthetic opioid fentanyl and its increased clinical availability has led to the rapid escalation of use in the general population, increased recreational exposure, and subsequently opioid-related overdoses. The wide-spread use of fentanyl has, consequently, increased the incidence of exposure to the drug, but the long-term effects of this type of developmental exposure are not yet understood. Opioid use has also been linked to reduced mitochondrial copy number in blood in clinical populations, but the link between this peripheral biomarker and genetic or functional changes in reward-related brain circuitry is still unclear. Read More

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November 2021

Amifostine (WR-2721) Mitigates Cognitive Injury Induced by Heavy Ion Radiation in Male Mice and Alters Behavior and Brain Connectivity.

Front Physiol 2021 16;12:770502. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States.

The deep space environment contains many risks to astronauts during space missions, such as galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) comprised of naturally occurring heavy ions. Heavy ion radiation is increasingly being used in cancer therapy, including novel regimens involving carbon therapy. Previous investigations involving simulated space radiation have indicated a host of detrimental cognitive and behavioral effects. Read More

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November 2021

Antinociceptive and Antipruritic Effects of HSK21542, a Peripherally-Restricted Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist, in Animal Models of Pain and Itch.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:773204. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Center for Drug Research and Development, Haisco Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., Chegdu, China.

Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists have been promising therapeutic candidates, owing to their potential for relieving pain and treating intractable pruritus. Although lacking morphine-like central nervous system (CNS) effects, KOR agonists do elicit sedation, dysphoria and diuresis which seriously impede their development. Peripherally-restricted KOR agonists have a poor ability to penetrate into the CNS system, so that CNS-related adverse effects can be ameliorated or even abolished. Read More

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November 2021