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Smc5/6 in the rDNA modulates lifespan independently of Fob1​.

Aging Cell 2021 May 12:e13373. Epub 2021 May 12.

Departments of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Oncology, Robson DNA Science Centre, Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is in one tandem repeat array on Chromosome XII. Two regions within each repetitive element, called intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) and IGS2, are important for organizing the rDNA within the nucleolus. The Smc5/6 complex localizes to IGS1 and IGS2. Read More

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Heterocapsa busanensis sp. nov. (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae): A new marine thecate dinoflagellate from Korean coastal waters.

Eur J Protistol 2021 Apr 23;79:125797. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Earth Environmental System Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea; Department of Oceanography, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

During daily monitoring in Yongho Bay off Busan, Korea in 2019, an isolate of the dinoflagellate genus Heterocapsa was established in clonal culture. Light and electron microscopic examination revealed that the isolate was ellipsoid in shape, exhibiting a thecal plate arrangement (Po, cp, X, 5', 3a, 7″, 6c, 5s, 5‴, 2'''') consistent with most other Heterocapsa species. A large, elongated nucleus was positioned on the left side of the cell, a single reticulate chloroplast was located peripherally, and a single, starch-sheathed, spherical pyrenoid was present in the episome or near the cingulum. Read More

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The f subunit of human ATP synthase is essential for normal mitochondrial morphology and permeability transition.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109111

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova 35121, Italy; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Institute of Neuroscience, Padova 35121, Italy; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy. Electronic address:

The f subunit is localized at the base of the ATP synthase peripheral stalk. Its function in the human enzyme is poorly characterized. Because full disruption of its ATP5J2 gene with the CRISPR-Cas9 strategy in the HAP1 human model has been shown to cause alterations in the amounts of other ATP synthase subunits, here we investigated the role of the f subunit in HeLa cells by regulating its levels through RNA interference. Read More

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Genetic variation affects morphological retinal phenotypes extracted from UK Biobank optical coherence tomography images.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 12;17(5):e1009497. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Life Course Sciences, Section of Ophthalmology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) enables non-invasive imaging of the retina and is used to diagnose and manage ophthalmic diseases including glaucoma. We present the first large-scale genome-wide association study of inner retinal morphology using phenotypes derived from OCT images of 31,434 UK Biobank participants. We identify 46 loci associated with thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer or ganglion cell inner plexiform layer. Read More

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Demise of nociceptive Schwann cells causes nerve retraction and pain hyperalgesia.

Pain 2021 Jun;162(6):1816-1827

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract: Recent findings indicate that nociceptive nerves are not "free", but similar to touch and pressure sensitive nerves, terminate in an end-organ in mice. This sensory structure consists of the nociceptive nerves and specialized nociceptive Schwann cells forming a mesh-like organ in subepidermis with pain transduction initiated at both these cellular constituents. The intimate relation of nociceptive nerves with nociceptive Schwann cells in mice raises the question whether defects in nociceptive Schwann cells can by itself contribute to pain hyperalgesia, nerve retraction, and peripheral neuropathy. Read More

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Basal Cell Carcinoma of Prostate With MSMB-NCOA4 Fusion and a Probable Basal Cell Carcinoma In Situ: Case Report.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 May 12:10668969211017321. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pathology, 572974Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Basal cell carcinomas of prostate (BCCP) are very rare. Most arise in the transition zone and thus are associated with lower urinary tract symptoms and rarely associated with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). These features make diagnosis/early diagnosis difficult because of the routine protocols followed. Read More

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On the Use of Black Ti as a Bone Substituting Biomaterial: Behind the Scenes of Dual-Functionality.

Small 2021 May 12:e2100706. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD, The Netherlands.

Despite the potential of small-scale pillars of black titanium (bTi) for killing the bacteria and directing the fate of stem cells, not much is known about the effects of the pillars' design parameters on their biological properties. Here, three distinct bTi surfaces are designed and fabricated through dry etching of the titanium, each featuring different pillar designs. The interactions of the surfaces with MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are then investigated. Read More

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Membrane morphology determines diacylglycerol kinase α substrate acyl chain specificity.

FASEB J 2021 Jun;35(6):e21602

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Diacylglycerol kinases catalyze the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). In humans, the alpha isoform (DGKα) has emerged as a potential target in the treatment of cancer due to its anti-tumor and pro-immune responses. However, its mechanism of action at a molecular level is not fully understood. Read More

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Cadmium inhibits neural stem/progenitor cells proliferation via MitoROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal widely found in the environment. Cd is also a potential neurotoxicant, and its exposure is associated with impairment of cognitive function. However, the underlying mechanisms by which Cd induces neurotoxicity are unclear. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer: possible role of mimicry of human molecules by viral proteins and the resulting anti-cancer immunity.

Cell Stress Chaperones 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biomedicine, Neurosciences and Advanced Diagnostics (BIND), Institute of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Palermo, 90141, Palermo, Italy.

