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The Current Status of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor to Treat Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine II, Leipzig University Medical Center, Leipzig, Germany.

Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) have a devastating prognosis and therapeutic options are limited. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes immune and stem cells and possess immune-modulatory and proregenerative capacities. In this review, we aim to define the current evidence for the treatment with G-CSF in end-stage liver disease. Read More

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Protective Effect of Hydrogen Gas on Mice Hind Limb Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

J Surg Res 2021 May 12;266:148-159. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Orthopedics, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, 210002, China. Electronic address:

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of hydrogen gas on hind limb IR injury.

Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: sham group (Sham), ischemia-reperfusion group (IR), IR plus H inhalation group (IR + H). IR was induced by interrupting hind limb blood flow for 3h, followed by 4h of reperfusion, and H was administered by inhalation throughout the reperfusion process. Read More

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Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid-binding protein 4 alleviated inflammation and early fibrosis after toxin induced kidney injury.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 12;96:107760. Epub 2021 May 12.

Kidney Research Institute, Division of Nephrology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Considerable data have suggested that acute kidney injury (AKI) is often incompletely repaired and could lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). As we known, toxin-induced nephropathy triggers the rapid production of proinflammatory mediators and the prolonged inflammation allows the injured kidneys to develop interstitial fibrosis. In our previous study, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4) has been reported to be involved in the process of AKI. Read More

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Polymyxin B-inspired non-hemolytic tyrocidine A analogues with significantly enhanced activity against gram-negative bacteria: How cationicity impacts cell specificity and antibacterial mechanism.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 1;221:113488. Epub 2021 May 1.

National Pharmaceutical Engineering Center for Solid Preparation in Chinese Herbal Medicine, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, 330004, PR China; Laboratoire de Méthodologie, Synthèse et Molécules Thérapeutiques (ICMMO), UMR 8182, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât 410, Facultédes Sciences D'Orsay, Orsay, 291405, France; State Key Laboratory for Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yuchai Road, Guilin, 541004, PR China. Electronic address:

Naturally occurring cyclic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as tyrocidine A (Tyrc A) and gramicidin S (GS) are appealing targets for the development of novel antibiotics. However, their therapeutic potentials are limited by undesired hemolytic activity and relatively poor activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Inspired by polycationic lipopeptide polymyxin B (PMB), the so called 'last-resort' antibiotic for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, we synthesized and biologically evaluated a series of polycationic analogues derived from Tyrc A. Read More

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Artificial M2 macrophages for disease-modifying osteoarthritis therapeutics.

Biomaterials 2021 May 3;274:120865. Epub 2021 May 3.

Key Laboratory of Biomaterials of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Engineering Technology Research Center of Drug Carrier of Guangdong, Department of Biomedical Engineering Jinan University Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common joint diseases worldwide and the focus is shifting to disease prevention and the pharmaceutical and surgical treatment of early OA. However, at present few have proven ability to block or delay the progression of OA. Nevertheless, M2 macrophages present an anti-inflammatory function and promote cartilage repair, thereby alleviating OA in mice. Read More

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Cr (VI) induces abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism through ROS/Nrf2 signaling.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 12;219:112320. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Public Health, Weifang Medical College, Weifang, China. Electronic address:

The hexavalent form of chromium, Cr (VI), has been associated with various diseases in humans. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of Cr (VI) on glucose and lipid metabolism in vivo and in vitro. We found that Cr (VI) induced abnormal liver function, increased fasting blood glucose (FBG), as well as glucose and insulin intolerance in mice. Read More

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Hydroxysafflor yellows alleviate thrombosis and acetaminophen-induced toxicity in vivo by enhancing blood circulation and poison excretion.

Phytomedicine 2021 Apr 24;87:153579. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation & Breeding of Grassland Livestock, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010070, China; Key Laboratory of Herbage & Endemic Crop Biology of Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010070, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) from the flower of Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) has been reported to have various pharmacological effects. However, little is known about the bioactivities of other chemical constituents in Safflower and the relationship between enhancement of blood circulation and hepatoprotection by HSYA.

Purpose: The present research was to evaluate the antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities of HSYA and C, examine their mechanisms of actions, including influence on the excretion velocity of acetaminophen, and the relationship between the antithrombotic, hepatoprotective, and other bioactivities. Read More

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The lncRNA RP3-439F8.1 promotes GBM cell proliferation and progression by sponging miR-139-5p to upregulate NR5A2.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Jan 2;223:153319. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yunnan Cancer Hospital, Kunming, China. Electronic address:

Background: Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 5 Group A Member 2 (NR5A2, LRH-1) is an oncogene in a wide range of cancer types. Bioinformatics analysis on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors has revealed that the miR-139-5p-NR5A2 axis may be putatively regulated by the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) RP3-439F8.1. Read More

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January 2021

Design, synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation against MRSA and molecular docking studies of novel pleuromutilin derivatives bearing 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole linker.

