340,566 results match your criteria molecules cell


Chromosomal Location of Genes Differentially Expressed in Tumor Cells Surviving High-Dose X-ray Irradiation: A Preliminary Study on Radio-Fragile Sites.

Curr Issues Mol Biol 2021 Sep 8;43(2):1133-1141. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.

Altered gene expression is a common feature of tumor cells after irradiation. Our previous study showed that this phenomenon is not only an acute response to cytotoxic stress, instead, it was persistently detected in tumor cells that survived 10 Gy irradiation (IR cells). The current understanding is that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are recognized by the phosphorylation of histone H2AX (H2AX) and triggers the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein or the ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) pathway, which activate or inactivate the DNA repair or apoptotic or senescence related molecules and causes the expression of genes in many instances. Read More

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September 2021

Genetically Encoded Sensor Cells for the Screening of Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Effectors in Herbal Extracts.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 16;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620, Korea.

Although in vitro sensors provide facile low-cost ways to screen for biologically active targets, their results may not accurately represent the molecular interactions in biological systems. Cell-based sensors have emerged as promising platforms to screen targets in biologically relevant environments. However, there are few examples where cell-based sensors have been practically applied for drug screening. Read More

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September 2021

Parallelizable Microfluidic Platform to Model and Assess In Vitro Cellular Barriers: Technology and Application to Study the Interaction of 3D Tumor Spheroids with Cellular Barriers.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 3;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute, University of Tübingen, Markwiesenstraße 55, 72770 Reutlingen, Germany.

Endothelial and epithelial cellular barriers play a vital role in the selective transport of solutes and other molecules. The properties and function of these barriers are often affected in case of inflammation and disease. Modelling cellular barriers in vitro can greatly facilitate studies of inflammation, disease mechanisms and progression, and in addition, can be exploited for drug screening and discovery. Read More

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September 2021

Management of inflammation in cardiovascular diseases.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Sep 22:105912. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL-35233. Electronic address:

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Recently, the role of inflammation in the progression of diseases has significantly attracted considerable attention. In addition, various comorbidities, including diabetes, obesity, etc. Read More

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September 2021

Targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway: A therapeutic strategy in COVID-19 patients.

Immunol Lett 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, AB25 2ZD, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Some COVID-19 patients suffer complications from anti-viral immune responses which can lead to both a dangerous cytokine storm and development of blood-borne factors that render severe thrombotic events more likely. The precise immune response profile is likely, therefore, to determine and predict patient outcomes and also represents a target for intervention. Anti-viral T cell exhaustion in the early stages is associated with disease progression. Read More

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September 2021

Lectin isolated from Abelmoschus esculentus induces caspase mediated apoptosis in Human U87 glioblastoma cell lines and modulates the expression of circadian clock genes.

Toxicon 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Division of Molecular Biology and Immuno Biology, IIISM, SRM IST, Kattankulathur 603203, TN, India; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science & Humanities, SRM IST, Kattankulathur 603203, TN, India. Electronic address:

Lectins are a cluster of proteins which are capable of recognizing and binding to glycoconjugates and are extensively found in plants, animals, fungi and bacteria. Plant-derived lectins have been gaining importance over the years due to their innumerable biological activities and also have the added possibility of being compatible to the human system while simultaneously exhibiting properties like antimicrobial and antitumor activities. Abelmoschus esculentus (AE) commonly known as okra is a vegetable with medicinal properties. Read More

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September 2021

DNA-PKcs kinase activity stabilizes the transcription factor Egr1 in activated immune cells.

J Biol Chem 2021 Sep 22:101209. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Division of Surgical Research, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States of America; Arkansas Children's Research Institute, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States of America. Electronic address:

DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is known primarily for its function in DNA double-stranded break repair and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). However, DNA-PKcs also has a critical yet undefined role in immunity impacting both myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages spurring interest in targeting DNA-PKcs for therapeutic strategies in immune-related diseases. To gain insight into the function of DNA-PKcs within immune cells, we performed a quantitative phosphoproteomic screen in T cells to identify phosphorylation targets of DNA-PKcs. Read More

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September 2021

Broad locations of antigenic regions for anti-TRPM1 autoantibodies in paraneoplastic retinopathy with retinal ON bipolar cell dysfunction.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Sep 22:108770. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Laboratory for Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Purpose: Cancer-associated retinal ON bipolar cell dysfunction (CARBD), which includes melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR), has been reported to be caused by autoantibodies against the molecules expressed in ON bipolar cells, including TRPM1. The purpose of this study was to determine the antigenic regions of the autoantibodies against TRPM1 in the sera of CARBD patients, in whom we previously detected anti-TRPM1 autoantibodies.

