42,075 results match your criteria modulation review

Probiotics and gut health.

Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Clinical Nutrition Unit, and Internal Medicine Unit, Madonna del Soccorso General Hospital, San Benedetto del Tronto, Ascoli Piceno, Italy.

Background: Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem of bacteria, viruses, archea, protozoa and yeasts in our intestine. It has several functions maintaining human body equilibrium. Microbial " dysbiosis " can be responsible for several gastrointestinal diseases. Read More

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Recent advances in dead cell clearance during acute lung injury and repair.

Fac Rev 2021 30;10:33. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are clinical syndromes that cause significant mortality in clinical settings and morbidity among survivors accompanied by huge healthcare costs. Lung-resident cell dysfunction/death and neutrophil alveolitis accompanied by proteinous edema are the main pathological features of ALI/ARDS. While understanding of the mechanisms underlying ALI/ARDS pathogenesis is progressing and potential treatments such as statin therapy, nutritional strategies, and mesenchymal cell therapy are emerging, poor clinical outcomes in ALI/ARDS patients persist. Read More

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Variability in image quality and radiation dose within and across 97 medical facilities.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2021 Sep 8;8(5):052105. Epub 2021 May 8.

Duke University, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Durham, North Carolina, United States.

To characterize variability in image quality and radiation dose across a large cohort of computed tomography (CT) examinations and identify the scan factors with the highest influence on the observed variabilities. This retrospective institutional-review-board-exempt investigation was performed on 87,629 chest and abdomen-pelvis CT scans acquired for 97 facilities from 2018 to 2019. Images were assessed in terms of noise, resolution, and dose metrics (global noise, frequency in which modulation transfer function is at 0. Read More

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September 2021

Targeting inflammation in atherosclerosis - from experimental insights to the clinic.

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Atherosclerosis, a dominant and growing cause of death and disability worldwide, involves inflammation from its inception to the emergence of complications. Targeting inflammatory pathways could therefore provide a promising new avenue to prevent and treat atherosclerosis. Indeed, clinical studies have now demonstrated unequivocally that modulation of inflammation can forestall the clinical complications of atherosclerosis. Read More

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Advances in the Development of Antiviral Compounds for Rotavirus Infections.

mBio 2021 May 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

IHEM, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Mendoza, Argentina

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the major cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children under 5 years of age, annually resulting in nearly 130,000 deaths worldwide. Social conditions in developing countries that contribute to decreased oral rehydration and vaccine efficacy and the lack of approved antiviral drugs position RVA as a global health concern. In this minireview, we present an update in the field of antiviral compounds, mainly in relation to the latest findings in RVA virion structure and the viral replication cycle. Read More

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Olfactory modulation of the medial prefrontal cortex circuitry: Implications for social cognition.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Olfactory dysfunction is manifested in a wide range of neurological and psychiatric diseases, and often emerges prior to the onset of more classical symptoms and signs. From a behavioral perspective, olfactory deficits typically arise in conjunction with impairments of cognition, motivation, memory, and emotion. However, a conceptual framework for explaining the impact of olfactory processing on higher brain functions in health and disease remains lacking. Read More

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Glutathione-Depleting Nanomedicines for Synergistic Cancer Therapy.

ACS Nano 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, 2 Sipailou Road, Nanjing 210096, P.R. China.

Cancer cells frequently exhibit resistance to various molecular and nanoscale drugs, which inevitably affects the drugs' therapeutic outcomes. Overexpression of glutathione (GSH) has been observed in many cancer cells, and solid evidence has corroborated the resulting tumor resistance to a variety of anticancer therapies, suggesting that this biochemical characteristic of cancer cells can be developed as a potential target for cancer treatments. The single treatment of GSH-depleting agents can potentiate the responses of the cancer cells to different cell death stimuli; therefore, as an adjunctive strategy, GSH depletion is usually combined with mainstream cancer therapies for enhancing the therapeutic outcomes. Read More

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[Detection and functions of viral RNA modifications: perspectives in biology and medicine].

Virologie (Montrouge) 2021 Apr;25(2):93-110

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Inserm, IBSLor (UMS2008/US40), Epitranscriptomics and RNA Sequencing Core Facility, F54000 Nancy, France, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, IMoPA (UMR7365), F54000 Nancy, France.

