33,083 results match your criteria morphogenetic protein

Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the down-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 5 may cause microtia.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):418

Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) has been identified as one of the important risk factors for microtia; however, the link between them has yet to be clarified. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the relationship of BMP5 with mitochondrial function and investigate the specific role of mitochondria in regulating microtia development.

Methods: BMP5 expression was measured in auricular cartilage tissues from patients with and without microtia. Read More

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ARHGEF18/p114RhoGEF Coordinates PKA/CREB Signaling and Actomyosin Remodeling to Promote Trophoblast Cell-Cell Fusion During Placenta Morphogenesis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:658006. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Coordination of cell-cell adhesion, actomyosin dynamics and gene expression is crucial for morphogenetic processes underlying tissue and organ development. Rho GTPases are main regulators of the cytoskeleton and adhesion. They are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. Read More

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Ginsenoside Rb inhibits monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in postmenopausal rats through prevention of cartilage degradation.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 21;45(2):287-294. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Biosafety Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Iksan-city, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea.

Background: Ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1), one of the major active compounds in , has already been shown to reduce inflammation in various diseases. Osteoarthritis (OA) has traditionally been considered a degenerative disease with degradation of joint articular cartilage. However, recent studies have shown the association of inflammation with OA. Read More

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Analysis of the bone morphogenetic protein 6 gene promoter region in young beef cattle affected by enzootic bovine leukosis.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Veterinary Medical Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo.

Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is typically observed in cattle over 3 years old. However, some cases of EBL onset in young beef cattle have been reported in Japan. The mechanism for early EBL onset is unclear. Read More

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Sequential drug delivery of vancomycin and rhBMP-2 via pore-closed PLGA microparticles embedded photo-crosslinked chitosan hydrogel for enhanced osteointegration.

Wei Song Yu Xiao

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No.14, Section 3, Ren Min Nan Rd., Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

As generally accepted, inhibiting the bacterial invasion at initial stage and promoting the behavior of related osteogenesis cells afterwards is crucial to achieve favorable osteointegration after dental implantation. In this study, a novel combined structured hydrogel composed of chitosan and pore-closed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles was prepared and characterized. In vitro and in-vivo studies have identified that this biocompatible material can rapidly release vancomycin at initial 2 days and then sustainedly release recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for about 12 days, thus respectively accomplish antibacterial and osteogenesis functions. Read More

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Depletion of aneuploid cells in human embryos and gastruloids.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 Apr 9;23(4):314-321. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology and Molecular Embryology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

Chromosomal instability leading to aneuploidy is pervasive in early human embryos and is considered as a major cause of infertility and pregnancy wastage. Here we provide several lines of evidence that blastocysts containing aneuploid cells are worthy of in vitro fertilization transfer. First, we show clinically that aneuploid embryos can lead to healthy births, suggesting the presence of an in vivo mechanism to eliminate aneuploidy. Read More

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Endothelial struts enable the generation of large lumenized blood vessels de novo.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 Apr 9;23(4):322-329. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

De novo blood vessel formation occurs through coalescence of endothelial cells (ECs) into a cord-like structure, followed by lumenization either through cell- or cord-hollowing. Vessels generated in this manner are restricted in diameter to one or two ECs, and these models fail to explain how vasculogenesis can form large-diameter vessels. Here, we describe a model for large vessel formation that does not require a cord-like structure or a hollowing step. Read More

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Homozygous GDF2 nonsense mutations result in a loss of circulating BMP9 and BMP10 and are associated with either PAH or an "HHT-like" syndrome in children.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Apr 9:e1685. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Disrupted endothelial BMP9/10 signaling may contribute to the pathophysiology of both hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), yet loss of circulating BMP9 has not been confirmed in individuals with ultra-rare homozygous GDF2 (BMP9 gene) nonsense mutations. We studied two pediatric patients homozygous for GDF2 (BMP9 gene) nonsense mutations: one with PAH (c.[76C>T];[76C>T] or p. Read More

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COX-2 promotes the osteogenic potential of BMP9 through TGF-β1/p38 signaling in mesenchymal stem cells.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 4;13. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Orthopedics, Children Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China.

This study investigated the effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We found that BMP9 increased mRNA levels of TGF-β1 and COX-2 in C3H10T1/2 cells. BMP9-induced osteogenic markers were enhanced by TGF-β1 and reduced by TGF-βRI-specific inhibitor LY364947. Read More

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Osteoinductivity and biomechanical assessment of a 3D printed demineralized bone matrix-ceramic composite in a rat spine fusion model.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Simpson Querrey Institute (SQI), Northwestern University 303 E. Superior, Chicago, IL 60611, United States of America; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Northwestern University, 676 N. Saint Clair, Chicago, IL 60611, United States of America. Electronic address:

We recently developed a recombinant growth factor-free bone regenerative scaffold composed of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic particles and human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) particles (HA-DBM). Here, we performed the first pre-clinical comparative evaluation of HA-DBM relative to the industry standard and established positive control, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), using a rat posterolateral spinal fusion model (PLF). Female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral L4-L5 PLF with implantation of the HA-DBM scaffold or rhBMP-2. Read More

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Gonadal somatic cell-specific transforming growth factor-β superfamily member in the Yesso scallop reveals gonadal somatic cell distribution during the reproductive phase.