Methods: The antigenic regions against TRPM1 in the sera of eight CARBD patients were examined by Western blots using HEK293T cells transfected with the plasmids expressing FLAG-tagged TRPM1 fragments. Read More

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September 2021

Acute brain vascular regeneration occurs via lymphatic transdifferentiation.

Dev Cell 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Institute of Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Southwest University, Beibei 400715, Chongqing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chongqing), Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beibei 400714, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Acute ischemic stroke damages the regional brain blood vessel (BV) network. Acute recovery of basic blood flows, which is carried out by the earliest regenerated BVs, are critical to improve clinical outcomes and minimize lethality. Although the late-regenerated BVs form via growing along the meninge-derived ingrown lymphatic vessels (iLVs), mechanisms underlying the early, acute BV regeneration remain elusive. Read More

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September 2021

The CTPase activity of ParB determines the size and dynamics of prokaryotic DNA partition complexes.

Mol Cell 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Biology, University of Marburg, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, 35043 Marburg, Germany; Center for Synthetic Microbiology, 35043 Marburg, Germany. Electronic address:

ParB-like CTPases mediate the segregation of bacterial chromosomes and low-copy number plasmids. They act as DNA-sliding clamps that are loaded at parS motifs in the centromere of target DNA molecules and spread laterally to form large nucleoprotein complexes serving as docking points for the DNA segregation machinery. Here, we solve crystal structures of ParB in the pre- and post-hydrolysis state and illuminate the catalytic mechanism of nucleotide hydrolysis. Read More

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September 2021

Measuring and Manipulating Membrane Cholesterol for the Study of Hedgehog Signaling.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2374:73-87

Department of Medicine and Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Cholesterol is an abundant lipid in mammalian plasma membranes that regulates the reception of the Hedgehog (Hh) signal in target cells. In vertebrates, cell-surface organelles called primary cilia function as compartments for the propagation of Hh signals. Recent structural, biochemical, and cell-biological studies have led to the model that Patched-1 (PTCH1), the receptor for Hh ligands, uses its transporter-like activity to lower cholesterol accessibility in the membrane surrounding primary cilia. Read More

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January 2022

Liquid biopsy: state of reproductive medicine and beyond.

Hum Reprod 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Liquid biopsy is the process of sampling and analyzing body fluids, which enables non-invasive monitoring of complex biological systems in vivo. Liquid biopsy has myriad applications in health and disease as a wide variety of components, ranging from circulating cells to cell-free nucleic acid molecules, can be analyzed. Here, we review different components of liquid biopsy, survey state-of-the-art, non-invasive methods for detecting those components, demonstrate their clinical applications and discuss ethical considerations. Read More

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September 2021

Quercetin-loaded platelets as a potential targeted therapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme cell line U373-MG.

Biotechnol J 2021 Sep 25:e2100271. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, V.L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

Over the globe, the incidence of glioblastoma multiforme (GM) is very low i.e., 1-4 cases per 100,000, but it is fatal and cancer grows very fast inside the brain tissues, namely astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Read More

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September 2021

Natural products inducing nucleolar stress: implications in cancer therapy.

Anticancer Drugs 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Key Laboratory of Translational Cancer Stem Cell Research, Hunan Normal University Department of Pathophysiology, Hunan Normal University School of Medicine, Changsha Department of Pathophysiology, Jishou University School of Medicine, Jishou, Hunan, China.

The nucleolus is the site of ribosome biogenesis and is found to play an important role in stress sensing. For over 100 years, the increase in the size and number of nucleoli has been considered as a marker of aggressive tumors. Despite this, the contribution of the nucleolus and the biologic processes mediated by it to cancer pathogenesis has been largely overlooked. Read More

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September 2021

Newly synthesized benzimidazoles inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 levels in prostate cancer cells.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Giresun University, Faculty of Science and Art, Department of Chemistry, Giresun. Turkey.

Background: Investigating the effects of newly synthesized agents on various molecular mechanisms to understand their mechanism of action is an important step of pre-clinical screening. Benzimidazoles are composed of a unique fused benzene and imidazole ring and have attracted great attention due to their broad bioactivities, including antitumor.

Objective: In the current study, we reported the synthesis of novel benzimidazole derivatives and investigated the possible cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic effects on human prostate cancer and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Read More

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September 2021

The Role of Intracellular Signaling Molecules in the Production of Granulocytic CSF Mononuclear Phagocytes in Stress and Cytostatic Influence.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

E. D. Goldberg Research Institute of Pharmacology and Regenerative Medicine, Tomsk National Research Medical Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia.