Viral RNAs (either derived from DNA viruses and genomic/mRNAs of RNA viruses) produced and replicated in eukaryotic cells are exposed to the activity of host cell RNA modification machinery. Moreover, some complex viruses encode their own RNA modification enzymes, generally cap-related mG-and 2'-O-methyltransferases whose expression allows specific modification of viral transcripts and modulation of viral RNA recognition by host restriction systems. Here we review current achievements in the detection of viral RNA modifications by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and deep sequencing-based approaches. Read More

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Detection and functions of viral RNA modifications: perspectives in biology and medicine.

Virologie (Montrouge) 2021 Apr;25(2):5-20

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, INSERM, IBSLor (UMS2008/US40), Epitranscriptomics and RNA Sequencing Core Facility, F54000 Nancy, France, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, IMoPA (UMR7365), F54000 Nancy, France.

Viral RNAs (either derived from DNA viruses and genomic/mRNAs of RNA viruses) produced and replicated in eukaryotic cells are exposed to the activity of host cell RNA modification machinery. Moreover, some complex viruses encode their own RNA modification enzymes, generally cap-related mG-and 2'-O-methyltransferases whose expression allows specific modification of viral transcripts and modulation of viral RNA recognition by host restriction systems. Here we review current achievements in the detection of viral RNA modifications by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and deep sequencing-based approaches. Read More

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Target Enhancement or Distractor Suppression? Functionally Distinct Alpha Oscillations form the Basis of Attention.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Recent advances in attention research have been propelled by the debate on target enhancement versus distractor suppression. A predominant neural correlate of attention is the modulation of alpha oscillatory power (~10 Hz), which signifies shifts of attention in time, space, and between sensory modalities. However, the underspecified functional role of alpha oscillations limits the progress of tracking down the neuro-cognitive basis of attention. Read More

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Post-Translational Modifications in Transcription Factors that Determine T Helper Cell Differentiation.

Mol Cells 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play a crucial role in the modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses through the differentiation of Th precursor cells into several subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Effector Th and Treg cells are distinguished by the production of signature cytokines and are important for eliminating intracellular and extracellular pathogens and maintaining immune homeostasis. Stimulation of naïve Th cells by T cell receptor and specific cytokines activates master transcription factors and induces lineage specification during the differentiation of Th cells. Read More

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The Role of Gut Microbiota in Modulatin Tumor Growth and Anticancer Agent Efficacy.

Mol Cells 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Korea.

An increasing number of studies have revealed an interaction between gut microbiota and tumors. The enrichment of specific bacteria strains in the intestines has been found to modulate tumor growth and influence the mechanisms of tumor treatment. Various bacteria are involved in modulating the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs currently used to treat patients with cancer, and they affect not only gastrointestinal tract tumors but also distant organ tumors. Read More

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Chemokines and the extracellular matrix: Set of targets for tumor development and treatment.

Cytokine 2021 May 7:155548. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Tumor Biomarkers and Osteoimmunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

The extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of various molecules that support tissue cells, including proteins, fibronectin, laminin, collagen IV, and glycosaminoglycans. In addition to interactions between the ECM and cells, the ECM also interacts with chemokines, and growth factors, and these interactions ensure cell survival, development, differentiation, and migration of both immune system cells and tumor cells. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of interaction between the ECM and chemokines, focusing on the tumor microenvironment and the modulation of these elements as a target for therapies in several types of cancer. Read More

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Growing role of S100B protein as a putative therapeutic target for neurological -and nonneurological- disorders.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Translational Medicine and Surgery, Section of General Pathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy; Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo Agostino Gemelli 1-8, 00168 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

S100B is a calcium-binding protein mainly expressed by astrocytes, but also localized in other definite neural and extra-neural cell types. While its presence in biological fluids is widely recognized as a reliable biomarker of active injury, growing evidence now indicates that high levels of S100B are suggestive of pathogenic processes in different neural, but also extra-neural, disorders. Indeed, modulation of S100B levels correlates with the occurrence of clinical and/or toxic parameters in experimental models of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, acute neural injury, inflammatory bowel disease, uveal and retinal disorders, obesity, diabetes and cancer, thus directly linking the levels of S100B to pathogenic mechanisms. Read More

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Effect of Modifications in Poly (Lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) on Drug Release and Degradation Characteristics: A Mini Review.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

The use of PLGA in the pharmaceutical industry has only increased as we move towards more and more advanced delivery carrier systems. The qualities of PLGA like biocompatibility, biodegradability and a tunable degradation and drug release has only helped in keeping up the release requirements desired for various delivery platforms. Fine-tuning the release and degradation rate is gaining more and more attention as researchers keep pushing the boundaries of novel delivery carriers. Read More

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Anti-obesity properties and mechanism of action of flavonoids: A review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 10:1-22. Epub 2021 May 10.

