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Investigating the relationship between the severity of coronary artery disease and inflammatory factors of MHR, PHR, NHR, and IL-25.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021 1;35:85. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Coronary artery disease (CAD), as a most common cause of death, is mainly caused by atherosclerosis. Due to the role of inflammation in the process of atherosclerosis, in the present study, the relationship between the severity of coronary artery disease and inflammatory factors of monocyte to HDL-C ratio (MHR), platelet-to-HDL-C ratio (PHR), neutrophil to HDL-C ratio (NHR), and IL-25 was investigated. In this cross-sectional study, 64 patients with diagnosis of coronary artery disease who were undergoing angiography in Farshchian heart center in Hamadan were studied. Read More

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Interleukin-27 promotes autophagy in human serum-induced primary macrophages via an mTOR- and LC3-independent pathway.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14898. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Laboratory of Human Retrovirology and Immunoinformatics, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Building 550, Room 126, P.O. Box B, Frederick, MD, 21702, USA.

Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a cytokine that suppresses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in macrophages and is considered as an immunotherapeutic reagent for infectious diseases. It is reported that IL-27 suppresses autophagy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages; however, a role for IL-27 on autophagy induction has been less studied. In this study, we investigated the impact of IL-27 in both autophagy induction and HIV-1 infection in macrophages. Read More

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Expansion of CD10 neutrophils and HLA-DR monocytes driving inflammatory responses after myocardial infarction.

Elife 2021 Jul 22;10. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Immature neutrophils and HLA-DR monocytes expand in cancer, autoimmune diseases and viral infections, but their appearance and immunoregulatory effects on T-cells after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain underexplored.

We found an expansion of circulating immature CD16CD66bCD10 neutrophils and CD14HLA-DR monocytes in AMI patients, correlating with cardiac damage, function and levels of immune-inflammation markers. Immature CD10 neutrophils expressed high amounts of MMP-9 and S100A9, and displayed resistance to apoptosis. Read More

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Traces of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Peripheral Blood Cells of Patients with COVID-19.

OMICS 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third virus that caused coronavirus-related outbreaks over the past 20 years. The outbreak was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, but rapidly progressed into a pandemic of an unprecedented scale since the 1918 flu pandemic. Besides respiratory complications in patients with COVID-19, clinical characterization of severe infection cases showed several other comorbidities, including multiple organ failure, and septic shock. Read More

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High expression of PYCARD is an independent predictor of unfavorable prognosis and chemotherapy resistance in glioma.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(12):986

Department of Neurosurgery, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Background: and domain-containing () was upregulated in TMZ-resistant cell lines and glioma tissue and was correlated with poor prognosis, its role in glioma is unclear known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between and glioma based on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) databases.

Methods: Glioma-resistant cells were compared with parental cells based on the GSE53014 and GSE113510 data sets. Read More

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Circulating white blood cells and lung function impairment: the observational studies and Mendelian randomization analysis.

Ann Med 2021 Dec;53(1):1118-1128

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts have been related to lung function impairment, but causal relationship was not established. We aimed to evaluate independent effects and causal relationships of WBC subtypes with lung function.

Methods: The 19,159 participants from NHANES 2011-2012 ( = 3570), coke-oven workers (COW,  = 1762) and Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ,  = 13,827) cohorts were included in the observational studies. Read More

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December 2021

Hexokinase 3 dysfunction promotes tumorigenesis and immune escape by upregulating monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the clear cell renal cell carcinoma microenvironment.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 1;17(9):2205-2222. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Urology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, P.R. China.

This study aimed to identify the potential prognostic role of HK3 and provide clues about glycolysis and the microenvironmental characteristics of ccRCC. Based on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, n = 533) and Gene expression omnibus (GEO) (n = 127) databases, real-world (n = 377) ccRCC cohorts, and approximately 15,000 cancer samples, the prognostic value and immune implications of HK3 were identified. The functional effects of in ccRCC were analyzed and . Read More

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Pan-caspase inhibition as a potential host-directed immunotherapy against MRSA and other bacterial skin infections.