Under conditions of steady-state hemopoiesis, nuclear factor NF-κB, in contrast to MAP kinase p38, plays an important role in the maintenance of the initial level of secretory activity of monocytes. The increase in the production of G-CSF under stress conditions (10-h immobilization) is mainly regulated by the alternative p38MARK signaling pathway via activation of p38 synthesis. It was shown that under conditions of cytostatic-induced myelosuppression, the production of protein kinase p38 in cells decreases, and it, like NF-κB, is not the main one in the production of hemopoietin by mononuclear phagocytes. Read More

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September 2021

Crosstalk among plant growth regulators and signaling molecules during biotic and abiotic stresses: molecular responses and signaling pathways.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier's College (Autonomous), 30, Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata, 700016, West Bengal, India.

Key Message: Plant stress responses are extremely sophisticated which implicate changes at the cellular, physiological and transcriptome levels by activating specific gene expression related to the challenges faced by plants. Read More

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September 2021

Oncolytic adenoviruses synergistically enhance anti-PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy by modulating the tumour microenvironment in a 4T1 orthotopic mouse model.

Cancer Gene Ther 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Experimental Haematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, P.R. China.

Effective therapeutic strategies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are still lacking. Clinical data suggest that a large number of TNBC patients cannot benefit from single immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment due to the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment (TME). Therefore, combination immunotherapy is an alternative approach to overcome this limitation. Read More

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September 2021

Synergistic apoptotic effect of miR-183-5p and Polo-Like kinase 1 inhibitor NMS-P937 in breast cancer cells.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that act as endogenous regulatory molecules targeting specific mRNAs for translational repression. Studies of breast cancer genomics indicate that breast cancer subtypes are distinguished and regulated by specific sets of miRNAs which affect activities such as tumor initiation, progression, and even drug response. Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1) is widely considered to be a proto-oncogene due to its increased expression in multiple tumor types, as well as its crucial role in regulating mitosis. Read More

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September 2021

Proliferating coacervate droplets as the missing link between chemistry and biology in the origins of life.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 24;12(1):5487. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Creative Research, Exploratory Research Center on Life and Living Systems (ExCELLS), National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi, Japan.

The hypothesis that prebiotic molecules were transformed into polymers that evolved into proliferating molecular assemblages and eventually a primitive cell was first proposed about 100 years ago. To the best of our knowledge, however, no model of a proliferating prebiotic system has yet been realised because different conditions are required for polymer generation and self-assembly. In this study, we identify conditions suitable for concurrent peptide generation and self-assembly, and we show how a proliferating peptide-based droplet could be created by using synthesised amino acid thioesters as prebiotic monomers. Read More

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September 2021

Two naturally derived small molecules disrupt the sineoculis homeobox homolog 1-eyes absent homolog 1 interaction to inhibit colorectal cancer cell growth.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China Department of Vascular Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.

Background: Emerging evidence indicates that the sineoculis homeobox homolog 1-eyes absent homolog 1 (SIX1-EYA1) transcriptional complex significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple cancers by mediating the expression of genes involved in different biological processes, such as cell-cycle progression and metastasis. However, the roles of the SIX1-EYA1 transcriptional complex and its targets in colorectal cancer (CRC) are still being investigated. This study aimed to investigate the roles of SIX1-EYA1 in the pathogenesis of CRC, to screen inhibitors disrupting the SIX1-EYA1 interaction and to evaluate the efficiency of small molecules in the inhibition of CRC cell growth. Read More

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September 2021

Bacterial rhamnolipids and their 3-hydroxyalkanoate precursors activate innate immunity through two independent mechanisms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(39)

Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Unité de Recherche Résistance Induite et Bioprotection des Plantes, Unité d'accueil 4707, Institut National de Recherche pour l'Agriculture, l'Alimentation et l'Environnement, Unité sous contrat 1488, Structure Fédérative de Recherche Condorcet, CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 3417, 51687 Reims, France;

Plant innate immunity is activated upon perception of invasion pattern molecules by plant cell-surface immune receptors. Several bacteria of the genera and produce rhamnolipids (RLs) from l-rhamnose and ()-3-hydroxyalkanoate precursors (HAAs). RL and HAA secretion is required to modulate bacterial surface motility, biofilm development, and thus successful colonization of hosts. Read More

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September 2021

Targeted inhibition of TAK1 abrogates TGFβ1 non-canonical signaling axis, NFκB/Smad7 inhibiting human endometriotic cells proliferation and inducing cell death involving autophagy.

