320,204 results match your criteria motor function


Internal manipulation of perceptual representations in human flexible cognition: A computational model.

Neural Netw 2021 Jul 15;143:572-594. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Laboratory of Computational Embodied Neuroscience, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council of Italy, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Executive functions represent a set of processes in goal-directed cognition that depend on integrated cortical-basal ganglia brain systems and form the basis of flexible human behaviour. Several computational models have been proposed for studying cognitive flexibility as a key executive function and the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) that represents an important neuropsychological tool to investigate it. These models clarify important aspects that underlie cognitive flexibility, particularly decision-making, motor response, and feedback-dependent learning processes. Read More

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Cognitive recovery in people with relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis: A randomized clinical trial on virtual reality-based neurorehabilitation.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Jul 21;208:106828. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino Pulejo", Messina, Italy.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) can adversely affect several domains of cognitive function, including attention, information processing, memory and learning, executive functions and visuospatial skills. In recent years, technological innovations have proven effective in improving motor and cognitive impairment in neurological patients, including those affected by MS.

Objective: The study aims to evaluate cognitive outcomes after rehabilitation training with the Virtual Reality rehabilitation system (VRRS) in patients suffering from MS. Read More

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Pilot evaluation of changes in motor control after wearable robotic resistance training in children with cerebral palsy.

J Biomech 2021 Jul 8;126:110601. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

College of Medicine - Phoenix, University of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA. Electronic address:

Cerebral palsy (CP) is characterized by deficits in motor function due to reduced neuromuscular control. We leveraged the guiding principles of motor learning theory to design a wearable robotic intervention intended to improve neuromuscular control of the ankle. The goal of this study was to determine the neuromuscular and biomechanical response to four weeks of exoskeleton ankle resistance therapy (exo-therapy) in children with CP. Read More

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Early changes of immunoreactivity to Orexin in hypothalamus and to RFamide peptides in brainstem during the development of hypertension.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 28:136144. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam 1105 BA, The Netherlands; Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Institute for Biomedical Research, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico (Present address RMB). Electronic address:

Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is an important function of the nervous system and essential for maintaining blood pressure levels in the physiological range. In hypertension, BRS is decreased both in man and animals. Although increased sympathetic activity is thought to be the main cause of decreased BRS, hence the development of hypertension, the BRS is regulated by both sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous system. Read More

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Restoring lost nigrostriatal fibers in Parkinson's disease based on clinically-inspired design criteria.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, United States; Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Corporal Michael Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease affecting around 10 million people worldwide. The death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the axonal fibers that constitute the nigrostriatal pathway leads to a loss of dopamine in the striatum that causes the motor symptoms of this disease. Traditional treatments have focused on reducing symptoms, while therapies with human fetal or stem cell-derived neurons have centered on implanting these cells in the striatum to restore its innervation. Read More

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Embedded adaptive deep brain stimulation for cervical dystonia controlled by motor cortex theta oscillations.

Exp Neurol 2021 Jul 28:113825. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation Centre, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Dystonia is a disabling movement disorder characterized by excessive muscle contraction for which the underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood and treatment interventions limited in efficacy. Here we utilize a novel, sensing-enabled, deep brain stimulator device, implanted in a patient with cervical dystonia, to record local field potentials from chronically implanted electrodes in the sensorimotor cortex and subthalamic nuclei bilaterally. This rechargeable device was able to record large volumes of neural data at home, in the naturalistic environment, during unconstrained activity. Read More

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Investigating the spectral features of the brain meso-scale structure at rest.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Rehab Technologies Lab, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy.

Recent studies provide novel insights into the meso-scale organization of the brain, highlighting the co-occurrence of different structures: classic assortative (modular), disassortative, and core-periphery. However, the spectral properties of the brain meso-scale remain mostly unexplored. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated how the meso-scale structure is organized across the frequency domain. Read More

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Characterisation of seizure induction methods in .

eNeuro 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Around one third of patients do not respond to current medications. This lack of treatment indicates a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and, importantly, the identification of novel targets for drug manipulation. Read More

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Neuronal activity in the premotor cortex of monkeys reflects both cue salience and motivation for action generation and inhibition.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy

Reward prospect weighs on motor decision processes, enhancing the selection of appropriate actions and the inhibition of others.While many studies have investigated the neuronal basis of reward representations and of cortical control of actions, the neuronal correlates of the influence of reward prospect on motor decisions are less clear.We recorded from the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of two male macaque monkeys performing a modified version of the stop-signal (countermanding) task. Read More

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J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada

Huntington's Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive motor impairment with no available disease-modifying treatments. Current evidence indicates that exacerbated postsynaptic glutamate signaling in the striatum plays a key role in the pathophysiology of HD. However, it remains unclear whether reducing glutamate release can be an effective approach to slow the progression of HD. Read More

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Efficacy of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in locomotion recovery after spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis on animal studies.