Sci Transl Med 2021 07;13(601)

Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

causes most skin infections in humans, and the emergence of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains is a serious public health threat. There is an urgent clinical need for nonantibiotic immunotherapies to treat MRSA infections and prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance. Here, we investigated the pan-caspase inhibitor quinoline-valine-aspartic acid-difluorophenoxymethyl ketone (Q-VD-OPH) for efficacy against MRSA skin infection in mice. Read More

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Systemic bacterial infections affect dendritic cell development and function.

Int J Med Microbiol 2021 Jun 30;311(6):151517. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Research Group "Dendritic Cells in Infection and Cancer", German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical in host defense against infection. DC depletion is an early event in the course of sepsis that may impair the host defense mechanisms. Here, we addressed whether DC depletion and dysfunction are pathogen-independent, mediated via pattern recognition receptors, and are due to impaired DC development upon systemic infection with the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Read More

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Systemic Inflammation Response Index and Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index Are Associated with Clinical Outcomes in Patients Treated with Mechanical Thrombectomy for Large Artery Occlusion.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea.

Background: Inflammation plays a pivotal role in acute ischemic stroke, and various inflammatory markers are known to predict prognosis of acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of systemic inflammation response index (SIRI) and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke caused by large artery occlusion.

Methods: The study enrolled 440 patients who underwent MT for large artery occlusion. Read More

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Immunological predictors of disease severity in patients with COVID-19.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Proposal review, registered the study, communication with laboratories and companies, manuscript review, and overall workflow and integrity supervision. Address: Internal Medicine department, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman. P.O. Box 1331, Al Ghubra area 111.

Background: Identifying immune cells involved in COVID-19 disease progression and predictors of poor outcomes is important to manage patients adequately.

Methods: A prospective observational cohort study enrolled 53 mild non-hospitalized and 48 hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients to a tertiary hospital in Oman.

Results: Hospitalized patients were older (58 years vs 36 years, p <0. Read More

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Immunological Aspects of X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease Female Carriers.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 1;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

X-linked Granulomatous Disease (XL-CGD) carriers were previously thought to be clinically healthy because random X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) allows approximately half of their phagocytes/monocytes to express functional gp91phox protein. This supports the NADPH oxidase activity necessary for the killing of engulfed pathogens. Some XL-CGD carriers suffer from inflammatory and autoimmune manifestations as well as infections, although the skewed-XCI of a mutated allele is reported to be exclusively determinant for infection susceptibility. Read More

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Prognostic Value of Tie2-Expressing Monocytes in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 5;13(11). Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Chair and Department of Clinical Immunology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.

Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) are associated with tumor progression and metastasis. This unique subset of monocytes has been identified as a potential prognostic marker in several solid tumors. However, TEMs remain poorly characterized in hematological cancers, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Read More

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[Correlation between preoperative inflammatory biomarkers and postoperative pneumonia or long-term prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer after neoadjuvant therapy].

Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Aug 1;59(8):660-666. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

To examine the correlation between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) and neutrophil-monocyte ratio (NMR) for postoperative pneumonia or long-term overall survival in patients with esophageal cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. The clinical data of 137 patients, including 111 males and 26 females, with the age of (())61(10) years (range: 45 to 75 years), undergoing radical resection of esophageal cancer after neoadjuvant therapy admitted at Department of Thoracic Surgery, West China Hospital from January 2016 to May 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The blood routine one or two days before surgery and the occurrence of pneumonia after surgery were collected via hospital information system. Read More

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Focused ultrasound with anti-pGlu3 Aβ enhances efficacy in Alzheimer's disease-like mice via recruitment of peripheral immune cells.