Gene 2021 Apr 5:145627. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Laboratory of Aquacultural Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 468-1 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8572, Japan.

The objective of this study was to identify the gonadal somatic cells in the Yesso scallop using a novel molecular marker. This study is the first to identify the bone morphogenetic protein 2a (Bmp2a) gene as a gonadal somatic cell-specific gene in this bivalve. We performed a transcriptomic survey to identify the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily members that act in Yesso scallop gonad development. Read More

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Self-Assembling Nano-Globular Peptide from Human Lactoferrin Acts as a Systemic Enhancer of Bone Regeneration: A Novel Peptide for Orthopedic Application.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Endocrinology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, India.

A technology for systemic and repeated administration of osteogenic factors for orthopedic use is an unmet medical need. Lactoferrin (∼80 kDa), present in milk, is known to support bone growth. We discovered a lactoferrin-mimetic peptide, LP2 (an 18-residue fragment from the N-terminus of the N-lobe of human lactoferrin), which self-assembles into a nano-globular assembly with a β-sheet structure in an aqueous environment. Read More

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MicroRNA treatment modulates osteogenic differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human chorion and placenta.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7670. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Cell Biology, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important in regenerative medicine because of their potential for multi-differentiation. Bone marrow, chorion and placenta have all been suggested as potential sources for clinical application. However, the osteogenic differentiation potential of MSCs derived from chorion or placenta is not very efficient. Read More

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Current Status of MicroRNAs that Target the Wnt Signaling Pathway in Regulation of Osteogenesis and Bone Metabolism: A Review.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Apr 8;27:e929510. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Plastic Surgery, The First Hopital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China (mainland).

The directional differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is regulated by a variety of transcription factors and intracellular signaling pathways. In the past, it was thought that the directional differentiation of BMSCs was related to transforming growth factors, such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and MAPK pathway. However, in recent years, some scholars have pointed out that the Wnt signaling pathway, which is a necessary complex network of protein interactions for biological growth and development, takes a significant role in this process and plays a major part in regulating the development of osteoblasts by exerting signal transduction into cells. Read More

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BMP heterodimers signal via distinct type I receptor class functions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104

Heterodimeric TGF-β ligands outperform homodimers in a variety of developmental, cell culture, and therapeutic contexts; however, the mechanisms underlying this increased potency remain uncharacterized. Here, we use dorsal-ventral axial patterning of the zebrafish embryo to interrogate the BMP2/7 heterodimer signaling mechanism. We demonstrate that differential interactions with BMP antagonists do not account for the reduced signaling ability of homodimers. Read More

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Zichong granules promote differentiation of ovarian granulosa-like cells from human embryonic stem cells in vitro.

J Tradit Chin Med 2021 04;41(2):203-211

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Second Medical College/Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To investigate whether Zichong granules (, ZCKL), a very effective herbal formula for treating infertility, have an impact on the differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro, and to explore the cellular mechanisms of its clinical effects.

Methods: Serum from ZCKL-medicated rats was prepared and used to treat mesoderm cells derived from hESCs for 6 d. Normal rat serum and a set of growth factors were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Read More

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Autoimmune hypophysitis as a cause of adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 Mar 31;5(3):ytab117. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Background : Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is generally treated with multiple PAH-specific vasodilators. If these agents are unsuccessful, additional treatment options are scarce, and the prognosis is poor due to right-sided heart failure. Some of these severe cases are also accompanied by endocrinological side effects. Read More

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Cleft Alveolar Bone Graft Materials: Literature Review.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 Apr 7:10556656211007692. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratoire ICUBE, Département Mécanique UMR 7357 CNRS, 36604Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Introduction: Since the early stages of alveolar bone grafting development, multiple types of materials have been used. Iliac cancellous bone graft (ICBG) remains the gold standard.

Design/methods: A review of literature is conducted in order to describe the different bone filling possibilities, autologous or not, and to assess their effectiveness compared to ICBG. Read More

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Triple Growth Factor Delivery Promotes Functional Bone Regeneration Following Composite Musculoskeletal Trauma.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. Electronic address:

Successful bone healing in severe trauma depends on early revascularization to restore oxygen, nutrient, growth factor, and progenitor cell supply to the injury. Therapeutic angiogenesis strategies have therefore been investigated to promote revascularization following severe bone injuries; however, results have been inconsistent. This is the first study investigating the effects of dual angiogenic growth factors (VEGF and PDGF) with low-dose bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2; 2. Read More

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mTOR inhibitors reduce enteropathy, intestinal bleeding and colectomy rate in juvenile polyposis of infancy due to PTEN-BMPR1A deletion syndrome.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Translational Gastroenterology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Ultrarare genetic disorders can provide proof of concept for efficacy of targeted therapeutics and reveal pathogenic mechanisms relevant to more common conditions. Juvenile polyposis of infancy (JPI) is caused by microdeletions in chromosome 10 that result in haploinsufficiency of two tumor suppressor genes: phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA (BMPR1A). Loss of PTEN and BMPR1A results in a much more severe phenotype then deletion of either gene alone, with infantile onset pan-enteric polyposis and a high mortality rate. Read More

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Role of iron and iron-related proteins in mesenchymal stem cells: Cellular and clinical aspects.