Bioorg Chem 2021 May 1;112:104956. Epub 2021 May 1.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmaceutics Development and Safety Evaluation, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

A class of pleuromutilin derivatives containing 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole were designed and synthesized as potential antibacterial agents against Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The ultrasound-assisted reaction was proposed as a green chemistry method to synthesize 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives (intermediates 85-110). Among these pleuromutilin derivatives, compound 133 was found to be the strongest antibacterial derivative against MRSA (MIC = 0. Read More

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Autophagy is a defense mechanism controlling Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection in murine microglia cells.

Vet Microbiol 2021 May 9;258:109103. Epub 2021 May 9.

Brain Science and Advanced Technology Institute, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important swine and human pathogen, causing severe meningitis with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Microglial activation and inflammation are responsible for bacterial meningitis. Read More

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The phosphorylation of phosphoglucosamine mutase GlmM by Ser/Thr kinase STK mediates cell wall synthesis and virulence in Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

Vet Microbiol 2021 May 6;258:109102. Epub 2021 May 6.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China. Electronic address:

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes serious economic losses in the pig industry. Phosphorylation is an important mechanism of protein modification. Recent studies have reported that the serine/threonine kinase (STK) gene contributes to the growth and virulence of SS2. Read More

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Mutational burden, MHC-I expression and immune infiltration as limiting factors for in situ vaccination by TNFα and IL-12 gene electrotransfer.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Apr 28;140:107831. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska cesta 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Zdravstvena pot 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

In situ vaccination is a promising immunotherapeutic approach, where various local ablative therapies are used to induce an immune response against tumor antigens that are released from the therapy-killed tumor cells. We recently proposed using intratumoral gene electrotransfer for concomitant transfection of a cytotoxic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) to induce in situ vaccination, and an immunostimulatory cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12) to boost the primed immune response. Here, our aim was to test the local and systemic effectiveness of the approach in tree syngeneic mouse tumor models and associate it with tumor immune profiles, characterized by tumor mutational burden, immune infiltration and expression of PD-L1 and MHC-I on tumor cells. Read More

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Expression and localisation of ephrin-B1 and EphB4 in steroidogenic cells in the naturally cycling mouse ovary.

Reprod Biol 2021 May 12;21(3):100511. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku-Ourai-Kita, Izumisano, Osaka 598-8531, Japan. Electronic address:

Ephrin receptors and ligands are membrane-bound molecules that modulate diverse cellular functions such as cell adhesion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, motility, differentiation and proliferation. We recently reported the co-expression of ephrin-B1 and EphB4 in adult and foetal Leydig cells of the mouse testis, and thus speculated that their co-expression is a common property in gonadal steroidogenic cells. Therefore, in this study we examined the expression and localisation of ephrin-B1 and EphB4 in the naturally cycling mouse ovary, as their expression patterns in the ovary are virtually unknown. Read More

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Cytosolic dsDNA is a novel senescence marker associated with pyroptosis activation.

Tissue Cell 2021 Apr 30;72:101554. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500, China; Laboratory of Molecular Genetics of Ageing & Tumor, Medical School, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500, China; Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathogenesis & Drug Development on Common Chronic Diseases, School of Basic Medicine, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550000, China. Electronic address:

Cellular senescence has become a research focus because of its dual roles in ageing and tumorigenesis. The biomarkers of senescence are essential for detecting senescent cells and understanding the ageing process and its regulation. Here, we identify cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) as a novel sensitive biomarker for cellular senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in response to common types of stimuli, including replicative stress, genetic modification and oxidative stress. Read More

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Myeloid cell-specific Irf5 deficiency stabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in Apoe mice.

Mol Metab 2021 May 12:101250. Epub 2021 May 12.

University Heart Center, Department of Cardiology and Angiology I, University of Freiburg and Faculty of Medicine, 55 Hugstetter St, 79106 Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 5 is a transcription factor known for promoting M1 type macrophage polarization in vitro. Given the central role of inflammatory macrophages in promoting atherosclerotic plaque progression we hypothesize that myeloid cell-specific deletion of Irf5 protects from atherosclerosis.