A few reports suggest that molecular mimicry can have a role in determining the more severe and deadly forms of COVID-19, inducing endothelial damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiorgan failure. Heat shock proteins/molecular chaperones can be involved in these molecular mimicry phenomena. However, tumor cells can display on their surface heat shock proteins/molecular chaperones that are mimicked by SARS-CoV-2 molecules (including the Spike protein), similarly to what happens in other bacterial or viral infections. Read More

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Terminal Schwann cells at the human neuromuscular junction.

Brain Commun 2021 15;3(2):fcab081. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Edinburgh Medical School: Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK.

Terminal Schwann cells are non-myelinating glial cells localized to the neuromuscular junction. They play an important role in regulating many aspects of neuromuscular junction form and function, in health and during disease. However, almost all previous studies of mammalian terminal Schwann cells have used rodent models. Read More

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Bio-assembling Macro-Scale, Lumenized Airway Tubes of Defined Shape via Multi-Organoid Patterning and Fusion.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 05 8;8(9):2003332. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Engineering University of Cambridge Cambridge CB2 1PZ UK.

Epithelial, stem-cell derived organoids are ideal building blocks for tissue engineering, however, scalable and shape-controlled bio-assembly of epithelial organoids into larger and anatomical structures is yet to be achieved. Here, a robust organoid engineering approach, Multi-Organoid Patterning and Fusion (MOrPF), is presented to assemble individual airway organoids of different sizes into upscaled, scaffold-free airway tubes with predefined shapes. Multi-Organoid Aggregates (MOAs) undergo accelerated fusion in a matrix-depleted, free-floating environment, possess a continuous lumen, and maintain prescribed shapes without an exogenous scaffold interface. Read More

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Endothelial Exosome Plays a Functional Role during Rickettsial Infection.

mBio 2021 May 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA

Spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFRs) are devastating human infections. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are the primary targets of rickettsial infection. Edema resulting from EC barrier dysfunction occurs in the brain and lungs in most cases of lethal SFR, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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Z-scores for comparative analyses of spermatogonial numbers throughout human development.

Fertil Steril 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

NORDFERTIL Research Lab Stockholm, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; New Children's Hospital, Pediatric Research Centre, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Objective: To normalize age-dependent effects on standardized measures of spermatogonial quantity such as the number of spermatogonia per tubular cross-section (S/T) or fertility index.

Design: Published quantitative histologic data on human spermatogonial numbers were used to create Z-scores for reference means and tested on archived testicular tissue samples.

Setting: Retrospective cohort study. Read More

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Molecular modelling of the gastric barrier response, from infection to carcinogenesis.

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2021 Mar-Apr;50-51:101737. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The lining of the stomach is a tight monolayer of epithelial cells performing functions in digestion and a protective barrier against gastric acid, toxic metabolites and infectious agents, including Helicobacter pylori. The response of the epithelial barrier to infections underlies gastric pathologies, including gastric cancer. H. Read More

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February 2021

The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase IV on disease-associated microglia phenotypic transformation in epilepsy.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 May 11;18(1):112. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Donghu Road No. 185, Wuchang, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that disease-associated microglia (DAM), a recently discovered subset of microglia, plays a protective role in neurological diseases. Targeting DAM phenotypic transformation may provide new therapeutic options. However, the relationship between DAM and epilepsy remains unknown. Read More

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Lycopene and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Affect Caspase-3 Activity, but Do Not Alter the NO Pathway in Lung Tissue Damage Induced by Cisplatin.

Pharmacology 2021 May 11:1-9. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia.

Introduction: Antioxidants such as lycopene (LCP) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) represent ideal molecules for the treatment of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated disorders. Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent, causing an increase in ROS and DNA damage, with numerous side effects, which include lung toxicity. In the presents study, we evaluated and mutually compared the potential of LCP and CAPE in preventing cisplatin-induced rat lung damage. Read More

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Assessment of the effects of four crosslinking agents on gelatin hydrogel for myocardial tissue engineering applications.

Biomed Mater 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Biomedical Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road,, Chengdu, 610065, CHINA.

Cardiomyocyte (CM) transplantation is a promising option for regenerating infarcted myocardium. However, poor cell survival and residence rates reduce the efficacy of cell transplantation. Gelatin (GA) hydrogel as a frequently-used cell carrier is a possible approach to increase the survival rate of CMs. Read More

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Ultrastructural 3D reconstruction of the smallest known insect photoreceptors: The stemmata of a first instar larva of Strepsiptera (Hexapoda).

Arthropod Struct Dev 2021 May 8;62:101055. Epub 2021 May 8.

Entomology Group, Institut für Zoologie und Evolutionsforschung, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Erbertstraße 1, 07743 Jena, Germany.

Stemmata of strepsipteran insects represent the smallest arthropod eyes known, having photoreceptors which form fused rhabdoms measuring an average size of 1.69 × 1.21 × 1. Read More

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Molecular phylogeny of a new gonostomatid ciliate revealing a discrepancy between interphasic and cell divisional patterns (Ciliophora, Hypotricha).