J Control Release 2021 Jun 26;336:443-456. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases in the Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA, United States of America; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Pyroglutamate-3 amyloid-β (pGlu3 Aβ) is an N-terminally modified, pathogenic form of amyloid-β that is present in cerebral amyloid plaques and vascular deposits. Here, we used focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles to enhance the intravenous delivery of an Fc-competent anti-pGlu3 Aβ monoclonal antibody, 07/2a mAb, across the blood brain barrier (BBB) in an attempt to improve Aβ removal and memory in aged APP/PS1dE9 mice, an Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like model of amyloidogenesis. First, we demonstrated that bilateral hippocampal FUS-BBB disruption (FUS-BBBD) led to a 5. Read More

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Kidney resident macrophages in the rat have minimal turnover and replacement by blood monocytes.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 06 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Kidney resident macrophages (KRM) are involved in maintaining renal homeostasis and in controlling the pathological outcome of acute kidney injury and cystic kidney disease in mice. In adult mice, KRM maintain their population through self-renewal with little or no input from the peripheral blood. Despite recent data suggesting that a transcriptionally similar population of KRM-like cells is present across species, the idea that they are self-renewing and independent of peripheral blood input in other species has yet to be proven due to the lack of an appropriate model and cross-species expression markers. Read More

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Rapid Release of Interleukin-1β from Human Platelets Is Independent of NLRP3 and Caspase.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Vascular Biology Group, ANZAC Research Institute, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, University of Sydney, Concord, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective:  Platelets are critical in mediating both rapid responses to injury and the development and progression of coronary disease. Several studies have shown that, after prolonged exposure to agonists, they produce and release inflammatory mediators including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), via the classical pathway (NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1 cleavage to release active IL-1β) as described for leukocytes. This study aimed to determine whether there is rapid release of IL-1β in response to soluble platelet agonists and whether such rapid release is NLRP3- and caspase-1-dependent. Read More

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Metformin, Macrophage Dysfunction and Atherosclerosis.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:682853. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China( USTC), Hefei, China.

Metformin is one of the most widely prescribed hypoglycemic drugs and has the potential to treat many diseases. More and more evidence shows that metformin can regulate the function of macrophages in atherosclerosis, including reducing the differentiation of monocytes and inhibiting the inflammation, oxidative stress, polarization, foam cell formation and apoptosis of macrophages. The mechanisms by which metformin regulates the function of macrophages include AMPK, AMPK independent targets, NF-κB, ABCG5/8, Sirt1, FOXO1/FABP4 and HMGB1. Read More

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Elevated TYROBP expression predicts poor prognosis and high tumor immune infiltration in patients with low-grade glioma.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jun 23;21(1):723. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Neuroscience, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510260, People's Republic of China.

Background: Tyrosine protein tyrosine kinase binding protein (TYROBP) binds non-covalently to activated receptors on the surface of various immune cells, and mediates signal transduction and cellular activation. It is dysregulated in various malignancies, although little is known regarding its role in low-grade glioma. The aim of this study is to explore the clinicopathological significance, prognostic value and immune signature of TYROBP expression in low-grade glioma (LGG). Read More

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Review of cadmium exposure and smoking-independent effects on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the general population.

J Intern Med 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Exposure to cadmium (Cd) via food and smoking is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Blood and urine levels of Cd are established biomarkers of exposure.

Objectives: To review: (1) the smoking-independent associations between Cd exposure and ASCVD, including the possible presence of a nonlinear dose-response relationship with Cd exposure and (2) the causal effects of Cd exposure on different stages of atherosclerosis. Read More

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Stabilin-2 deficiency increases thrombotic burden and alters the composition of venous thrombi in a mouse model.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Stabilin-2 is an endocytic scavenger receptor that mediates the clearance of glycosaminoglycans, phosphatidylserine-expressing cells, and the von Willebrand factor-factor VIII (FVIII) complex. In a genome-wide screening study, pathogenic loss-of-function variants in the human STAB2 gene associated with an increased incidence of unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the specific mechanism(s) by which stabilin-2 deficiency influences the pathogenesis of VTE is unknown. Read More

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Heterozygous gain-of-function variants cause an autoinflammatory immunodeficiency.

