Glycoconj J 2013 Aug 29;30(6):619-32. Epub 2012 Dec 29.
Laboratory of Proteoglycan Signaling and Therapeutics, Frontier Research Center for Post-Genomic Science and Technology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Life Science, West-11, North-21, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 001-0021, Japan.
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) interact with various extracellular molecules such as growth factors, cytokines/chemokines, neurotrophic factors, morphogens, and viral proteins, thereby playing roles in a variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, proliferation, tissue morphogenesis, neurite outgrowth, infections, and inflammation/leukocyte trafficking. CS/DS are modified with sulfate groups at C-2 of uronic acid residues as well as C-4 and/or C-6 of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues, yielding enormous structural diversity, which enables the binding with numerous proteins. We have demonstrated that highly sulfated CS-E from squid cartilage, for example, interacts with heparin-binding proteins including midkine, pleiotrophin, and fibroblast growth factors expressed in brain with high affinity (Kd values in the nM range). Read More