37,640 results match your criteria morphogenetic

Parallel Rap1>RalGEF>Ral and Ras signals sculpt the C. elegans nervous system.

Dev Biol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Translational Medical Science, College of Medicine, USA; Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas A&M University, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Ras is the most commonly mutated oncogene in humans and uses three oncogenic effectors: Raf, PI3K, and RalGEF activation of Ral. Understanding the importance of RalGEF > Ral signaling in cancer is hampered by the paucity of knowledge about their function in animal development, particularly in cell movements. We found that mutations that disrupt function of RalGEF or Ral enhance migration phenotypes of mutations in genes with established roles in cell migration. Read More

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Intrinsic osteoinductivity of PCL-DA/PLLA semi-IPN shape memory polymer scaffolds.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), Troy, New York, USA.

Engineering osteoinductive, self-fitting scaffolds offers a potential treatment modality to repair irregularly shaped craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Recently, we innovated on osteoinductive poly(ε-caprolactone)-diacrylate (PCL-DA) shape memory polymers (SMPs) to incorporate poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) into the PCL-DA network, forming a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN). Scaffolds formed from these PCL-DA/PLLA semi-IPNs display stiffnesses within the range of trabecular bone and accelerated degradation relative to scaffolds formed from slowly degrading PCL-DA SMPs. Read More

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The difference of castration timing of Korean Hanwoo bulls does not significantly affect the carcass characteristics.

J Anim Sci Technol 2021 Mar 31;63(2):426-439. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Animal Life Convergence Science, Hankyong National University, Anseong 17579, Korea.

It is already well known that castration improves marbling quality but exact timing of castration is still highly debated in beef cattle production industry. After castration, blood hormonal changes occur in steer and objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone (GH) levels on adipocyte differentiation in stromal vascular cells (SVCs) and transdifferentiation into adipocytes in C2C12 myoblasts. Total GH concentrations were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 24 male calves and 4 female calves. Read More

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Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 enhances tendon-to-bone attachment healing in a murine model of rotator cuff tear.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):565

Department of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Injuries of tendon-to-bone attachments (TBA) are common clinical challenges. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) is potent in chondrogenesis. However, studies focusing on the influence of BMP-4 on the healing of TBA are scarce. Read More

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Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 suppresses pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by regulating GRB2/PI3K/AKT axis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):557

Department of General Surgery, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) is an important transmembrane serine/threonine kinase that involves oncogenic processes in multiple cancers. However, the role of BMPR2 and its regulatory mechanism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unknown.

Methods: We performed a tissue array to explore the expression of BMPR2 in PDAC tissues. Read More

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The hypoferremic response to acute inflammation is maintained in thalassemia mice even under parenteral iron loading.

PeerJ 2021 30;9:e11367. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Hepcidin controls iron homeostasis by inducing the degradation of the iron efflux protein, ferroportin (FPN1), and subsequently reducing serum iron levels. Hepcidin expression is influenced by multiple factors, including iron stores, ineffective erythropoiesis, and inflammation. However, the interactions between these factors under thalassemic condition remain unclear. Read More

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Small GTPases modulate intrinsic and extrinsic forces that control epithelial folding in embryos.

Small GTPases 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60637.

Epithelial folding is a common means to execute morphogenetic movements. The gastrulating Drosophila embryo offers many examples of epithelial folding events, including the ventral, cephalic, and dorsal furrows. Each of these folding events is associated with changes in intracellular contractility and/or cytoskeleton structures that autonomously promote epithelial folding. Read More

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The morphogenetic changes that lead to cell extrusion in development and cell competition.

Masazumi Tada

Dev Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK. Electronic address:

Cell extrusion is a morphogenetic process in which unfit or dying cells are eliminated from the tissue at the interface with healthy neighbours in homeostasis. This process is also highly associated with cell fate specification followed by differentiation in development. Spontaneous cell death occurs in development and inhibition of this process can result in abnormal development, suggesting that survival or death is part of cell fate specification during morphogenesis. Read More

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Macrophages Inhibit Ciliary Protein Levels by Secreting BMP-2 Leading to Airway Epithelial Remodeling Under Cigarette Smoke Exposure.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 26;8:663987. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Immune Mechanism and Intervention on Serious Disease in Hebei Province, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. So far, smoking is still its leading cause. The characteristics of COPD are emphysema and airway remodeling, as well as chronic inflammation, which were predominated by macrophages. Read More

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Mechanochemical induction of wrinkling morphogenesis on elastic shells.