Sci Immunol 2021 Jun;6(60)

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Analysis of autoinflammatory and immunodeficiency disorders elucidates human immunity and fosters the development of targeted therapies. Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 is a type I interferon-induced, intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensor that generates 2'-5'-oligoadenylate to activate ribonuclease L (RNase L) as a means of antiviral defense. We identified four de novo heterozygous gain-of-function variants in six patients with a polymorphic autoinflammatory immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent fever, dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Read More

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High postoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and low preoperative lymphocyte-monocyte ratio predict poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients receiving gastrectomy with positive lavage cytology: a retrospective cohort study.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, 236-0004, Japan.

Background: Long-term outcomes in gastric cancer patients with positive lavage cytology (CY1) are generally poor. This multi-institutional retrospective cohort study aims to evaluate the clinical significance of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) in CY1 gastric cancer patients.

Methods: A total of 121 CY1 gastric cancer patients without other non-curative factors, who underwent macroscopically curative resection, were enrolled in this study. Read More

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Diminished Non-Classical Monocytes in the Blood Associate with Disease Severity in Alcoholic Hepatitis.

Clin Exp Gastroenterol 2021 9;14:259-267. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objective: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) holds a high mortality, and vast macrophage infiltration of the liver is involved in the progressive liver injury. No efficient medical treatment exists, and macrophages may be a future treatment target. Here, we examine associations between non-classical monocyte subsets and cell surface markers of migration with disease activity in patients with severe AH. Read More

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Immune status changing helps diagnose osteoarticular tuberculosis.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0252875. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Spine and Osteopathy Ward, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study is aimed to develop a new nomogram for the clinical diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB).

Methods: xCell score estimation to obtained the immune cell type abundance scores. We downloaded the expression profile of GSE83456 from GEO and proceed xCell score estimation. Read More

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Lipid droplet: A functionally active organelle in monocyte to macrophage differentiation and its inflammatory properties.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Jun 10;1866(10):158981. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Biological Sciences, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032, India. Electronic address:

Lipid droplets (LDs) perform several important functions like inflammatory responses, membrane trafficking, acts as secondary messengers, etc. rather than simply working as an energy reservoir. LDs have been implicated as a controlling factor in the progression of atherosclerosis followed by foam cell formation that derives from macrophages during the differentiation process. Read More

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Novel peripheral blood cell ratios: Effective 3-month post-mechanical thrombectomy prognostic biomarkers for acute ischemic stroke patients.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jul 5;89:56-64. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Red blood cell distribution width to platelet ratio (RPR), Monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR), and Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are novel inflammatory biomarkers in laboratory tests, which are associated with clinical outcomes in malignancy, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. This study aimed to determine their predictive value for the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke after mechanical thrombectomy (MT).

Methods: A total of 286 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) admitted to a tertiary stroke center in China between January 2018 and February 2020 were treated by MT. Read More

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CMV exposure drives long-term CD57+ CD4 memory T cell inflation following allogeneic stem cell transplant.

Blood 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States.

Donor and recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus correlate with transplant related mortality that is associated with reduced survival following allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT). Prior epidemiologic studies have suggested that CMV seronegative recipients (R-) receiving a CMV seropositive graft (D+) experience inferior outcomes compared to other serostatus combinations, an observation that appears independent of viral reactivation. We therefore investigated the hypothesis that prior donor CMV exposure irreversibly modifies immunologic function after SCT. Read More

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Distribution of complete blood count constituents in gestational diabetes mellitus.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26301

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shenzhen Longhua District Central Hospital, Guangdong Medical University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Background Trial Design: The incidence rate of gestational diabetes is high. In the long run, it harms the health of both the mother and child. In order to understand the distribution of hematological cells with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a longitudinal cohort study was conducted from 2012 to 2018. Read More

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Human monocytes store and secrete preformed CCL5, independent of de novo protein synthesis.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Monocytes are a subset of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with diverse roles in immunity, including sentinel roles in cytokine secretion. Conventionally, cytokines require an inductive stimulus for their expression and secretion, resulting in a time lag from the time of stimulation to when the proteins are packaged and secreted. Because cytokines are the main communicators in the immune system, their temporal expression is a key factor in coordinating responses to efficiently resolve infection. Read More

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