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Application of the Trabecular Bone Score in Clinical Practice.

J Bone Metab 2021 May 31;28(2):101-113. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

The trabecular bone score (TBS) was introduced as an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture, complementary to bone mineral density (BMD), and is derived using the same dual energy X-ray absorptiometry images. Recently, it has been approved for clinical use in Korea. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review to optimize the use of TBS in clinical practice. Read More

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The role of systemic inflammation in the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 27;40(6):3661-3667. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Blood Transfusion, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains inconclusive. Moreover, whether inflammatory biomarkers are involved in this association has not been explored. This study aims to investigate serum 25(OH)D in relation to T2DM in a Chinese population and provide clues for the inflammatory mechanism whereby serum 25(OH)D deficiency increases T2DM risk. Read More

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Possible involvement of agmatine in neuropharmacological actions of metformin in diabetic mice.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 12:174255. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Shrimati Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur, M.S, India, 441 002. Electronic address:

The risk of psychiatric and neurological disorders is significantly higher in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients are more susceptible to depression, anxiety and memory impairment as compared with non-diabetic individuals. Metformin, a biguanide used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), promotes neurogenesis, enhances spatial memory function and protects the brain against oxidative imbalance beyond its effect on glucose metabolism. Read More

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Neutrophil degranulation biomarkers characterize restrictive echocardiographic pattern with diastolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Jun 15:e13640. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

First Clinic of internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 6 viale Benedetto XV, 16132, Genoa, Italy.

Objective: investigating the potential association between neutrophils degranulation and patterns of myocardial dysfunction in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Background: Two distinct phenotypes of diabetic cardiomyopathy have been described: a restrictive phenotype with diastolic dysfunction (restrictive/DD) and a dilative phenotype with systolic dysfunction (dilative/SD). However, the underlying determinants of these two patterns are not yet recognized METHODS: In this single-center, observational, cross-sectional study 492 patients were recruited. Read More

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Thiazolidinediones and Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cohort Study.

Hepatology 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Disease, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are potential pharmacological treatment options for patients at risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, we examined the association between the risk of NAFLD and the use of thiazolidinediones and GLP-1 receptor agonists compared with the use of sulfonylureas (SUs) and insulins. Additionally, we calculated the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in users of TZDs and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Read More

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Dapagliflozin reduces hepatic and visceral fat in type-2 diabetes patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background/purpose Of The Study: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have shown excellent results in glucose control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, while also promoting weight loss. These mechanisms may be beneficial in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our study aims to investigate the effect of dapagliflozin on hepatic and visceral fat contents, and related biochemical markers in T2DM with NAFLD patients. Read More

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Kidney outcomes using a sustained ≥40% decline in eGFR: A meta-analysis of SGLT2 inhibitor trials.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: A recent meta-analysis of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor outcome trials reported that SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with reduction in the risk of adverse composite kidney outcomes, with moderate heterogeneity across the trials; however, the endpoints were defined differently across the trials.

Hypothesis: The apparent heterogeneity of the meta-analysis of kidney composite outcomes of SGLT2 inhibitor trials will be substantially reduced by using a consistent assessment of sustained ≥40% decline in eGFR/chronic kidney dialysis/transplantation/renal death across trials.

Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of kidney composite outcomes from the four SGLT2 cardiovascular outcome trial programs conducted in general type 2 diabetes mellitus populations, which included, as a surrogate of progression to kidney failure, a sustained ≥40% decline in eGFR along with kidney replacement therapy and kidney death. Read More

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The potential role of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes-related Alzheimer's disease.

Ling He Yi Sun

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 639 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, 211198, China.

Kelch-like ECH associated-protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway is thought to be the key regulatory process defensing oxidative stress in multiple organs. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both serious global health problems with high prevalence. A growing number of literatures have suggested a possible link between Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway and the pathological changes of T2DM, AD as well as T2DM-related AD. Read More

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C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio and 8-year incidence of type 2 diabetes: the Korean genome and epidemiology study.

Acta Diabetol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Family Medicine, Yong-in Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 363, Dongbaekjukjeon-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin Si, Gyeonggi-do, 16995, Republic of Korea.

Aims: The C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR) has been reported as a novel prognostic marker in serious illness and various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of CAR with incidence risk of type 2 diabetes in adults without chronic disease.

Methods: A total of 5904 participants aged 40 to 69 years were selected from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study who were observed over 12 years. Read More

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Safety and efficacy of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in patients with portal hypertension with liver function of Childs A.

Surg Endosc 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of General and Laparoscopic Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Old Rajender Nagar, New Delhi, 110060, India.

Introduction: Advanced liver disease and portal hypertension (PH) are seen as a relative contraindication for bariatric and metabolic surgery. Several studies have shown significant improvement in liver function and liver histology after bariatric surgery. There are very few studies describing bariatric surgery in patients with PH. Read More

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Efficacy of green jackfruit flour as a medical nutrition therapy replacing rice or wheat in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Nutr Diabetes 2021 Jun 14;11(1):18. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

God's Own Food Solutions Pvt Ltd, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Background/objectives: Medical nutrition therapy along with pharmacological interventions as a multidisciplinary approach is required to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study evaluated the efficacy of Jackfruit365™ green jackfruit flour as an integral part of daily meal in patients with T2DM.