Soft Matter 2021 May;17(18):4738-4750

Department of Physics, University of California, Merced, Merced, CA 95343, USA.

Morphogenetic dynamics of tissue sheets require coordinated cell shape changes regulated by global patterning of mechanical forces. Inspired by such biological phenomena, we propose a minimal mechanochemical model based on the notion that cell shape changes are induced by diffusible biomolecules that influence tissue contractility in a concentration-dependent manner - and whose concentration is in turn affected by the macroscopic tissue shape. We perform computational simulations of thin shell elastic dynamics to reveal propagating chemical and three-dimensional deformation patterns arising due to a sequence of buckling instabilities. Read More

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Roles of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1A in Germinal Centers and Long-Lived Humoral Immunity.

Immunohorizons 2021 May 11;5(5):284-297. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.

In response to T-dependent Ag, germinal centers (GC) generate bone marrow-resident plasma cells (BMPC) and memory B cells (MBC). In this study, we demonstrate that the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A (BMPR1A) signaling pathway, which regulates differentiation and self-renewal in multiple stem cell populations, regulates GC dynamics and resultant establishment of BMPC and MBC. Expression studies using quantitative PCR and novel IRES. Read More

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The growth factor BMP11 is required for the development and evolution of a male exaggerated weapon and its associated fighting behavior in a water strider.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 11;19(5):e3001157. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 5242, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Exaggerated sexually selected traits, often carried by males, are characterized by the evolution of hyperallometry, resulting in their disproportionate growth relative to the rest of the body among individuals of the same population. While the evolution of allometry has attracted much attention for centuries, our understanding of the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying its emergence remains fragmented. Here we conduct comparative transcriptomics of the legs followed by an RNA interference (RNAi) screen to identify genes that play a role in the hyperallometric growth of the third legs in the males of the water strider Microvelia longipes. Read More

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Nonclassic fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: A child from Angola with an ACVR1 variant.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Little is known about FOP in Africa and few cases of nonclassic fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) have been reported on the continent. Here we report a three-year-old girl from Angola with a nonclassic FOP clinical presentation that is characterized by complex malformations of the toes and fingers, reduction defects of the digits, absence of nails, progressive heterotopic ossification, and a confirmed heterozygous ACVR1 variant at c.983G > A. Read More

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Symmetry breaking of tissue mechanics in wound induced hair follicle regeneration of laboratory and spiny mice.

Nat Commun 2021 May 10;12(1):2595. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Tissue regeneration is a process that recapitulates and restores organ structure and function. Although previous studies have demonstrated wound-induced hair neogenesis (WIHN) in laboratory mice (Mus), the regeneration is limited to the center of the wound unlike those observed in African spiny (Acomys) mice. Tissue mechanics have been implicated as an integral part of tissue morphogenesis. Read More

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Rare variant analysis of 4241 pulmonary arterial hypertension cases from an international consortium implicates FBLN2, PDGFD, and rare de novo variants in PAH.

Genome Med 2021 May 10;13(1):80. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 1150 St. Nicholas Avenue, Room 620, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal vasculopathy characterized by pathogenic remodeling of pulmonary arterioles leading to increased pulmonary pressures, right ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure. PAH can be associated with other diseases (APAH: connective tissue diseases, congenital heart disease, and others) but often the etiology is idiopathic (IPAH). Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) are the cause of most heritable cases but the vast majority of other cases are genetically undefined. Read More

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Early embryogenesis and organogenesis in the annelid Owenia fusiformis.

Evodevo 2021 May 10;12(1). Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS, UK.