Eur J Protistol 2021 Apr 20;79:125794. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 25457, South Korea. Electronic address:

The morphology, ontogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of a new ciliate, Gonostomum koreanum n. sp., discovered in a terrestrial moss sample from South Korea, were investigated. Read More

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Analysis of therapeutic potential of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cardiac allotransplantation.

Transpl Immunol 2021 May 8:101405. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Biofunctional Microbiota, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) are attractive immune cells to induce immune tolerance. To explore a strategy for improving the efficacy of MDSC therapies, we examined the impact of adoptive transfer of several types of MDSCs on graft rejection in a murine heart transplantation model.

Methods: We analyzed the effects of induced syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow-derived MDSCs (BM-MDSCs) on graft survival and suppressive capacity. Read More

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Rates of protein synthesis are reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from fragile X individuals.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251367. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Functional Genomic, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke and Centre de Recherche du CHUS, CIUSSS de l'Estrie-CHUS, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability and is caused by the loss of expression of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). In animal model of FXS, the absence of FMRP leads to an aberrant rate of neuronal protein synthesis, which in turn is believed to be at the origin of defects regarding spine morphology and synaptic plasticity. Normalisation of protein synthesis in these models has been associated with a rescue of FXS behavioral and biochemicals phenotype, thus establishing the rate of protein synthesis as one of the most promising monitoring biomarker for FXS. Read More

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Comparison of posterior root remnant cells and horn cells of the medial meniscus.

Connect Tissue Res 2021 May 11:1-10. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

: Previous studies have noted distinctions between medial meniscus posterior root and horn cells. However, the characteristics of root remnant cells have not been explored in detail. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression levels, proliferation, and resistance to mechanical stress of remnant and horn cells. Read More

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AgCu Bimetallic Electrocatalysts for the Reduction of Biomass-Derived Compounds.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Industrial Chemistry "Toso Montanari", Università di Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna, Italy.

The electrochemical transformation of biomass-derived compounds (e.g., aldehyde electroreduction to alcohols) is gaining increasing interest due to the sustainability of this process that can be exploited to produce value-added products from biowastes and renewable electricity. Read More

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Altered nuclear architecture in blood cells from Huntington's disease patients.

Neurol Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

CompuMAINE Lab, Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME, 04469, USA.

Background: Cell nuclear architecture has been explored in cancer and laminopathies but not in neurodegenerative disorders. Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to neuronal death. Chromosome-wide changes in gene expression have been reported in HD, not only in the brain but also in peripheral blood cells, but whether this translates into nuclear and chromosome architecture alterations has not yet been studied. Read More

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Cell wall characteristics during sexual reproduction of Mougeotia sp. (Zygnematophyceae) revealed by electron microscopy, glycan microarrays and RAMAN spectroscopy.

Protoplasma 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Botany, Functional Plant Biology, University of Innsbruck, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Mougeotia spp. collected from field samples were investigated for their conjugation morphology by light-, fluorescence-, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy. During a scalarifom conjugation, the extragametangial zygospores were initially surrounded by a thin cell wall that developed into a multi-layered zygospore wall. Read More

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Missense mutations in small muscle protein X-linked (SMPX) cause distal myopathy with protein inclusions.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.

Using deep phenotyping and high-throughput sequencing, we have identified a novel type of distal myopathy caused by mutations in the Small muscle protein X-linked (SMPX) gene. Four different missense mutations were identified in ten patients from nine families in five different countries, suggesting that this disease could be prevalent in other populations as well. Haplotype analysis of patients with similar ancestry revealed two different founder mutations in Southern Europe and France, indicating that the prevalence in these populations may be higher. Read More

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Shengxuening Extracted from Silkworm Excrement Mitigates Myelosuppression via SCF-Mediated JAK2/STAT3 Signaling.

Chem Biodivers 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Hematology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No. 169 Donghu Road, Wuhang District, Wuhan, 430071, P. R. China.

Shengxuening (SXN) is a Chinese patent medicine with main ingredients (including chlorophyll derivatives and sodium iron chlorophyllin) extracted from silkworm excrement. SXN exhibited efficacy in clinical trials of renal anemia and iron deficiency anemia; however, the specific mechanisms remain unclear. This study found that SXN increased the number of peripheral blood cells and improved the bone marrow morphology in myelosuppressed mouse model, reversed the reduction in body weight and spleen indices, and increased the serum levels of erythropoietin and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Read More

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EXOC1 plays an integral role in spermatogonia pseudopod elongation and spermatocyte stable syncytium formation in mice.

Elife 2021 May 11;10. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratory Animal Resource Center, Trans-border Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

The male germ cells must adopt the correct morphology at each differentiation stage for proper spermatogenesis. The spermatogonia regulates its differentiation state by its own migration. The male germ cells differentiate and mature with the formation of syncytia, failure of forming the appropriate syncytia results in the arrest at the spermatocyte stage. Read More

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