Subjects/methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted between May 2019 and February 2020. Read More

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Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Deficiency Abrogates Diabetic and Obese Phenotypes while Restoring Endothelial Function via Inhibition of NOX1.

Diabetes 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095;

We have previously demonstrated a novel role of bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP4) in inducing NOX1-dependent eNOS uncoupling, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammatory activation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it has remained unclear as to how BMP4 activates NOX1 and whether targeting the new mechanistic pathway revealed is effective in preserving endothelial function in T2DM. Here we observed that BMP4 induced marked, time-dependent increase in physiological binding between TLR2 and NOX1 in aortic endothelial cells, as well as increased binding of TLR2 to NOXO1. Read More

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Peripheral neurovascular link: an overview of interactions and in vitro models.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Complex Tissue Regeneration Department, MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Universiteitssingel 40, 6229ER Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Nerves and blood vessels (BVs) establish extensive arborized networks to innervate tissues and deliver oxygen/metabolic support. Developmental cues direct the formation of these intricate and often overlapping patterns, which reflect close interactions within the peripheral neurovascular system. Besides the mutual dependence to survive and function, nerves and BVs share several receptors and ligands, as well as principles of differentiation, growth and pathfinding. Read More

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Ethanol extract of mulberry leaves partially restores the composition of intestinal microbiota and strengthens liver glycogen fragility in type 2 diabetic rats.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Jun 14;21(1):172. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221000, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Mulberry leaf as a traditional Chinese medicine is able to treat obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. It is well known that diabetes leads to intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. It is also recently discovered that liver glycogen structure is impaired in diabetic animals. Read More

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Assessment of Exenatide loaded Biotinylated Trimethylated Chitosan/HP-55 Nanoparticles.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Jinhua Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 365 Renmin East Road, Jinhua321000, China.

Background: Exenatide (EXE) is an anti-hyperglycemic agent approved for treating type 2 diabetes by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, twice-daily injection of exenatide inconveniences most patients.

Objective: In this study, biotinylated trimethylated chitosan (Bio-TMC) based nanoparticles were proposed to promote oral absorption of exenatide. Read More

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Gastroretentive Metformin loaded Nanoparticles for the effective management of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

SLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur (C.G.) 495 009, India.

Introduction: Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, has low bioavailability and a short biological half-life. Thus, bioavailability enhancement and prolonged release of the drug are highly desirable. In this regard, we aimed to developed gastroretentive nanoparticles made of jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) loaded with metformin. Read More

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Identifying Phenotypically Distinct Fibroblast Subsets in Type 2 Diabetes-Associated Iatrogenic Laryngotracheal Stenosis.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Jun 15:1945998211014790. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: Iatrogenic laryngotracheal stenosis (iLTS) is the pathologic narrowing of the glottis, subglottis, and/or trachea secondary to intubation or tracheostomy related injury. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are more likely to develop iLTS. To date, the metabolomics and phenotypic expression of cell markers in fibroblasts derived from patients with T2DM and iLTS are largely unknown. Read More

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Rates and clinical impact of discordant X-ray and CT imaging in transfers to a pediatric emergency department.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 May 29;49:166-171. Epub 2021 May 29.

Children's Hospital of Michigan, Division of Emergency Medicine, 3901 Beaubien Blvd, Detroit, MI 48201, United States; Central Michigan University School of Medicine, 1280 East Campus Dr, Mt Pleasant, MI 48858, United States.

Objectives: Children are often transferred to a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) for definitive care after completion of diagnostic imaging. There is a paucity of data on the concordance rates of interpretation of imaging studies between referral and PED. Our objective is to describe the rates and clinical impact of discordant interpretation of X-rays and CT in children transferred to a PED. Read More

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Regular physical activity reduces the proinflammatory response in older women with diabetes and hypertension in the postmenopausal phase.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jun 11:111449. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Multidisciplinary Institute of Health, Anísio Teixeira Campus, Federal University of Bahia, 58 Hormindo Barros Street, 17 Block, 58 Lot, Candeias, 45.029-094 Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aging in women is characterized by extreme hormonal changes leading them to develop a chronic low-grade inflammation that is linked to the development of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this scenario, physical activity emerges as an interesting methodology, since it seems to be connected to a decrease in serum levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, most studies evaluate these cytokines in an isolated manner not considering the influence of comorbidities on the responsiveness of participants to the benefits of physical activity. Read More

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The calculated versus the measured glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA ) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jun 14:e23873. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Unaizah College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder that is increasing globally. It is associated with chronic complications that are more common among patients with poor glycaemic control. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA ) is the gold standard for monitoring glycaemic control. Read More

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Can sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors be beneficial in patients with acute myocardial infarction?