Background: Annelids are a diverse group of segmented worms within Spiralia, whose embryos exhibit spiral cleavage and a variety of larval forms. While most modern embryological studies focus on species with unequal spiral cleavage nested in Pleistoannelida (Sedentaria + Errantia), a few recent studies looked into Owenia fusiformis, a member of the sister group to all remaining annelids and thus a key lineage to understand annelid and spiralian evolution and development. However, the timing of early cleavage and detailed morphogenetic events leading to the formation of the idiosyncratic mitraria larva of O. Read More

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A Biomimetic Macroporous Hybrid Scaffold with Sustained Drug Delivery for Enhanced Bone Regeneration.

Biomacromolecules 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Bone regeneration is a highly complex physiological process regulated by several factors. In particular, bone-mimicking extracellular matrix and available osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) have been regarded as key contributors for bone regeneration. In this study, we developed a biomimetic hybrid scaffold (CEGH) with sustained release of BMP-2 that would result in enhanced bone formation. Read More

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Sox11 regulates mammary tumour-initiating and metastatic capacity in Brca1-deficient mouse mammary tumour cells.

Dis Model Mech 2021 May 10;14(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, Division of Breast Cancer Research, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, SW3 6JB, UK.

Little is known about the role of Sox11 in the regulation of mammary progenitor cells. Sox11 is expressed by mammary bud epithelial cells during embryonic mammary gland development and is not detected in mammary epithelial cells after birth. As Sox11 is an oncofetal gene, we investigated the effects of reducing Sox11 levels in embryonic mammary progenitor cells and found that Sox11 regulates proliferative state, stem cell activity and lineage marker expression. Read More

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Activin/Nodal/TGF-β Pathway Inhibitor Accelerates BMP4-Induced Cochlear Gap Junction Formation During Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:602197. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Mutations in gap junction beta-2 (), the gene that encodes connexin 26 (CX26), are the most frequent cause of hereditary deafness worldwide. We recently developed an model of 2-related deafness (induced CX26 gap junction-forming cells; iCX26GJCs) from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling-based floating cultures (serum-free culture of embryoid body-like aggregates with quick aggregation cultures; hereafter, SFEBq cultures) and adherent cultures. However, to use these cells as a disease model platform for high-throughput drug screening or regenerative therapy, cell yields must be substantially increased. Read More

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Targeting the TGF-β signaling pathway for resolution of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Trends Pharmacol Sci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Translational Medicine Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, West Yorkshire, BD7 1DP, UK; Centre for Health, Agriculture, and Socio-economic Advancements (CHASA), Lalmonirhat, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Aberrant transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling activation is linked to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). BMPR2 mutations perturb the balance between bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and TGF-β pathways, leading to vascular remodeling, narrowing of the lumen of pulmonary vasculature, and clinical symptoms. This forum highlights the association of the TGF-β pathway with pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches. Read More

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Cryopreservation of Axillary Buds of Cannabis sativa L. by V-Cryoplate Droplet-Vitrification: The Critical Role of Sucrose Preculture.

Cryo Letters 2019 Sep-Oct;40(5):291-298

National Center for Natural Products Research; Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi, USA.

Background: Cryopreservation is the only method allowing the safe and cost-effective long-term conservation of important germplasm. Recent use of the cryo-plate system has proven beneficial in further simplifying the cryopreservation protocols.

Objective: Developing an efficient protocol for the cryopreservation of axillary buds of Cannabis sativa elite cultivars (MX and V1-20) by the V-cryoplate droplet-vitrification technique. Read More

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The Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 in Ovarian Function and Diseases.

Reprod Sci 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430060, China.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the largest subfamily of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. BMP4 is a secreted protein that was originally identified due to its role in bone and cartilage development. Over the past decades, extensive literature has indicated that BMP4 and its receptors are widely expressed in the ovary. Read More

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The amelioration of T2DM rat femoral bone achieved by anti-osteoporosis of caprine CSN1S2 protein through bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

We investigated the potential anti-glycation and anti-osteoporosis properties of Caprine milk CSN1S2 protein on the serum AGEs and sRAGE level, osteogenic factors expressions, femoral bone mesostructure, histomorphometry, and hydroxyapatite crystals changes in T2DM rats. Varying doses of Caprine milk CSN1S2 protein (0, 375, 750, and 1500 mg/kg BW) were used to treat the control and T2DM rats. We measured AGEs and sRAGE level; RUNX2, OSX, BMP2, and Caspase-3 expressions in rats using ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Read More

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Gene Therapy for Bone Healing: Lessons Learned and New Approaches.