Syst Rev 2021 Jul 31;10(1):213. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Physiology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Hemmat Highway, P.O Box: 14665-354, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Considerable disparities exist on the use of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Hence, the current systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of ADSCs in locomotion recovery following SCI in animal models.

Methods: A search was conducted in electronic databases of MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science until the end of July 2019. Read More

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ARTS: A novel In-vivo classifier of arteriolosclerosis for the older adult brain.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jul 24;31:102768. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology & Nuc Med, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Brain arteriolosclerosis, one of the main pathologies of cerebral small vessel disease, is common in older adults and has been linked to lower cognitive and motor function and higher odds of dementia. In spite of its frequency and associated morbidity, arteriolosclerosis can only be diagnosed at autopsy. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop an in-vivo classifier of arteriolosclerosis based on brain MRI. Read More

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Glenohumeral joint and muscles functions during a lifting task.

J Biomech 2021 Jul 19;126:110641. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Kinesiology and Exercise Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, QC, Canada; Sainte-Justine Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The mobility of the healthy shoulder depends on complex interactions between the muscles spanning its glenohumeral joint. These interactions ensure the stability of this joint. While previous studies emphasized the complexity of the glenohumeral stability, it is still not clear how the kinematics and muscles interact and adapt to ensure a healthy function of the glenohumeral joint. Read More

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The role of enteric inhibitory neurons in intestinal motility.

Auton Neurosci 2021 Jul 17;235:102854. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Physiology, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042, Australia.

The enteric nervous system controls much of the mixing and propulsion of nutrients along the digestive tract. Enteric neural circuits involve intrinsic sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons. While the role of the excitatory motor neurons is well established, the role of the enteric inhibitory motor neurons (IMNs) is less clear. Read More

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Schizophrenia-associated variation at ZNF804A correlates with altered experience-dependent dynamics of sleep slow waves and spindles in healthy young adults.

Sleep 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK.

The rs1344706 polymorphism in ZNF804A is robustly associated with schizophrenia and schizophrenia is, in turn, associated with abnormal non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep neurophysiology. To examine whether rs1344706 is associated with intermediate neurophysiological traits in the absence of disease, we assessed the relationship between genotype, sleep neurophysiology, and sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy participants. We recruited healthy adult males with no history of psychiatric disorder from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Read More

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The effectiveness of cognitive-motor training on reconstructing cognitive health components in older male adults, recovered from the COVID-19.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Exercise Physiology Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: The incidence of COVID-19 disease in the elderly can accelerate normal degenerative process of cognitive functions. Interactive cognitive-motor training (CMT) is an intervention that integrates cognitive and motor tasks to promote individuals' physical and psychological health. The present study aimed to examine the effect of CMT on reconstructing cognitive health components in older men, who have recently recovered from COVID-19. Read More

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Olfaction in patients with Parkinson's disease: a new threshold test analysis through turning points trajectories.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Section of Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Piazzale Scuro 10, 37134, Verona, Italy.

Olfactory deficit is a widely documented non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Abnormal turning points trajectories through olfactory threshold testing have been recently reported in patients with olfactory dysfunction, who seem to adapt faster to olfactory stimuli, but data on PD patients are lacking. The aim of this study is to perform olfactory threshold test and explore the turning points trajectories in PD patients in comparison to normal controls. Read More

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Sensory coding and the causal impact of mouse cortex in a visual decision.

Elife 2021 Jul 30;10. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, London, United Kingdom.

Correlates of sensory stimuli and motor actions are found in multiple cortical areas, but such correlates do not indicate whether these areas are causally relevant to task performance. We trained mice to discriminate visual contrast and report their decision by steering a wheel. Widefield calcium imaging and Neuropixels recordings in cortex revealed stimulus-related activity in visual (VIS) and frontal (MOs) areas, and widespread movement-related activity across the whole dorsal cortex. Read More

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Central command-related increases in blood velocity of anterior cerebral artery and prefrontal oxygenation at the onset of voluntary tapping.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 07 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Applied Clinical Research, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) supplies blood predominantly to the frontal lobe including the prefrontal cortex. Our laboratory reported that prefrontal oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) increases prior to and at exercise onset, as long as exercise is arbitrarily started. Moreover, the increased prefrontal oxygenation seems independent of both exercise intensity and muscle mass. Read More

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Omega-3 fatty acids are associated with blood-brain barrier integrity in a healthy aging population.

Brain Behav 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychology, School of Behavioral Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA.