Methods: Female ApoeLysmIrf5 and ApoeIrf5 mice were fed a high cholesterol diet for 3 months. Read More

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Comparison of different response devices to assess behavioral tendencies towards chocolate in the Approach-Avoidance Task.

Appetite 2021 May 12:105294. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Lise Meitner Group for Environmental Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.

Behavioral tendencies in the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) have mostly been assessed using a joystick as a response device. In recent years, other hardware devices such as tablets, smartphones, and computer mice have also been used. However, it remains unclear whether different response devices yield similar results and show comparable psychometric properties. Read More

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Preparation and evaluation of virus-like particle vaccine against H3N8 subtype equine influenza.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 12:104885. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, China. Electronic address:

To prevent and control H3N8 subtype equine influenza, we prepared virus-like particles (VLPs) comprising the HA, NA and M1 proteins of H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) through the insect cell-baculovirus expression system. The results of Western blot and hemagglutination analyses demonstrated that the constructed VLPs comprising HA, NA and M1 proteins have good hemagglutination activity. Immunoelectron microscope revealed that the VLPs share similar morphology and structure with natural virus particles. Read More

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Brazilian Red Propolis shows antifungal and immunomodulatory activities against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 12:114181. Epub 2021 May 12.

Federal University of Alfenas - UNIFAL. Alfenas, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis with high prevalence in South America and especially in Brazil with severe clinical consequences that need broadened therapeutic options. Propolis is a natural resin from bees used in folk medicine for centuries with the first report in the ancient history of Egypt by Eberly papyrus, in Middle-Ages used to wash the newborn's umbilical cord and World War II as antiseptic or antibiotics. Nowadays it is a natural product worldwide consumed as food and traditionally used for oral and systemic diseases as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, and other diseases. Read More

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Discovery of a novel inhibitor of nitric oxide production with potential therapeutic effect on acute inflammation.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 May 12:128106. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Pharmaceutical Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, China; School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China; State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China. Electronic address:

Inflammation as a host's excessive immune response to stimulation, is involved in the development of numerous diseases. To discover novel anti-inflammatory agents and based on our previous synthesis of marine natural product Chrysamide B, it and series of derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on inhibition of LPS-induced NO production. Then the preliminary structure-activity relationships were conducted. Read More

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Development of BET inhibitors as potential treatments for cancer: A search for structural diversity.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 May 12:128108. Epub 2021 May 12.

Bristol Myers Squibb Research and Development, 100 Binney St, Cambridge, MA, 02142-1096, United States.

We describe our efforts to identify structurally diverse leads in the triazole-containing N1-carboline series of bromodomain and extra-terminal inhibitors. Replacement of the N5 "cap" phenyl moiety with various heteroaryls, coupled with additional modifications to the carboline core, provided analogs with similar potency, improved pharmacokinetic properties, and increased solubility compared to our backup lead, BMS-986225 (2). Rapid SAR exploration was enabled by a convergent, synthetic route. Read More

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Human cancer xenografts in immunocompromised mice provide an advanced genuine tumor model for research and drug development-A revisit of murine models for human cancers.

Authors:
Quan-En Yang

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 May 12:129929. Epub 2021 May 12.

Phycin, LLC., 4539 Metropolitan Court, Frederick, MD 21704, United States of America. Electronic address:

Molecular and cell biology studies have proven that human cancers are an enormously heterogenous disease, even if they originate from the same organ and tissue with identical morphological characteristics. Cancer cells in tumors from different individuals exhibit somewhat different characteristics on multiple levels, such as with respect to 1) their genetic polymorphism; 2) epigenetic mechanisms; 3) group gene activation/inactivation; 4) cell metabolism behavior; 5) aberrant incomplete terminal differentiation; 6) proliferative potential; and 7) hierarchical structure. These multiple parameters and their different combinations determine the biological characteristics of the cancer cells and their malignant/metastatic manifestations. Read More

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Secretory Galectin-3 promotes hepatic steatosis via regulation of the PPARγ/CD36 signaling pathway.

Cell Signal 2021 May 12:110043. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Huadong Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Gerontology, Huadong Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Clinical Geriatric Medicine, Shanghai, China; Research Center on Aging and Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Galectin-3 (Gal3) is an essential regulator of a number of metabolic disorders. Previous studies have established that Gal3 is a positive regulator of inflammation, fibrosis, and insulin resistance. However, its function in the early pathogenesis of hepatic lipid accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unresolved. Read More

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The impact of Caspase-1 deletion on apoptosis and acute kidney injury in a murine transplant model.