Transl Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Rehabilitation Medicine Research Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Musculoskeletal Gene Therapy Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; IBE, MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht, NL.

Although gene therapy has its conceptual origins in the treatment of Mendelian disorders, it has potential applications in regenerative medicine, including bone healing. Research into the use of gene therapy for bone healing began in the 1990s. During this period, the highly osteogenic proteins bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and -7 were cloned, produced in their recombinant forms and approved for clinical use. Read More

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Early Fusion Rates After Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion With Bone-Morphogenetic Protein.

Int J Spine Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center; Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Direct lateral (transpsoas) lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) reportedly achieves union by 1 year postoperatively, but how soon fusion occurs after these minimally invasive procedures is unclear. This study investigated LLIF fusion progression at 6 months and 1 year in a large-scale cohort using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) graft and examined risk factors associated with failed fusion.

Methods: Patients undergoing primary LLIF with a single surgical team from 2015 through 2016 with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) iimplants and BMP graft were identified. Read More

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Shaping the thyroid: From peninsula to de novo lumen formation.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 May 4;531:111313. Epub 2021 May 4.

CELL Unit, de Duve Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

A challenging and stimulating question in biology deals with the formation of organs from groups of undifferentiated progenitor cells. Most epithelial organs indeed derive from the endodermal monolayer and evolve into various shape and tridimensional organization adapted to their specialized adult function. Thyroid organogenesis is no exception. Read More

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Bioelectrical approaches to cancer as a problem of the scaling of the cellular self.

Michael Levin

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University, 200 Boston Ave., Suite 4600, Medford, MA, 02155, USA. Electronic address:

One lens with which to understand the complex phenomenon of cancer is that of developmental biology. Cancer is the inevitable consequence of a breakdown of the communication that enables individual cells to join into computational networks that work towards large-scale, morphogenetic goals instead of more primitive, unicellular objectives. This perspective suggests that cancer may be a physiological disorder, not necessarily due to problems with the genetically-specified protein hardware. Read More

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Organ geometry channels reproductive cell fate in the Arabidopsis ovule primordium.

Elife 2021 May 7;10. Epub 2021 May 7.

Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

In multicellular organisms, sexual reproduction requires the separation of the germline from the soma. In flowering plants, the female germline precursor differentiates as a single spore mother cell (SMC) as the ovule primordium forms. Here, we explored how organ growth contributes to SMC differentiation. Read More

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High Content Image Analysis of Spatiotemporal Proliferation and Differentiation Patterns in 3D Embryoid Body Differentiation Model.

Olga Gordeeva

Methods Mol Biol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Mechanisms of Histogenesis, Kol'tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

The 3D embryoid body (EB) differentiation model is a promising tool for fundamental cell biology and drug discovery studies assessing the compound effects on mammalian and human development. This 3D cell model allows for analyzing spatiotemporal changes during morphogenesis and differentiation. A combination of confocal microscopy with high content image analysis (HCIA) can significantly improve the study of spatiotemporal patterns of early embryonic lineages and compound efficacy and toxicity testing by enhancing the identification and quantification of various cell types. Read More

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Mechanoresponsive Smad5 Enhances MiR-487a Processing to Promote Vascular Endothelial Proliferation in Response to Disturbed Flow.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:647714. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.

MicroRNAs (miRs) and bone morphogenetic protein receptor-specific Smads are mechano-responsive molecules that play vital roles in modulating endothelial cell (EC) functions in response to blood flow. However, the roles of interplay between these molecules in modulating EC functions under flows remain unclear. We elucidated the regulatory roles of the interplay between miR-487a and Smad5 in EC proliferation in response to different flow patterns. Read More

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