Kardiol Pol 2021 ;79(5):503-509

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, have shown impressive beneficial effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in mandatory cardiovascular outcome trials. Retrospective data analysis revealed signals that pointed towards positive effects independent of the antidiabetic effects. This could be confirmed for empagliflozin and dapagliflozin in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction alone, where rates of hospitalization for heart failure and cumulative major adverse cardiovascular events were reduced to a similar extent in patients with and without diabetes mellitus as in corresponding outcome trials. Read More

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January 2021

Association analysis of -429T/C receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy and serum soluble RAGE levels in Pakistani patients.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Apr;71(4):1175-1180

Department of Biochemistry, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Objective: To investigate the association of receptor for advanced glycation end products gene polymorphism 429T/C (rs1800625) with diabetic retinopathy and serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: The case-control study was conducted from January 2017 to December 2018 at Pakistan Railway Hospital, Rawalpindi, and the Multidisciplinary Laboratories of Islamic International Medical College, Riphah International University (RIU), Islamabad, Pakistan. Those included were healthy controls in group A, diabetics without retinopathy in group B and patients having diabetic retinopathy in group C. Read More

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Determination of risk factors associated with inflammation in hypertensive patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in a Palestinian Diabetes Study.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Nursing, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Al-Azhar University of Gaza (AUG), Gaza City 00970, State of Palestine.

Objective: to determine the risk factors associated with inflammation in hypertensive patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: A total of 164 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes patients aged 38 to 60 years were selected from 7 primary healthcare centers in Gaza city, Palestine. Interview questionnaire were employed to collect data related to age, gender, smoking habits, and physical activity pattern. Read More

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Factors associated with stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China: a propensity score matched study.

Acta Diabetol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Public Health, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221004, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of stroke and associated factors of stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes(T2DM) in China.

Methods: Participants were 18,013 T2DM patients recruited with stratified random cluster sampling method from December 2013 to January 2014 in China. Propensity score matching was used to eliminate confounding effects between groups and logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with stroke among T2DM patients. Read More

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Glucose-lowering Drugs and Hospitalization for Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Additive-effects Network Meta-Analysis with over 500,000 Patient-Years.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Atherosclerosis and Vascular Biology Laboratory (Atherolab), Cardiology Department, State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Background: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) prevent hospitalization due to heart failure (HHF). However, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) use multiple anti-hyperglycemic drugs to achieve glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) targets. In these drug combinations the risk of HHF is unpredictable, so is the parallel effect of glucose-lowering. Read More

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Motivation and Problem Solving Versus Mobile 360° Videos to Promote Enrollment in the National Diabetes Prevention Program's Lifestyle Change Program Among People With Prediabetes: Protocol for a Randomized Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jun 14;10(6):e28884. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Health Outcomes and Population Equity, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.

Background: More than 88 million Americans are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The National Diabetes Prevention Program's Lifestyle Change Program (DPP LCP) has been shown to be effective in reducing the risk of progressing from prediabetes to T2DM. However, most individuals who could benefit from the program do not enroll. Read More

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Sulfonylureas Use Is Not Associated With Increased Infarct Size in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 28;8:658059. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cardiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

This retrospective study assessed the association between sulfonylureas use and infarct size in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by myocardial enzymology indexes and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Patients presenting STEMI between July 2013 and August 2019 were included in a retrospective database at our institution. Antidiabetic agents used before STEMI were recorded. Read More

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Pathological Crosstalk Between Oxidized LDL and ER Stress in Human Diseases: A Comprehensive Review.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:674103. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Genetics and Genomics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

The oxidative modification of the major cholesterol carrying lipoprotein, oxLDL, is a biomarker as well as a pathological factor in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and other metabolic diseases. Perturbed cellular homeostasis due to physiological, pathological and pharmacological factors hinder the proper functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is the major hub for protein folding and processing, lipid biosynthesis and calcium storage, thereby leading to ER stress. The cellular response to ER stress is marked by a defensive mechanism called unfolded protein response (UPR), wherein the cell adapts strategies that favor survival. Read More

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The utility of Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale amongst patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM): An experience from a teaching hospital in Southern India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1687-1693. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of diabetes-specific psychological distress (DSPD) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using the "Problem areas in diabetes" (PAID) scale at a teaching hospital in southern India. Other objectives included observing the relationship between socio-demographic factors and DSPD and, finally exploring the level of acceptance of the PAID scale by Asian-Indian patients.

Methods: The patients with T2DM aged >18 years attending the diabetes outpatient clinic were recruited. Read More

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Association of serum calprotectin with peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1602-1606. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India.

Introduction: Peripheral neuropathy is a common microvascular complication in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with a prevalence of around 50%.

Objectives: This prospective observational cross-sectional study was done to assess serum calprotectin levels among diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy as compared to those without neuropathy.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 126 diabetic patients attending the out-patient department of JIPMER Hospital, Pondicherry from July 2017 to January 2019. Read More

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