In aging populations, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with better cognitive function, slower rates of cognitive decline, and lower risk of developing dementia. Animal studies have shown that diets rich in omega-3 PUFAs reduce blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption associated with aging, but this has yet to be observed in humans. Forty-five healthy subjects (mean age, 76 years) were recruited and underwent cognitive assessment (verbal learning and memory, language, processing speed, executive function, and motor control) and measurement of PUFAs. Read More

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Cognitive Impairments in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 10 and Their Relation to Cortical Thickness.

Mov Disord 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of an ATTCT pentanucleotide repeat. Its clinical features include ataxia and, in some cases, epileptic seizures. There is, however, a dearth of information about its cognitive deficits and the neural bases underpinning them. Read More

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Different trajectories in upper limb and gross motor function in spinal muscular atrophy.

Muscle Nerve 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Dubowitz Neuromuscular Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health & Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Ref: Different trajectories in upper limb and gross motor function in spinal muscular atrophy INTRODUCTION: The Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded (HFMSE) and the Revised Upper Limb Module (RULM) have been widely used in natural history studies and clinical trials. Our aim was to establish how the scales relate to each other at different age points in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 2 and 3, and to describe their coherence over 12 months.

Methods: The study was performed by cross-sectional and longitudinal reanalysis of previously published natural history data. Read More

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Study of Reproductive Toxicity of the Liposomal Photosensitizer Lipophthalocyan.

Drug Res (Stuttg) 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia.

Objective: Study of embryotoxicity, teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity of the new drug Lipophtalocyan in rats.

Material And Methods: Studies were conducted on 210 non-inbred female rats and 105 non-inbred male rats. The drug was administered daily via i. Read More

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Axon-Specific Mitochondrial Pathology in SPG11 Alpha Motor Neurons.

Front Neurosci 2021 7;15:680572. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Stem Cell Biology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Pathogenic variants in are the most frequent cause of autosomal recessive complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). In addition to spastic paraplegia caused by corticospinal degeneration, most patients are significantly affected by progressive weakness and muscle wasting due to alpha motor neuron (MN) degeneration. Mitochondria play a crucial role in neuronal health, and mitochondrial deficits were reported in other types of HSPs. Read More

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Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on postoperative recovery after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.

Spinal Cord 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

People's Liberation Army Hangzhou Sanatorium, Hangzhou, China.

Study Design: A retrospective study of incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) treated with and without hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy after operation.

Objective: To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on patients' postoperative recovery after incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.

Setting: Shulan Hangzhou Hospital, Hangzhou, China. Read More

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Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Walking Speed, Functional Strength, and Balance in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Jul 30;27:e932623. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Physical Therapy, Sahmyook University, Seoul, South Korea.

BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on walking speed, functional strength of lower limbs, and balance in healthy older adults. Through this study, we intend to introduce a new method to improve the physical function of older adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study in which participants and evaluators were blinded. Read More

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Combined treatment with C16 peptide and angiopoietin-1 confers neuroprotection and reduces inflammation in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced dystonia mice.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 29;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology and Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Dystonia is a disorder associated with abnormalities in many brain regions including the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The toxin 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) can induce neuropathologies in the mice striatum and nigra substance, including excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and extensive neuronal atrophy, characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, dystonia, and memory loss, mimicking those observed in humans. We established a mouse model of dystonia by administering 3-NP. Read More

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Wild-type GBA1 increases the α-synuclein tetramer-monomer ratio, reduces lipid-rich aggregates, and attenuates motor and cognitive deficits in mice.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115

Loss-of-function mutations in acid beta-glucosidase 1 (GBA1) are among the strongest genetic risk factors for Lewy body disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia (DLB). Altered lipid metabolism in PD patient-derived neurons, carrying either GBA1 or PD αS mutations, can shift the physiological α-synuclein (αS) tetramer-monomer (T:M) equilibrium toward aggregation-prone monomers. A resultant increase in pSer129+ αS monomers provides a likely building block for αS aggregates. Read More

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A template for physical resilience research in older adults: Methods of the PRIME-KNEE study.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Older adults with similar health conditions often experience widely divergent outcomes following health stressors. Variable recovery after a health stressor may be due in part to differences in biological mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, or system level, that are elicited in response to stressors. We describe the PRIME-KNEE study as an example of ongoing research to validate provocative clinical tests and biomarkers that predict resilience to specific health stressors. Read More

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Effects of wearing of metacarpal gloves on hand dexterity, function, and perceived comfort: A pilot study.

Appl Ergon 2021 Jul 26;97:103538. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Medicine, Division of Occupational Therapy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 26505, USA.

Metacarpal gloves are commonly used in heavy-duty industries such as mining and are typically thicker and bulkier than manufacturing or assembly industrial gloves. This pilot study investigates the impact of wearing metacarpal gloves on hand dexterity, functional capabilities, and perceived comfort. Four types of commercially available metacarpal gloves were selected for evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Read More

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