Cell Signal 2021 May 12:110039. Epub 2021 May 12.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Center, 12700 E. 19th Ave, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America; Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center, 1700 N Wheeling St, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Caspase-1 knockout mice (Casp1KO) are protected from Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) after warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in non-transplant models. Since Caspase-1 plays a central role as an inflammatory response initiator, we hypothesized that Casp1KO mice would be protected from AKI following transplant.

Methods: Renal tubular cells (RTECs) were subjected to cold storage and rewarming (CS/REW). Read More

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CTRP3 promotes TNF-α-induced apoptosis and barrier dysfunction in salivary epithelial cells.

Cell Signal 2021 May 12:110042. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences, Ministry of Education, and Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Receptors Research, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: C1q/tumour necrosis factor-related protein 3 (CTRP3) plays important roles in metabolism and inflammatory responses in various cells and tissues. However, the expression and function of CTRP3 in salivary glands have not been explored.

Methods: The expression and distribution of CTRP3 were detected by western blot, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining. Read More

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Structure-guided design of ultrapotent disruptive IgE inhibitors to rapidly terminate acute allergic reactions.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford California 94305; Progam in Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford California 94305; Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy Research at Stanford University. Electronic address:

Background: Anaphylaxis represents one of the most severe and fatal forms of allergic reactions. Like most other allergies, it is caused upon activation of basophils and mast cells by allergen-mediated cross-linking of immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to its high affinity receptor FcεRI on the cell surface. The systemic release of soluble mediators induces an inflammatory cascade rapidly causing symptoms with peak severity in minutes to hours after allergen exposure. Read More

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Early-phase migration dynamics of Echinococcus multilocularis in two mouse strains showing different infection susceptibilities.

Int J Parasitol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Parasitology, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N 18 W 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818, Japan. Electronic address:

The early-phase migration dynamics of Echinococcus multilocularis in the intermediate hosts remain largely unknown. We compared the parasite burden in the intestine, liver and faeces of DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mouse strains using parasite-specific quantitative PCR. Our results indicated that the parasites invaded mainly from the middle segments of the small intestine and completed migration to the liver within 24 h p. Read More

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Rescue of striatal long-term depression by chronic mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulation in distinct dystonia models.

Neuropharmacology 2021 May 12:108608. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Italy; IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

An impairment of long-term synaptic plasticity is considered as a peculiar endophenotype of distinct forms of dystonia, a common, disabling movement disorder. Among the few therapeutic options, broad-spectrum antimuscarinic drugs are utilized, aimed at counteracting abnormal striatal acetylcholine-mediated transmission, which plays a crucial role in dystonia pathophysiology. We previously demonstrated a complete loss of long-term synaptic depression (LTD) at corticostriatal synapses in rodent models of two distinct forms of isolated dystonia, resulting from mutations in the TOR1A (DYT1), and GNAL (DYT25) genes. Read More

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Nurr1 deficiency shortens free running period, enhances photoentrainment to phase advance, and disrupts circadian cycling of the dopamine neuron phenotype.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 12:113347. Epub 2021 May 12.

East Carolina University, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease (PD), involve dysfunction in midbrain dopamine (DA) neurotransmission with severity of disease symptoms and progression associated with disrupted circadian rhythms. The nuclear transcription factor Nurr1, essential for DA neuron (DAN) development, survival, and maintenance, is also known to interact with circadian rhythm regulating clock proteins. In the Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice, a Nurr1 deficient model which reproduces some of the alterations in DA function found in schizophrenia and PD, we measured, using wheel-running activity, the free running period (tau) and photoperiod entrainment. Read More

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Activated platelets contribute to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma by altering the tumor environment.

Life Sci 2021 May 12:119612. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Aim Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer that usually develops in a background of chronic liver disease and prolonged inflammation. A major contributor in the complex molecular pathogenesis of HCC is the highly intertwined cross-talk between the tumor and the surrounding stromal cells, such as hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and other immune cells. These tumor-stroma interactions actively fuel tumor growth and modulate the hepatic microenvironment to benefit tumor invasion and disease progression. Read More

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The kidney hepcidin/ferroportin axis controls iron reabsorption and determines the magnitude of kidney and systemic iron overload.

Kidney Int 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford. Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK. Electronic address:

The hepcidin/ferroportin axis controls systemic iron homeostasis by regulating iron acquisition from the duodenum and reticuloendothelial system, respective sites of iron absorption and recycling. Ferroportin is also abundant in the kidney, where it has been implicated in tubular iron reabsorption. However, it remains unknown whether endogenous hepcidin regulates ferroportin-mediated iron reabsorption under physiological conditions, and whether such regulation is important for kidney and/or systemic iron homeostasis. Read More

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