Kosha J Mehta

J Cell Physiol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Centre for Education, King's College London, London, UK.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are located in various tissues where these cells show niche-dependent multilineage differentiation and secrete immunomodulatory molecules to support numerous physiological processes. Due to their regenerative and reparative properties, MSCs are extremely valuable for cell-based therapy in tackling several pathological conditions including COVID-19. Iron is essential for MSC processes but iron-loading, which is common in several chronic conditions, hinders normal MSC functionality. Read More

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Programmed BMP-2 release from biphasic calcium phosphates for optimal bone regeneration.

Biomaterials 2021 Mar 29;272:120785. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study aimed to fabricate a multi-layered biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) platform for programmed bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) release, which means to block the initial burst release and promote releasing during the differentiation phase of osteogenic cells. And it is to confirm in vivo whether this platform has osteogenic inductivity even when extremely low doses of BMP-2 are loaded compared to the conventional soaking method. Our strategy consisted of preparing a multilayer coating on BCP to minimize the contact between BMP-2 and BCP and allow the loading of BMP-2. Read More

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BMP pathway antagonism by Grem1 regulates epithelial cell fate in intestinal regeneration.

Gastroenterology 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Intestinal Stem Cell Biology Lab, Wellcome Centre Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Translational Gastroenterology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, and Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: In homeostasis, intestinal cell fate is controlled by balanced gradients of morphogen signalling. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway has a physiological, pro-differentiation role, predominantly inferred through previous experimental pathway inactivation. Intestinal regeneration is underpinned by dedifferentiation and cell plasticity, but the signalling pathways that regulate this adaptive reprogramming are not well understood. Read More

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A Novel Long Noncoding RNA, Lnc-OAD, Is Required for Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2- (BMP-2-) Induced Osteoblast Differentiation.

Biomed Res Int 2021 16;2021:6697749. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play very important roles in cell differentiation. Our recent study has demonstrated that a novel lncRNA named lnc-OAD modulated 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In the present study, we examined the roles of lnc-OAD in bone morphogenetic protein 2- (BMP-2-) induced osteoblast differentiation. Read More

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Bioactive small molecules in calcium phosphate scaffold enhanced osteogenic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

Dent Mater J 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Advanced Oral Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry.

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are exciting for regenerative medicine due to their multi-potent differentiation. SB431542 bioactive molecule can activate bone morphogenetic protein-signalling in osteoblasts. The objectives were to: (1) develop a novel injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC)-SB431542 scaffold for dental/craniofacial bone engineering; and (2) investigate cell proliferation and osteo-differentiation of hiPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) on CPC-SB431542 scaffold. Read More

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BMP9 promotes methionine- and choline-deficient diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in non-obese mice by enhancing NF-κB dependent macrophage polarization.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 31;96:107591. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China. Electronic address:

Our previous study confirmed that bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) participated in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by affecting macrophage polarization. The focus of this study was to further confirm the role of macrophages in BMP9-mediated NASH and to analyze the underlying mechanism. In vivo, mice that were administered adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors containing a null transgene (AAV-null) or the BMP9 transgene (AAV-BMP9) were divided into methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) and control diet (CD) groups, and they were administered either control liposomes or clodronate liposomes via tail vein injection, the latter to deplete macrophages. Read More

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Regulation of macrophage polarization through surface topography design to facilitate implant-to-bone osteointegration.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 2;7(14). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong 999077, China.

Proper immune responses are critical for successful biomaterial implantation. Here, four scales of honeycomb-like TiO structures were custom made on titanium (Ti) substrates to investigate cellular behaviors of RAW 264.7 macrophages and their immunomodulation on osteogenesis. Read More

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Hesperidin Promotes Osteogenesis and Modulates Collagen Matrix Organization and Mineralization In Vitro and In Vivo.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 22;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

This study evaluated the direct effect of a phytochemical, hesperidin, on pre-osteoblast cell function as well as osteogenesis and collagen matrix quality, as there is little known about hesperidin's influence in mineralized tissue formation and regeneration. Hesperidin was added to a culture of MC3T3-E1 cells at various concentrations. Cell proliferation, viability, osteogenic gene expression and deposited collagen matrix analyses were performed. Read More

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Allogeneic Dentin Graft: A Review on Its Osteoinductivity and Antigenicity.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;14(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Section of Dentistry, Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Armed Forces Medical Command, Seongnam 13574, Korea.

Studies on allogeneic demineralized dentin matrix (Allo-DDM) implantation in the 1960s and 1970s provided the most reliable preclinical evidence of bone formation and antigenicity in an extraosseous site. Recently, applications of Allo-DDM at skeletal sites were studied, and have provided reliable evidence of bone-forming capacity and negligible antigenicity. However, the osteoinductivity and antigenicity properties of Allo-DDM in extraskeletal sites have not yet been investigated due to the lack of follow-up studies after the initial research. Read More

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