Multiuser Health Center Facility (CMulti-Saúde), Aracaju, SE, Brazil.

Obesity is a major public health problem, and there is increasing scientific interest in its mechanisms, as well as a search for new compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can minimize the metabolic complications associated with its pathology. One potential source of these compounds is natural products; Among these, flavonoids are a promising group of natural substances. Flavonoids are active constituents with diverse biological activities and are widely found in plants kingdom. Read More

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PEDOT:PSS-Based Bioelectronic Devices for Recording and Modulation of Electrophysiological and Biochemical Cell Signals.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 10:e2100061. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Biological Information Processing, Bioelectronics IBI-3, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, 52425, Germany.

To understand the physiology and pathology of electrogenic cells and the corresponding tissue in their full complexity, the quantitative investigation of the transmission of ions as well as the release of chemical signals is important. Organic (semi-) conducting materials and in particular organic electrochemical transistor are gaining in importance for the investigation of electrophysiological and recently biochemical signals due to their synthetic nature and thus chemical diversity and modifiability, their biocompatible and compliant properties, as well as their mixed electronic and ionic conductivity featuring ion-to-electron conversion. Here, the aim is to summarize recent progress on the development of bioelectronic devices utilizing polymer polyethylenedioxythiophene: poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to interface electronics and biological matter including microelectrode arrays, neural cuff electrodes, organic electrochemical transistors, PEDOT:PSS-based biosensors, and organic electronic ion pumps. Read More

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Involvement of Phosphatases in Parasite Biology and Pathogeny.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 22;11:633146. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo De Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

In the lifecycle, the motile promastigote form is transmitted from the sand fly vector to a mammalian host during a blood meal. Inside vertebrate host macrophages, the parasites can differentiate into the amastigote form and multiply, causing leishmaniasis, one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases. parasites face different conditions throughout their development inside sand flies. Read More

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MicroRNA Signature in Melanoma: Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:608987. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Urology and Nephrology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Melanoma is the utmost fatal kind of skin neoplasms. Molecular changes occurring during the pathogenic processes of initiation and progression of melanoma are diverse and include activating mutations in BRAF and NRAS genes, hyper-activation of PI3K/AKT pathway, inactivation of p53 and alterations in CDK4/CDKN2A axis. Moreover, several miRNAs have been identified to be implicated in the biology of melanoma through modulation of expression of genes being involved in these pathways. Read More

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Role of probiotics in prevention and treatment of enteric infections: a comprehensive review.

3 Biotech 2021 May 27;11(5):242. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Faculty of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan, Himachal Pradesh India.

Microorganisms that inhabits human digestive tract affect global health and enteric disorders. Previous studies have documented the effectiveness and mode of action of probiotics and classified as human-friendly biota and a competitor to enteric pathogens. Statistical studies reported more than 1. Read More

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Tetraspanins as Potential Therapeutic Candidates for Targeting Flaviviruses.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:630571. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, United States.

Tetraspanin family of proteins participates in numerous fundamental signaling pathways involved in viral transmission, virus-specific immunity, and virus-mediated vesicular trafficking. Studies in the identification of novel therapeutic candidates and strategies to target West Nile virus, dengue and Zika viruses are highly warranted due to the failure in development of vaccines. Recent evidences have shown that the widely distributed tetraspanin proteins may provide a platform for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Read More

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Roles of Fibroblast Growth Factors and Their Therapeutic Potential in Treatment of Ischemic Stroke.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:671131. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Stroke is the leading cause of death worldwide, and its treatment remains a challenge. Complex pathological processes are involved in stroke, which causes a reduction in the supply of oxygen and energy to the brain that triggers subsequent cascade events, such as oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and apoptosis, resulting in brain injury. Stroke is a devastating disease for which there are few treatments, but physical rehabilitation can help improve stroke recovery. Read More

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Plant immunity: Good fences make good neighbors?