Cytokine 2021 Sep 21;148:155700. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, U.P., India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-CDRI Campus, Lucknow 226031, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Transforming growth factor (TGFβ) is known to play a major role in establishment and maintenance of endometriosis as reported by our group earlier, the underlying mechanism remains to be explored. We deciphered the involvement of TAK1 in TGFβ1- induced cellular responses and delineated the signaling mechanism in human endometriotic cells. The endometriotic cells showed elevated expression of TGFβ1 signaling-effector molecules. Read More

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September 2021

Updates on sphingolipids: Spotlight on retinopathy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Sep 21;143:112197. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Institut du Savoir Montfort (ISM), Hôpital Montfort, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Laboratory of Endocrinology and Radioisotopes, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies (IMPM), Yaoundé, Cameroon. Electronic address:

The sphingolipids ceramide (Cer), ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), sphingosine (Sph), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)) are key signaling molecules that regulate many patho-biological processes. During the last decade, they have gained increasing attention since they may participate in important and numerous retinal processes, such as neuronal survival and death, proliferation and migration of neuronal and vascular cells, inflammation, and neovascularization. Cer for instance has emerged as a key mediator of inflammation and death of neuronal and retinal pigment epithelium cells in experimental models of retinopathies such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. Read More

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September 2021

Involvement of epithelia-derived exosomes in chronic respiratory diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Sep 21;143:112189. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine Science, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Research Center of China-Africa Infectious Diseases, Xiangya School of Medicine Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Exosomes are tiny membrane lipid bilayer vesicles (φ40-100 nm) formed by the fusion of multivesicular bodies with plasma membrane, which are released extracellular by exocytosis. As natural nanocarriers, exosomes contain a variety of signal substances of the mother cell: nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, etc., which always play a vital role in the transmission of signal molecules between different cells. Read More

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September 2021

A review on pharmacological activities and synergistic effect of quercetin with small molecule agents.

Phytomedicine 2021 Sep 13;92:153736. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Heyrovskeho 1203, Hradec Kralove CZ500 05, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Background: Quercetin is a natural flavonoid, which widely exists in nature, such as tea, coffee, apples, and onions. Numerous studies have showed that quercetin has multiple biological activities such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging. Hence, quercetin has a significant therapeutic effect on cancers, obesity, diabetes, and other diseases. Read More

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September 2021

A distinct association of inflammatory molecules with outcomes of COVID-19 in younger versus older adults.

Clin Immunol 2021 Sep 22;232:108857. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Section of Rheumatology, Allergy & Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Aging can alter immunity affecting host defense. COVID-19 has the most devastating clinical outcomes in older adults, raising the implication of immune aging in determining its severity and mortality. We investigated biological predictors for clinical outcomes in a dataset of 13,642 ambulatory and hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients, including younger (age < 65, n = 566) and older (age ≥ 65, n = 717) subjects, with in-depth analyses of inflammatory molecules, cytokines and comorbidities. Read More

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September 2021

Discovery of novel IDO1 inhibitors targeting the protein's apo form through scaffold hopping from holo-IDO1 inhibitor.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Sep 21:128373. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Design and Optimization, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

Immunomodulating enzyme IDO1 plays an important role in tumor immune resistance. Inhibiting IDO1 by small molecules with new mechanism of action is a potential strategy in IDO1 inhibitor development. Based on our urea derived compound originally binding with holo-IDO1, through scaffold hopping, a series of diisobutylaminophenyl hydroxyamidine compounds were designed. Read More

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September 2021

Mechanism by which Huoxue Tongluo Qiwei Decoction improves the erectile function of rats with diabetic erectile dysfunction.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 21:114674. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

First Clinical Medical College, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China; Andrology Department, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100700, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Huoxue Tongluo Qiwei Decoction is a classical herbal formula, which can improve the symptoms of erectile dysfunction (ED) patients and has a good therapeutic effect on patients with diabetic erectile dysfunction (DIED). The main function of Huoxue Tongluo Qiwei Decoction is to stimulate the blood circulation and dredge collaterals, remove blood stasis, and calm wind.

Rationale: To further explore the mechanism of Huoxue Tongluo Qiwei Decoction in the treatment of DIED, related animal experiments were designed. Read More

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September 2021

The effects of quorum sensing molecule farnesol on the yield and activity of extracellular polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa in liquid fermentation.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 21;191:377-384. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, PR China. Electronic address:

A strategy by exogenous addition of quorum sensing molecule farnesol to improve the production, antioxidant activity and antitumor activity of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) of Grifola frondosa by liquid fermentation was proposed in the study. The highest yield of EPS induced by farnesol was 1.25 g/L, which was 150% higher than that of the control. Read More

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September 2021