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 May 6;62:102045. Epub 2021 May 6.

PHIM Plant Health Institute, Univ Montpellier, INRAE, CIRAD, Institut Agro, IRD, TA A-54 / K Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Electronic address:

Plant immunity is modulated by several abiotic factors, and microbiome has emerged as a major biotic driver of plant resistance. Recently, a few studies showed that plants also modify resistance to pests and pathogens in their neighborhood. Several types of neighborhood could be identified depending on the biological processes at play: intraspecific and interspecific competition, kin and stranger recognition, plant-soil feedbacks, and danger signaling. Read More

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Regular physical exercise mediates the immune response in atherosclerosis.

Exerc Immunol Rev 2021 ;27:42-53

Laboratory for Myology, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory cardiovascular disease, which results from lipid accumulation in the blood vessel wall, forming a plaque, and ultimately restricting blood flow. The immune system plays a vital role in progression to plaque rupture. While recent evidence clearly indicates the anti-inflammatory function of regular exercise, the mechanisms by which regular exercise can modulate its pathophysiology is not well understood. Read More

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January 2021

Mechanisms of oxidative stress in methylmercury-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity.

Neurotoxicology 2021 May 6;85:33-46. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a long-lasting organic environmental pollutant that poses a great threat to human health. Ingestion of seafood containing MeHg is the most important way by which it comes into contact with human body, where the central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target of MeHg toxicity. During periods of pre-plus postnatal, in particular, the brain of offspring is vulnerable to specific developmental insults that result in abnormal neurobehavioral development, even without symptoms in mothers. Read More

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Memories are not written in stone: Re-writing fear memories by means of non-invasive brain stimulation and optogenetic manipulations.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 5;127:334-352. Epub 2021 May 5.

IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, 00179 Rome, Italy.

The acquisition of fear associative memory requires brain processes of coordinated neural activity within the amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, thalamus and brainstem. After fear consolidation, a suppression of fear memory in the absence of danger is crucial to permit adaptive coping behavior. Acquisition and maintenance of fear extinction critically depend on amygdala-PFC projections. Read More

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Reproductive- and social-state plasticity of multiple sensory systems in a cichlid fish.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, 202 Life Sciences Bldg., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 70803.

Intra- and inter-sexual communication is vital to the survival and reproductive success of animals. In species that cycle in and out of breeding or other physiological condition, sensory function can be modulated to optimize communication at crucial times. Little is known, however, about how widespread this sensory plasticity is across taxa, whether it occurs in multiple senses or both sexes within a species, and what potential modulatory substances and substrates are involved. Read More

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Neurovascular-modulation: A review of primary vascular responses to transcranial electrical stimulation as a mechanism of action.

Brain Stimul 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York (CCNY), New York, NY, USA.

Background: The ubiquitous vascular response to transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been attributed to the secondary effect of neuronal activity forming the classic neurovascular coupling. However, the current density delivered transcranially concentrates in: A) the cerebrospinal fluid of subarachnoid space where cerebral vasculature resides after reaching the dural and pial surfaces and B) across the blood-brain-barrier after reaching the brain parenchyma. Therefore, it is anticipated that tES has a primary vascular influence. Read More

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Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation and impulsivity in Parkinson's disease: a descriptive review.

Acta Neurol Belg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo, Messina, Italy.

Standard treatment of Parkinson's disease involves the dopaminergic medications. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is an important neurosurgical intervention often used as alternative treatment to drug therapy; however, it can be associated with increase of impulsive behaviors. This descriptive review focused on studies investigating the correlation between Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and impulsivity in Parkinson's disease patients, arguing, the action's mechanism and the specific role of the subthalamic nucleus. Read More

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Modulation of olfactory signal detection in the olfactory epithelium: focus on the internal and external environment, and the emerging role of the immune system.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, UVSQ, 78350, Jouy-en-Josas, VIM, France.

Detection and discrimination of odorants by the olfactory system plays a pivotal role in animal survival. Olfactory-based behaviors must be adapted to an ever-changing environment. Part of these adaptations includes changes of odorant detection by olfactory sensory neurons localized in the olfactory epithelium. Read More

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